Cinéma vérité (UK: / /, US: /- /, French: [sinema veʁite]; "truthful cinema") is a style of documentary filmmaking developed by Edgar Morin and Jean Rouch, inspired by Dziga Vertov's theory about Kino-Pravda. It combines improvisation with use of the camera to unveil truth or highlight subjects hidden behind reality. It is sometimes called observational cinema, if understood as pure direct cinema: mainly without a narrator's voice-over. There are subtle, yet important, differences between terms expressing similar concepts. Direct Cinema is largely concerned with the recording of events in which the subject and audience become unaware of the camera's presence: operating within what Bill Nichols, an American historian and theoretician of documentary film, calls the "observational mode", a fly on the wall. Many therefore see a paradox in drawing attention away from the presence of the camera and simultaneously interfering in the reality it registers when attempting to discover a cinematic truth.
Cinéma vérité can involve stylized set-ups and interaction between the filmmaker and the subject, even to the point of provocation. Some argue that the obvious presence of the filmmaker and camera was seen by most cinéma vérité filmmakers as the best way to reveal the truth. The camera is always acknowledged, for it performs the act of filming real objects, people, and events in a confrontational way. The filmmaker's intention was to represent the truth as objectively as possible, freeing the viewer from deceptions in how those aspects of life were formerly presented to them. From this perspective, the filmmaker should be the catalyst of a situation. Few agree on the meanings of these terms, even the filmmakers whose films are being described.
Pierre Perrault sets situations up and then films them, for example in Pour la suite du monde (1963) where he asked old people to fish for whale. The result is not a documentary about whale fishing; it is about memory and lineage. In this sense cinéma vérité is concerned with anthropological cinema, and with the social and political implications of what is captured on film. How a filmmaker shoots a film, what is being filmed, what to do with what was filmed, and how that film will be presented to an audience, all were very important for filmmakers of the time.
In all cases, the ethical and aesthetic analysis of documentary form (see docufiction) of the 1950s and 1960s has to be linked with a critical look at post-war propaganda analysis. This type of cinema is concerned with notions of truth and reality in film. Feminist documentary films of the 1970s often used cinéma-vérité techniques. This sort of "realism" was criticized for its deceptive pseudo-natural construction of reality.
Filmmakers associated with the style
- Lindsay Anderson
- Tony Richardson
- Karel Reisz
- Shirley Clarke
- Chris Marker
- The Maysles Brothers (Albert and David Maysles)
- Frederick Wiseman
Selected cinéma-vérité films
- Primary (1960)
- Chronicle of a Summer (1961)
- Happy Mother's Day (1964)
- Dont Look Back (1967)
- Portrait of Jason (1967)
- Titicut Follies (1967)
- Faces (1968)
- Salesman (1969)
- Gimme Shelter (1970)
- The Plaint of Steve Kreines as recorded by his younger brother Jeff (1974)
- Grey Gardens (1975)
- Paris Is Burning (1990)
- The War Room (1993)
- Hoop Dreams (1994)
- Cow (2021)
- Jeen-Yuhs (2022)
Many film directors of the 1960s and later adopted use of handheld camera and other cinéma vérité aspects for their scripted, fiction films—having actors improvise to get a more spontaneous quality in their dialogue and action. Influential examples include director John Cassavetes, who broke ground with his film Faces. The techniques of cinéma vérité can also be seen in fiction films from The Blair Witch Project to Saving Private Ryan.
Cinéma vérité was also adapted for use in scripted TV programs, such as Homicide: Life on the Street, NYPD Blue, both the UK and American versions of The Office, Parks & Recreation and Modern Family. Documentary series are less common, but COPS is one famous non-fictional example.
It has also been the subject ripe for parodies and spoofs such as the mockumentary film This Is Spinal Tap  and Emmy-nominated TV series Documentary Now (the latter paying homage to the style of such CV classics as Grey Gardens and The War Room).
- Cinéma Vérité: Defining the Moment
- Cinema Verite-the 2011 HBO TV movie about the making of PBS's 1973 documentary series An American Family
- Found footage (pseudo-documentary)
- Sync sound
- 16 mm film
- Glossary of rouchinan terms at MAITRES FOUS net
- Ricky Leacock and “The Sense of Being There” Archived 2013-06-14 at the Wayback Machine – Article by Stephen Altobello at IMN
- Camera that Changed the World, BBC Four.
- Direct Cinema Archived 2019-04-06 at the Wayback Machine at Karamumedia12 Archived April 6, 2019, at the Wayback Machine.
- Observational documentary at Film Reference
- Nichols, Bill. Introducing the Documentary. Indiana University Press, 2001, p. 109
- Barbara Bruni, "Jean Rouch: Cinéma-vérité, Chronicle of a Summer and The Human Pyramid", Senses of Cinema, issue 19, March 2002.
- DIRECT CINEMA: Filmmaking Style and its relationship to “Truth” – Thesis by Bernice K. Shneider, B.A., Art History University of Massachusetts, MIT (1972)
- Jean Rouch – The Film-maker as Provocateur Archived August 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine – Article at Microwave.
- A feminist critique of documentary film – Paper at Serendip Studio Archived 2012-11-05 at the Wayback Machine
- By, For, and About: The “Real” Problem in the Feminist Film Movement Archived January 25, 2020, at the Wayback Machine – Paper by Shilyh Warren at Mediascape, UCLA
- Richard Brody, "The Godfather of Cinéma Vérité", The New Yorker, July 31, 2014.
- Chronicle of a Summer (1961), The Criterion Collection.
- "Cinema Verite: The Movement of Truth", Independent Lens, PBS.org.
- Realism as a Style in Cinema Veritie: A Critical Analysis of Primary on JSTOR
- Chronicle of a Summer (1961)|The Criterion Collection
- Happy Mother's Day at Pennebaker Hegedus Films
- Terri C Smith (January 15, 2007). "D.A. Pennebaker's Don't Look Back: Direct Cinema's Early Portrait of a Cultural Icon" (PDF).
- Josh Schasny, "25 New Hollywood Era Films That Projected the Hopes and Fears of the Times", Taste of Cinema, March 4, 2016.
- The Plaint of Steve Kreines as recorded by his younger brother Jeff at Sundance Festival
- Paris Is Burning - Cinema Axis
- When We Were Kings: Hale County This Morning and Hoop Dreams|Watershed
- Why a Documentary About a Cow Reveals the Limits of an Art Form|The New Yorker
- Inside the 21-Year Spiritual Journey of Capturing Kayne West's Life and Career|The Film Stage
- John Cassavetes in Allmovie, accessed online on the New York Times, October 23, 2006.
- Best Film Editing Sequences - filmsite.org
- Brad Becker Parton, "How 'Parks and Rec' Transcended its Mockumentary Roots", Vulture, February 26, 2015.
- Greatest Film Scenes and Moments - filmsite.org
- "'Documentary Now!' a spoof on docs by 'SNL' alums Seth Meyers, Bill Hader and Fred Armisen", Daily News, August 14, 2015.
- Hubert Adjei-Kontoh, "Documentary Now! An ode to the funniest spoof on television", The Guardian, February 20, 1019.