Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snack foods, bagels, teas, hot chocolate and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents including eugenol.
Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum (alternatively C. zeylanicum), known as "Ceylon cinnamon" after its origins in Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), is considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from four other species, usually and more correctly referred to as "cassia": C. burmanni (Indonesian cinnamon or Padang cassia), C. cassia (Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon or Vietnamese cassia), and the less common C. citriodorum (Malabar cinnamon).
In 2021, world production of cinnamon was 226,753 tonnes, led by China with 43% of the total.
The English word "cinnamon", attested in English since the 15th century, deriving from the Ancient Greek κιννάμωμον (kinnámōmon, later κίνναμον : kínnamon), via Latin and medieval French intermediate forms. The Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, which was similar to the related Hebrew word קנמון (qinnāmōn).
The name "cassia", first recorded in late Old English from Latin, ultimately derives from the Hebrew word קציעה qetsīʿāh, a form of the verb קצע qātsaʿ, "to strip off bark".
Early Modern English also used the names canel and canella, similar to the current names of cinnamon in several other European languages, which are derived from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, "tube", from the way the bark curls up as it dries.
Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who reported that it had come from China had confused it with Cinnamomum cassia, a related species. Cinnamon was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a deity; an inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Its source was kept a trade secret in the Mediterranean world for centuries by those in the spice trade, in order to protect their monopoly as suppliers.
Cinnamomum verum, which translates from Latin as "true cinnamon", is native to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Cinnamomum cassia (cassia) is native to China. Related species, all harvested and sold in the modern era as cinnamon, are native to Vietnam ("Saigon cinnamon"), Indonesia and other southeast Asian countries with warm climates.
In Ancient Egypt, cinnamon was used to embalm mummies. From the Ptolemaic Kingdom onward, Ancient Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon.
The first Greek reference to κασία kasía is found in a poem by Sappho in the 7th century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense, myrrh and labdanum, and were guarded by winged serpents. Herodotus, Aristotle and other authors named Arabia as the source of cinnamon; they recounted that giant "cinnamon birds" collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests.: 111
Pliny the Elder wrote that cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on "rafts without rudders or sails or oars", taking advantage of the winter trade winds. He also mentioned cassia as a flavouring agent for wine, and that the tales of cinnamon being collected from the nests of cinnamon birds was a traders' fiction made up to charge more. However, the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310.
According to Pliny the Elder, a Roman pound (327 grams [11.5 oz]) of cassia, cinnamon (serichatum), cost up to 1,500 denarii, the wage of fifty months' labour. Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day. Cinnamon was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65.
Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon remained a mystery to the Western world. From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but where it came from was less than clear. When the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king, Louis IX of France to Egypt on the Seventh Crusade in 1248, he reported—and believed—what he had been told: that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world (i.e., Ethiopia). Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic.
The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-'ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") about 1270. This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292.
Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa (see also Rhapta), where local traders then carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt. Venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.
Early modern period
During the 1500s, Ferdinand Magellan was searching for spices on behalf of Spain, and in the Philippines found Cinnamomum mindanaense, which was closely related to C. zeylanicum, the cinnamon found in Sri Lanka. This cinnamon eventually competed with Sri Lankan cinnamon, which was controlled by the Portuguese.
In 1638, Dutch traders established a trading post in Sri Lanka, took control of the manufactories by 1640, and expelled the remaining Portuguese by 1658. "The shores of the island are full of it," a Dutch captain reported, "and it is the best in all the Orient. When one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.
In 1767, Lord Brown of the British East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. It later became Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The British took control of Ceylon from the Dutch in 1796.
Cinnamon is an evergreen tree characterized by oval-shaped leaves, thick bark and a berry fruit. When harvesting the spice, the bark and leaves are the primary parts of the plant used. However, in Japan, the more pungent roots are harvested in order to produce nikki (ニッキ) which is a product distinct from cinammon (シナモン shinamon). Cinnamon is cultivated by growing the tree for two years, then coppicing it, i.e., cutting the stems at ground level. The following year, about a dozen new shoots form from the roots, replacing those that were cut. A number of pests such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diplodia species and Phytophthora cinnamomi (stripe canker) can affect the growing plants.
The stems must be processed immediately after harvesting while the inner bark is still wet. The cut stems are processed by scraping off the outer bark, then beating the branch evenly with a hammer to loosen the inner bark, which is then pried off in long rolls. Only 0.5 mm (0.02 in) of the inner bark is used;[a] the outer, woody portion is discarded, leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. The processed bark dries completely in four to six hours, provided it is in a well-ventilated and relatively warm environment. Once dry, the bark is cut into 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) lengths for sale.
A less than ideal drying environment encourages the proliferation of pests in the bark, which may then require treatment by fumigation with sulphur dioxide. In 2011, the European Union approved the use of sulphur dioxide at a concentration of up to 150 mg/kg (0.0024 oz/lb) for the treatment of C. verum bark harvested in Sri Lanka.
A number of species are often sold as cinnamon:
- Cinnamomum cassia (cassia or Chinese cinnamon, the most common commercial type in the USA)
- C. burmanni (Korintje, Padang cassia, or Indonesian cinnamon)
- C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon, Vietnamese cassia, or Vietnamese cinnamon)
- C. verum (Sri Lanka cinnamon, Ceylon cinnamon or Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
- C. citriodorum (Malabar cinnamon)
Cassia induces a strong, spicy flavour and is often used in baking, especially associated with cinnamon rolls, as it handles baking conditions well. Among cassia, Chinese cinnamon is generally medium to light reddish-brown in colour, hard and woody in texture, and thicker (2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) thick), as all of the layers of bark are used. Ceylon cinnamon, using only the thin inner bark, has a lighter brown colour and a finer, less dense, and more crumbly texture. It is subtle and more aromatic in flavour than cassia and it loses much of its flavour during cooking.
The barks of the species are easily distinguished when whole, both in macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Ceylon cinnamon sticks (quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Indonesian cinnamon is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer, capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Saigon cinnamon (C. loureiroi) and Chinese cinnamon (C. cassia) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark, as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills.
The powdered bark is harder to distinguish, but if it is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch), little effect is visible with pure Ceylon cinnamon, but when Chinese cinnamon is present, a deep-blue tint is produced.
The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups:
- Alba, less than 6 mm (0.24 in) in diameter
- Continental, less than 16 mm (0.63 in) in diameter
- Mexican, less than 19 mm (0.75 in) in diameter
- Hamburg, less than 32 mm (1.3 in) in diameter
These groups are further divided into specific grades. For example, Mexican is divided into M00000 special, M000000 and M0000, depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kilogram. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm (4.2 in) long are categorized as quillings. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills, outer and inner bark that cannot be separated, or the bark of small twigs.
|Cinnamon production – 2021|
|Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations|
In 2021, four countries accounted for 98% of the world's cinnamon production, a total of 226,753 tonnes: China, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka.
True cinnamon from C. verum bark can be mixed with cassia (C. cassia) as counterfeit and falsely marketed as authentic cinnamon. In one analysis, authentic Ceylon cinnamon bark contained 12-143 mg/kg of coumarin – a phenolic typically low in content in true cinnamon – but market samples contained coumarin with levels as high as 3462 mg/kg, indicating probable contamination with cassia in the counterfeit cinnamon. ConsumerLab.com found the same problem in a 2020 analysis; "a supplement that contained the highest amount of coumarin was labeled as Ceylon cinnamon".
Cinnamon bark is used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavouring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate, especially in Mexico. Cinnamon is often used in savoury dishes of chicken and lamb. In the United States and Europe, cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavour cereals, bread-based dishes such as toast, and fruits, especially apples; a cinnamon and sugar mixture (cinnamon sugar) is sold separately for such purposes. It is also used in Portuguese and Turkish cuisine for both sweet and savoury dishes. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling, and in Christmas drinks such as eggnog. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in enhancing the flavour of Persian cuisine, used in a variety of thick soups, drinks and sweets.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,035 kJ (247 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||53.1 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Ground cinnamon is 11% water, 81% carbohydrates (including 53% dietary fiber), 4% protein and 1% fat.
Ceylon cinnamon may be crushed into small pieces by hand while Indonesian cinnamon requires a powerful blender.
Flavour, aroma and taste
The flavour of cinnamon is due to the aromatic essential oils that makes up 0.5 to 1% of its composition.
Cinnamon bark, can be macerated, then extracted in 80% ethanol, to a tincture.
Cinnamon essential oil can be prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea water, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow colour, with the characteristic odour of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste.
Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion can be made, with Polysorbate 80, cinnamon essential oil, and water, by ultrasonic emulsification.
Cinnamon oil macroemulsion can be made, with a dispersing emulsifying homogenizer.
The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamaldehyde, about 90% of the essential oil from cinnamon bark. Cinnamaldehyde decomposes, in high humidity and high temperatures, to styrene, and, by reaction with oxygen as it ages, it darkens in colour and forms resinous compounds.
Cinnamon constituents include some 80 aromatic compounds, including eugenol, found in the oil from leaves or bark of cinnamon trees.
Cinnamon is used as a flavoring in cinnamon liqueur, such as cinnamon-flavored whiskey in the United States, and rakomelo, a cinnamon brandy in Greece.
Cinnamon has a long history of use in traditional medicine as a digestive aid, however, contemporary studies are unable to find evidence of any significant medicinal or therapeutic effect.
Reviews of clinical trials reported lowering of fasting plasma glucose and inconsistent effects on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c, an indicator of chronically elevated plasma glucose). Four of the reviews reported a decrease in fasting plasma glucose, only two reported lower HbA1c, and one reported no change to either measure. The Cochrane review noted that trial durations were limited to 4 to 16 weeks, and that no trials reported on changes to quality of life, morbidity or mortality rate. The Cochrane authors' conclusion was: "There is insufficient evidence to support the use of cinnamon for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus." Citing the Cochrane review, the U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health stated: "Studies done in people don't support using cinnamon for any health condition." However, the results of the studies are difficult to interpret because it is often unclear what type of cinnamon and what part of the plant were used.
A meta-analysis of cinnamon supplementation trials with lipid measurements reported lower total cholesterol and triglycerides, but no significant changes in LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol. Another reported no change to body weight or insulin resistance.
A systematic review of adverse events as a result of cinnamon use reported gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions as the most frequently reported side effects.
In 2008, the European Food Safety Authority considered the toxicity of coumarin, a component of cinnamon, and confirmed a maximum recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg of coumarin per kg of body weight. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations and metabolic effect in humans with CYP2A6 polymorphism. Based on this assessment, the European Union set a guideline for maximum coumarin content in foodstuffs of 50 mg per kg of dough in seasonal foods, and 15 mg per kg in everyday baked foods. The maximum recommended TDI of 0.1 mg of coumarin per kg of body weight equates to 5 mg of coumarin (or 5.6 g C. verum with 0.9 mg coumarin per gram) for a body weight of 50 kg. C as shown in the table below:
|C. cassia||C. verum|
|mg coumarin/g cinnamon||0.085 mg/g||12.18 mg/g (He et al., 2005)||0.007 mg/g||0.9 mg/g|
|TDI cinnamon at 50 kg body weight (bw)||58.8 g/bw||0.4 g/bw||714.3 g/bw||5.6 g/bw|
Due to the variable amount of coumarin in C. cassia, usually well over 1.0 mg of coumarin per g of cinnamon and sometimes up to 12 times that, C. cassia has a low safe-intake-level upper limit to adhere to the above TDI. In contrast, C. verum has only trace amounts of coumarin.
Ferrara Pan Red Hots, a cinnamon-based candy
- Canella, a plant known as "wild cinnamon" or "white cinnamon"
- Cinnamomea, a Neo-Latin adjective meaning 'cinnamon-coloured'
- Cinnamon challenge
- List of culinary herbs and spices
- ^ Cassia is thicker than Sri Lankan cinnamon.
- ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica article on Cinnamon, plant and spice
- ^ Iqbal, Mohammed (1993). "International trade in non-wood forest products: An overview". FO: Misc/93/11 – Working Paper. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ^ a b Bell, Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat (2009). A history of food. Translated by Anthea (New expanded ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1405181198.
Cassia, also known as cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree that has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour
- ^ a b c "Global cinnamon production in 2021; Crops/Regions/World Regions/Production Quantity/Year (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2023. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- ^ "cinnamon". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
- ^ Harper, Douglas. "cinnamon". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^ "cassia". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
- ^ Harper, Douglas. "cassia". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^ "canella; canel". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
- ^ a b c d public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cinnamon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 376. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437
- ^ Mohammadifar, Shamameh (23 August 2010). "The Origin, History and Trade Route of Cinnamon". Journal for the History of Science. 8 (1): 37–51. ISSN 1735-0573.
- ^ "Cinnamon". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2008. ISBN 978-1-59339-292-5.
(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Malabar Coast of India, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma).
- ^ a b Burlando, B.; Verotta, L.; Cornara, L.; Bottini-Massa, E. (2010). Herbal principles in cosmetics: properties and mechanisms of action. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-4398-1214-3.
- ^ a b Herodotus, Book 3, sections 3.107-113. Wheeler, James Talboys (1852). An Analysis and Summary of Herodotus: With a Synchronistical Table of Principal Events; Tables of Weights, Measures, Money, and Distances; an Outline of the History and Geography; and the Dates Completed from Gaisford, Baehr, Etc. H. G. Bohn. p. 110. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
The incense trees are guarded by winged serpents[...] The cassia trees, which grow by a shallow lake, are guarded by fierce winged animals like bats
- ^ Pliny the Elder; Bostock, J.; Riley, H. T. (1855). "42, Cinnamomum. Xylocinnamum". Natural History of Pliny, book XII, The Natural History of Trees. Vol. 3. London: Henry G. Bohn. pp. 137–140.
- ^ Pliny the Elder (1938). Natural History. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-674-99433-1.
- ^ Manuel Philes repeated the tale in a treatise of c.1310 prepared for emperor Michael IX Palaiologos: Tennent, James Emerson (1860). Ceylon: an account of the island. Vol. 1. London: Longman. p. 600.
- ^ Pliny the Elder (1855). Natural History. Vol. 3. London, UK: Taylor & Francis. p. 140 – via Internet Archive.
The right of regulating the sale of the cinnamon belongs solely to the king of the Gebanitæ, who opens the market for it by public proclamation. The price of it was formerly as much as a thousand denarii per pound; which was afterwards increased to half as much again, in consequence, it is said, of the forests having been set on fire by the barbarians, from motives of resentment[...]
- ^ Graser, E. R. (1940). "A text and translation of the Edict of Diocletian". In Frank, Tenney (ed.). An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome. Vol. V: Rome and Italy of the Empire. Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 978-0374928483.
- ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437f.
- ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.
- ^ Tennent, James Emerson (1860). Account of the Island of Ceylon. Vol. 1. Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- ^ Yule, Henry. "Cathay and the Way Thither". Retrieved 15 July 2008.
- ^ "The life of spice; cloves, nutmeg, pepper, cinnamon". UNESCO Courier. Findarticles.com. 1984. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- ^ Woods, Sean (4 March 2004). "Discovery: Sailing the Cinnamon Route". Independent Online. Archived from the original on 8 April 2005. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- ^ Gray, E. W.; Miller, J. I. (1970). "The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire 29 B.C. – A.D. 641". The Journal of Roman Studies. 60: 222–224. doi:10.2307/299440. JSTOR 299440.
- ^ Hess, Andrew C. (1973). "The Ottoman Conquest of Egypt (1517) and the Beginning of the Sixteenth-Century World War". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 4 (1): 55–76. doi:10.1017/S0020743800027276. ISSN 0020-7438. JSTOR 162225. S2CID 162219690.
- ^ Mallari, Francisco (December 1974). "The Mindanao Cinnamon". Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society. 2 (4): 190–194. JSTOR 29791158.
- ^ Braudel, Fernand (1984). The Perspective of the World: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century. Vol. 3. University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-08116-1.
- ^ "Cinnamon". Plant Village, Pennsylvania State University. 2017. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- ^ Heath, Henry B. (September 1981). Source Book of Flavors. AVI Sourcebook and Handbook Series. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 233. ISBN 9780870553707. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
- ^ European Commission (22 October 2010). "Commission Directive 2010/69/EU of 22 October 2010". Official Journal of the European Union. L (Legislation) (279). Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- ^ Chen, P.; Sun, J.; Ford, P. (March 2014). "Differentiation of the four major species of cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62 (12): 2516–2521. doi:10.1021/jf405580c. PMC 3983393. PMID 24628250.
- ^ Grieve, M. "A Modern Herbal – Cassia (Cinnamon)". botanical.com. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- ^ Pereira, Jonathan (1854). The Elements of materia medica and therapeutics. Vol. 2. p. 390.
- ^ Ananthakrishnan, R.; Chandra, Preeti; Kumar, Brijesh; Rameshkumar, K. B. (1 January 2018). "Quantification of coumarin and related phenolics in cinnamon samples from south India using UHPLC-ESI-QqQLIT-MS/MS method". International Journal of Food Properties. 21: 50–57. doi:10.1080/10942912.2018.1437629. S2CID 104289832.
- ^ "Tests Suggest Caution With Cinnamon". ConsumerLab.com. 11 December 2020.
- ^ Czarra, Fred (1 May 2009). Spices: A Global History. Reaktion Books. pp. 10–12. ISBN 9781861896827.
- ^ "Spices, cinnamon, ground". FoodData Central, US Department of Agriculture. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
- ^ Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi (March 2018). "Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract ( cinnamomum burmannii ) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth". IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 130: 012049. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/130/1/012049. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- ^ Jeong, Yeo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Eun; Han, Su-Jin; Choi, Jun-Seon (15 March 2021). "Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of cinnamon essential oil nanoemulsion against multi-species oral biofilms". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 5911. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85375-3. ISSN 2045-2322. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- ^ a b Fattahi, Reza; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Dehghannya, Jalal; Hosseini, Mohammadyar; Falcone, Pasquale M. (December 2020). "The effect of Macro and Nano‐emulsions of cinnamon essential oil on the properties of edible active films". Food Science & Nutrition. 8 (12): 6568–6579. doi:10.1002/fsn3.1946. ISSN 2048-7177. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- ^ "Ultra-Turrax® T 25". Homogenizers.net. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- ^ PubChem. "Cinnamaldehyde". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- ^ "High daily intakes of cinnamon: Health risk cannot be ruled out" (PDF). Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). 18 August 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
- ^ Yokomi, Naoka; Ito, Michiho (1 July 2009). "Influence of composition upon the variety of tastes in Cinnamomi cortex". Journal of Natural Medicines. 63 (3): 261–266. doi:10.1007/s11418-009-0326-8. ISSN 1861-0293. PMID 19291358. S2CID 9792599.
- ^ Jayaprakasha, G. K.; Rao, L. J. (2011). "Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 51 (6): 547–62. doi:10.1080/10408391003699550. PMID 21929331. S2CID 34530542.
- ^ "Oil of cinnamon". Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET). 6 August 2002. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- ^ Willard, Haley (16 December 2013). "11 Cinnamon-Flavored Liquors for the Holidays". The Daily Meal. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- ^ a b "Cinnamon". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. National Institutes of Health. 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- ^ a b c Costello, Rebecca B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Saldanha, Leila; Bailey, Regan L.; Merkel, Joyce; Wambogo, Edwina (2016). "Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 116 (11): 1794–1802. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.07.015. PMC 5085873. PMID 27618575.
- ^ a b Allen, Robert W.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Baker, William L.; Coleman, Craig I.; Phung, Olivia J. (2013). "Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis". The Annals of Family Medicine. 11 (5): 452–459. doi:10.1370/afm.1517. PMC 3767714. PMID 24019277.
- ^ a b c Akilen, Rajadurai; Tsiami, Amalia; Devendra, Devasenan; Robinson, Nicola (20 April 2012). "Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis". Clinical Nutrition. 31 (5): 609–615. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2012.04.003. PMID 22579946.
- ^ a b c Leach, Matthew J.; Kumar, Saravana (12 September 2012). "Cinnamon for diabetes mellitus". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012 (9): CD007170. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007170.pub2. PMC 6486047. PMID 22972104.
- ^ a b c Namazi, Nazli; Khodamoradi, Kajal; Khamechi, Seyed Peyman; Heshmati, Javad; Ayati, Mohammad Hossein; Larijani, Bagher (April 2019). "The impact of cinnamon on anthropometric indices and glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials". Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 43: 92–101. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2019.01.002. PMID 30935562. S2CID 81727505.
- ^ "Cinnamon".
- ^ Maierean SM, Serban MC, Sahebkar A, Ursoniu S, Serban A, Penson P, Banach M (2017). "The effects of cinnamon supplementation on blood lipid concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). J Clin Lipidol. 11 (6): 1393–1406. doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2017.08.004. PMID 28887086.
- ^ Hajimonfarednejad, M.; Ostovar, M.; Raee, M. J.; Hashempur, M. H.; Mayer, J. G.; Heydari, M. (1 April 2019). "Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events". Clinical Nutrition. 38 (2): 594–602. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2018.03.013. PMID 29661513. S2CID 4942968.
- ^ Harris, Emily. "German Christmas Cookies Pose Health Danger". NPR.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
- ^ "Coumarin in flavourings and other food ingredients with flavouring properties - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)". EFSA Journal. 6 (10): 793. 7 October 2008. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2008.793.
- ^ Russell, Helen (20 December 2013). "Cinnamon sparks spicy debate between Danish bakers and food authorities". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- ^ a b Ballin, Nicolai Z.; Sørensen, Ann T. (2014). "Coumarin content in cinnamon containing food products on the Danish market" (PDF). Food Control. 38: 198–203. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.10.014.
- ^ Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A. (2013). "Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61 (18): 4470–4476. doi:10.1021/jf4005862. PMID 23627682. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- Wijesekera R. O. B., Ponnuchamy S., Jayewardene A. L., "Cinnamon" (1975) monograph published by CISIR, Colombo, Sri Lanka