Cinema of Lithuania

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Cinema of Lithuania
Kinas Romuva.JPG
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational movie theater in Lithuania
No. of screens95 (2011)[1]
 • Per capita3.4 per 100,000 (2011)[1]
Main distributorsAcme Filmai 46.0%
Forum Cinemas 45.0%
Incognito 5.0%[2]
Produced feature films (2017)[3]
Total41
Fictional29
Animated7
Documentary5
Number of admissions (2017)[4]
Total4.060.159
 • Per capita1,44
National films21,47%
Gross box office (2017)[6]
TotalEUR 20.4 million[5]

The birth of Cinema of Lithuania dates back to 1909.[7]

History[edit]

First Republic. 1918-1940[edit]

On July 28, 1896, Thomas Edison live photography session was held in the Concerts Hall of the Botanical Garden of Vilnius University. After a year, similar American movies were available with the addition of special phonograph records that also provided sound. In 1909, Lithuanian cinema pioneers Antanas Račiūnas [lt] and Ladislas Starevich released their first movies. Soon the Račiūnas' recordings of Lithuania's views became very popular among the Lithuanian Americans abroad. In 1925, Pranas Valuskis filmed movie Naktis Lietuvoje (Night in Lithuania) about Lithuanian book smugglers that left first bright Lithuanian footprint in Hollywood.

The first short films in 1909 where shot by Antanas Račiūnas who filmed the sights of his native village and Vladislav Starevich who made a short film Prie Nemuno (By the Nieman River, 1909)[8] The first Lithuanian newsreel screened in cinemas in 1921 was made by Feognijus Dunajevas.

The first film production companies and first films schools were founded in 1926. In 1927 a short film Rūpestingas tėvas was produced by Lietfilm. Lithuania's most important film directors during the era were Jurgis Linartas and Vladas Sipaitis. The Soldier Lithuania's Defender (1928) and a feature film Onytė ir Jonelis (1931) produced by a film company Akis, are the most notable films of the era.

Documentary movie chronicles were created by Stepas Uzdonas, Stasys Vainalavičius, Antanas Uibas, Alfonsas Žibas, Kazys Lukšys and others.

The most significant and mature Lithuanian American movie of the time Aukso žąsis (Golden goose) was created in 1965 by Birutė Pūkelevičiūtė [lt] that featured motifs from the Brothers Grimm fairy tales.

Period of Soviet occupation. 1940 - 1990[edit]

After the Soviet takeover in 1940 the Lithuanian Republican Newsreel Studio was founded, in 1962 it was renamed the Lithuanian Film Studio.

The first Soviet era feature film "Marytė" using Lithuanian composer and actors was produced by Mosfilm. Until 1956 all Lithuanian feature films were made in cooperation with other motion-picture studios in Soviet Union focusing on Communist themes.

After the death of Stalin in 1953 a more liberal period in Soviet Union's cultural policies followed. Filmmakers started to enjoy greater artistic control at the same time the Soviet State Committee for Cinematography (Goskino) in Moscow provided the money, state censorship body Glavlit and CPSU Department of Culture had the control over releasing the movies.[7]

In 1957, the post-Stalinist era Lithuanian feature film Žydrasis horizontas (The Blue Horizon) was directed by Vytautas Mikalauskas.

Film directors Gytis Lukšas, Henrikas Šablevičius, Arūnas Žebriūnas, Raimondas Vabalas were able to overcome the obstacles of censorship and create valuable films.

In the late 1980s an independent Lithuanian national cinema industry was reborn during Persestroika social and political reforms in the Soviet Union. The first independent film production studio Kinema was founded by the director Šarūnas Bartas in 1987. Another notable documentary filmmaker emerged during the era is Arūnas Matelis.

Due to Soviet occupation Jonas Mekas was forced to leave Lithuania. In New York he created Anthology Film Archives and together with his brother Adolfas Mekas, he founded Film Culture.

Second Republic. Since 1990 till present[edit]

After Lithuania regained independence on March 11, 1990 the state funding of filmmaking drastically decreased and smaller studios emerged instead. During the era about 10 documentaries and 2 feature films have been made yearly. The most notable directors have been Vytautas Žalakevičius, the director of Žvėris išeinantis is jūros (The Beast Emerging from the Sea) (1992), and Algimantas Puipa the winner of the Ecumenical Jury Prize at Lübeck Nordic Film Days and the winner of the Grand Jury Prize at the Rouen Nordic Film Festival for Vilko dantų karoliai (A Wolf Teeth Necklace) (1997).

After the restoration of the independence, Šarūnas Bartas, Audrius Stonys, Arūnas Matelis, Audrius Juzėnas, Algimantas Puipa, Janina Lapinskaitė [lt], Dijana and her husband Kornelijus Matuzevičius received success in international movie festivals.[9] A documentary film by Arūnas Matelis Wonderful Losers: A Different World has been shown in numerous film festivals in Europe and Asia and recognized with multiple awards.[10]

The most internationally known film director of Lithuanian descent born in Chicago, Illinois, United States is Robert Zemeckis[11]

In 2011 Vilnius Film Cluster was established. Vilnius Film Cluster is an alliance which unites 31 leading audiovisual company and one of the largest universities in Lithuania. Vilnius Film Cluster basis was used for Netflix anf HBO TV serials production.[12]

In January 2014 Lithuanian Film Tax Incentive came into effect as a new policy measure to foster local and foreign film production in Lithuania.[13] In 2016 the Lithuanian Film Centre issued 29 certificates representing a total of 1,850,646 EUR rebates.[14] The tax incentive was increased from 20% to 30% in 2019.[15]

Lithuanian film industry experiencing a renaissance over the last decade. The audience for Lithuanian films has reached 23% in 2015, compared with 2.48% in 2012.[16] 21 national films were premiered in 2018. In 2018, 54 new films of various lengths and genres were created, 28 of them were feature films most of them supported by the Lithuanian Film Centre.[17]

Lithuania has hosted numerous major international productions in recent years, including HBO's Chernobyl, BBC's War and Peace, Netflix's Tokyo Trial, TVNorge's The Oil Fund and many more.[18]

Actors[edit]

Directors[edit]

Awards[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Acclaimed Lithuanian films[edit]

Occupied Lithuania (1940–1990)[edit]

Title Translation Year Genre
Žydrasis horizontas The Blue Horizon 1957
Adomas nori būti žmogumi Adam Wants to Be a Man 1959
Paskutinė atostogų diena The Girl and the Echo 1964
Niekas nenorėjo mirti Nobody Wanted to Die 1965 historical drama
Jausmai Feelings 1968 historical drama
Kai aš mažas buvau When I Was a Child 1968
Gražuolė The Beautiful Girl 1969
Maža išpažintis A Small Confession 1971
Herkus Mantas Herkus Mantas 1972 historical drama
Velnio nuotaka Devil's Bride 1973 musical
Perskeltas dangus Shattered Skies 1974 drama
Sadūto Tūto Sadūto Tūto 1974 drama
Virto ąžuolai The Fall of Oak Trees 1976 drama
Mano vaikystės ruduo The Autumn of My Childhood 1977 romantic drama
Riešutų duona Walnut Bread 1978 tragicomedy
Faktas Fact 1981 psychological thriller
Skrydis per Atlantą The Flight Across the Atlantic 1983 historic documentary
Mano mažytė žmona My Little Wife 1984 romantic drama
Kažkas atsitiko Something Has Happened 1986 music documentary
Amžinoji šviesa Eternal Light 1987 drama
Neatmenu tavo veido I Don't Remember Your Face 1988

Lithuania (1990–present)[edit]

Title Translation Year Genre
Trys dienos Three Days 1991
Vilko dantų karoliai A Wolf Teeth Necklace 1997
Elzė iš Gilijos Elze's Life 2000
Vienui vieni Utterly Alone 2004 historic drama
Prieš parskrendant į žemę Before Flying Back to the Earth 2005 documentary
Dievų miškas Forest of the Gods 2005 historic drama
Zero. Alyvinė Lietuva Zero: Lilac Lithuania 2006 action comedy
Anastasija Anastasia 2006 historic drama
Aš esu tu You Am I 2006 romantic drama
Nuodėmės užkalbėjimas Whisper of Sin 2007 romantic drama
Nereikalingi žmonės Loss 2008 psychological thriller
Zero II Zero II 2010 action comedy
Atsisveikinimas (laimingo žmogaus istorija) Farewell 2010 drama
Tadas Blinda. Pradžia Tadas Blinda: The Beginning 2011 action and adventure
Mes už... Lietuvą! We're for... Lithuania! 2011 documentary
Aurora Aurora 2011 fantasy drama
Kita svajonių komanda The Other Dream Team 2012 documentary
Kaip pavogti žmoną How to Steal a Wife 2013 comedy
Redirected. Už Lietuvą Redirected 2014 action comedy

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Table 6: Share of Top 3 distributors (Excel)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  3. ^ "Statistika". www.lkc.lt. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  4. ^ "Faktai ir statistika". www.lkc.lt. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  5. ^ "2017 m. filmų rodymo ataskaitos". www.lkc.lt. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Table 11: Exhibition - Admissions & Gross Box Office (GBO)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  7. ^ a b Culture And Customs of the Baltic States By Kevin O'Connor
  8. ^ DATA CONCERNING THE HISTORY OF LITHUANIAN CINEMA Archived 2008-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Kino Lietuvoje istorija". sites.google.com. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  10. ^ "Oct. 20, NYC Premiere 'Wonderful Losers: A Different World' by DGA Documentary Winner Arunas Matelis". www.broadwayworld.com. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  11. ^ Robert Zemeckis @ enertainmentmagazine Archived 2008-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Kino klasterio kompleksinės paslaugos padeda laimėti didelius užsakymus". www.vz.lt. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  13. ^ "Film Tax Incentive". www.lkc.lt. Retrieved 26 December 2018. Lithuanian Film Tax Incentive came into effect in January 2014 as a new policy measure to foster local and foreign film production in Lithuania. It offers an opportunity to save up to 20% of the film production budget through private investment scheme. Since the introduction of the incentive there has been a rapid growth in the number of foreign film productions.
  14. ^ Kancerevičiūtė, Auksė. "LITHUANIA: Country Report 2016". www.filmneweurope.com. Retrieved 26 December 2018. In 2016 the Lithuanian Film Centre issued 29 certificates representing a total of 1,850,646 EUR rebates. A total of 22 films used the incentives scheme: six national films, six coproductions and ten international. All of them spent more than 9 m EUR in Lithuania in 2016.
  15. ^ "Lithuanian tax incentives for film production successfully raised to 30%". en.delfi.lt. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Lithuania's Film Renaissance". www.citypaper.lv. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  17. ^ "2018 was marked as the best year for Lithuanian cinema market after the restoration of independence". en.delfi.lt. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  18. ^ "Lithuanian tax incentives for film production successfully raised to 30%". en.delfi.lt. Retrieved 18 May 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lithuanian Cinema: Special Edition for Lithuanian Film Days in Poland 2015, Auksė Kancerevičiūtė [ed.]. Vilnius: Lithuanian Film Centre, 2015. ISBN 6099574409.