(Nees & T.Nees) Blume
Cinnamomum burmannii (or Cinnamomum burmanni), also known as Indonesian cinnamon, Padang cassia, Batavia cassia, or korintje, is one of several plants in the genus Cinnamomum whose bark is sold as the spice cinnamon. The most common and cheapest type of cinnamon in the US is made from powdered C. burmannii. C. burmannii oil contains no eugenol, but higher amounts of coumarin than C. cassia and Ceylon cinnamon with 2.1 g/kg in an authenticated sample, and a mean of 5.0 g/kg in 8 samples tested. It is also sold as quills of one layer.
Cinnamomum burmannii is an evergreen tree growing up to 7 m in height with aromatic bark and smooth, angular branches. The leaves are glossy green, oval, and about 10 cm (3.9 in) long and 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) wide. Small yellow flowers bloom in early summer, and produce a dark drupe.
Cinnamomum burmanii is native to Southeast Asia and Indonesia. It is normally found in West Sumatra and western Jambi province, with the Kerinci region being especially known as the center of production of quality, high essential-oil crops. C. burmanii grows in wet, tropical climates, and is an introduced species in parts of the subtropical world, particularly in Hawaiʻi, where it is naturalized and invasive. It was introduced to Hawaiʻi from Asia in 1934 as a crop plant.
A mention by Chinese herbalists suggests that cassia bark was used by humans at least as far back as 2700 B.C. It was a treatment for diarrhea, fevers, and menstrual issues. The Ayurvedic healers of India used it as well to treat similar ailments.
Cassia cinnamon was brought to Egypt around 500 B.C. where it became a valued additive to their embalming mixtures. The Greeks, Romans and ancient Hebrews were the first to use cassia bark as a cooking spice. They also made perfumes with it, and used it for medicinal purposes. The Judeo-Christian bible suggests that it was part of the anointing oil used by Moses. Cinnamon migrated with the Romans. It was established for culinary use by the 17th century in Europe.
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- Wang, Y.-H.; Avula, B.; Nanayakkara, N.P.D.; Zhao, J.; Khan, I.A. (2013). "Cassia Cinnamon as a Source of Coumarin in Cinnamon-Flavored Food and Food Supplements in the United States" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61 (18): 4470–4476. doi:10.1021/jf4005862.
- "Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii)". Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Motooka, Philip Susumu (2003). "Cinnamomum burmannii" (PDF). Weeds of Hawaiʻi's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. ISBN 978-1-929325-14-6.
- Starr, Forest; Starr, Kim; Loope, Lloyd (January 2003). "Cinnamomum burmannii" (PDF). Haleakala Field Station, Maui, Hawai'i: United States Geological Survey--Biological Resources Division. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- "Cinnamomum burmannii (Lauraceae)". National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- Wagner, Warren Lambert; Herbst, Derral R.; Sohmer, S. H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Honolulu, Hawaiʻi: University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2166-1.
- Wester, Lyndon (1992). "Origin and distribution of adventive alien flowering plants in Hawaiʻi" (PDF). In Stone, Charles P.; Smith, Clifford W.; Tunison, J. Timothy (eds.). Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaiʻi: management and research. Honolulu, Hawaiʻi: University of Hawaiʻi Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-8248-1474-8.
- Etymology and Brief History of Cassia Cinnamon Mdidea.com>
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