Ciona robusta

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Ciona robusta
Ciona robusta .jpg
Scientific classification
C. robusta
Binomial name
Ciona robusta

Ciona robusta is a species of marine invertebrate in the genus Ciona of the family Cionidae. The holotype was collected on the northeastern coast of Honsyu Island, Japan.[1] Populations of Ciona intestinalis known as Ciona intestinalis type A found in the Mediterranean Sea, the Pacific Ocean, West coast of North America, and the Atlantic coasts of South Africa have been shown to be Ciona robusta.[2]

C. robusta is a delineation of C. Intestinalis. In the early 2000’s, molecular research concluded that C. intestinalis was composed of four distinct lineages named type A, B, C and D. Conia intestinalis type A was later reclassified as C. robusta. It was not until 2015 that the four different classifications of C. intestinalis were accepted into the scientific community, and thus reported on[3].


  1. ^ "Ciona robusta Hoshino & Tokioka, 1967". WoRMS. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  2. ^ Brunetti, Riccardo; Gissi C; Pennati R; Caicci F; Gasparini F; Manni L (2015). "Morphological evidence that the molecularly determined Ciona intestinalis type A and type B are different species: Ciona robusta and Ciona intestinalis". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 53 (3): 186–193. doi:10.1111/jzs.12101.
  3. ^ Malfant, Marine; Darras, Sebastien; Viard, Viard (24 January 2018). "Coupling molecular data and experimental crosses sheds light about species delineation: a case study with the genus Ciona". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 1480. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19811-2. PMC 5784138. PMID 29367599.

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