Circumpolar deep water
|This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (November 2012)|
Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is a designation given to the water mass in the Pacific and Indian oceans that essentially characterizes a mixing of other water masses in the region. A distinguishing characteristic is the water is not formed at the surface, but rather by a blending of other water masses, including the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), and the Pacific Intermediate Water Masses.
CDW, the greatest volume water mass in the SO, is a mixture of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), as well as recirculated deep water from the Indian and Pacific Oceans (e.g., Wüst 1935; Callahan 1972; Georgi 1981; Mantyla and Reid 1983; Charles and Fairbanks 1992;You 2000)
Because the Circumpolar Deep Water is a mix of other water masses, its TS profile is simply the point where the TS lines of the other water masses converge. TS diagrams refer to temperature and salinity profiles, which are one of the major ways water masses are distinguished from each other. The convergence of the TS lines thus proves the mixing of the other water masses. Circumpolar deep water is between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius and has a salinity between 34.62 and 34.73 practical salinity units. 
In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. A strong correspondence has been discovered between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the approximately 1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. The conclusion is that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region.
- Emery, WJ. "Water Types and Water Masses" (PDF). Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- AGUS SANTOSO AND MATTHEW H. ENGLAND, Circumpolar Deep Water Circulation and Variability in a Coupled Climate Model, 2005, JPO.
- A. J. Cook, P. R. Holland, M. P. Meredith, T. Murray, A. Luckman1, D. G. Vaughan; Cook, A. J. "Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula". Retrieved July 15, 2016.