Cirencester (UK Parliament constituency)

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Gloucestershire, East or Cirencester
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
18851918
Number of members one
Replaced by Cirencester and Tewkesbury and Stroud
Created from Cirencester Borough
Cirencester
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
1571–1885
Number of members two (1571-1868), one (1868-1885)
Replaced by Cirencester

Cirencester was a parliamentary constituency in Gloucestershire. From 1571 until 1885, it was a parliamentary borough, which returned two Member of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until 1868, and one member between 1868 and 1885. In 1885 the borough was abolished but the name was transferred to the county constituency in which it stood; this constituency was abolished for the 1918 general election.

History[edit]

The town sent Members to Parliament on at least one occasion during the 14th century and again in 1547. Cirencester borough as established in 1571 consisted of part of the parish of Cirencester, a market town in the east of Gloucestershire. In 1831, the population of the borough was 4,420, and the town contained 917 houses.

The right to vote was exercised by all resident householders of the borough who were not receiving alms, an unusually liberal franchise for the period in any but the smallest towns, which meant that there were about 500 qualified voters. This arose from the chance that a dispute over the franchise arose in 1624, and the House of Commons had to decide whether only the freeholders could vote or if the right should extend to all the householders. The 1620s was a rare period when the Commons as a matter of policy tended to decide for the broadest interpretation in franchise disputes (all 15 cases brought before them in that decade were resolved in favour of the solution which enfranchised most voters), and consequently in Cirencester the householders acquired the right of which they were never subsequently deprived (and which was later confirmed at another disputed election in 1724). Another election petition, in 1709, turned on whether the inhabitants of the Abbey, Emery and Sperringate Lane sections of the town were included within the borough; the Commons ruled that they were, but they were excluded again after yet another disputed election in 1792.

Despite Cirencester's relatively large electorate, the local landowners (or "patrons") were able to exert a very substantial influence over the elections, and it could probably be fairly described as a pocket borough. From at least the start of the 18th century, the Bathurst family were Lords of the Manor and had a share of the patronage, almost invariably filling one of the seats themselves and occasionally nominating the other MP as well. The Master family, whose influence predated that of the Bathursts, were able to command the second seat for long periods. In the 18th century, both the Bathursts and the Masters were Tories. Nevertheless, there were signs that the townspeople could show independence on occasion: in 1754, when the head of the Masters was a child and the Bathursts tried to take both seats, Cirencester shocked its Tory patrons by electing a local Whig nobleman instead.

The Reform Act 1832 extended the borough's boundaries slightly to include the whole of the parish, increasing the population to 5,420; but even with the revised franchise this gave Cirencester only 604 electors. The reform apparently did little to democratise the borough, for Bathursts and Masters continued to be elected almost continually throughout its existence. As subsequent Reform Acts raised the barrier for representation, Cirencester lost one of its two MPs in 1868 and had its boundaries further extended to take in the adjoining parish of Stratton; but, still too small, the borough was abolished altogether in 1885.

However, the name was transferred to the county constituency in which the town was placed, formally called The Eastern (or Cirencester) Division of Gloucestershire. This was a substantially-sized constituency fairly similar in its boundaries to the modern Cotswold District Council, with a strong rural element but including a number of small towns apart from Cirencester - Chipping Campden, Fairford, Moreton-in-Marsh, Tetbury and Stow-on-the-Wold among them. In character it proved more Liberal than Cirencester borough had done, though this may have been as much from the dilution of the Bathurst influence as from political factors - consequently instead of being a safe Conservative seat it was generally a knife-edge marginal. Arthur Winterbotham, the Liberal who had won the constituency by 700 votes at its first election, in 1885, was re-elected unopposed when he became a Liberal Unionist in 1886, but when he switched back to the Liberals at the next general election his majority fell to 153. Winterbotham died later the same year, and the by-election was decided in favour of the Conservative candidate, Colonel Thomas Chester-Master, by just 3 votes; but his defeated opponent petitioned against the result and after further scrutiny of the ballots the result was revised and declared to be tied. It was impossible at this stage to give a casting vote to the returning officer (the usual solution to a tied election at that period), so the election had to be run again.

The constituency was abolished in 1918, being split between the new Cirencester and Tewkesbury and Stroud constituencies.

Boundaries[edit]

1885-1918: The Sessional Divisions of Chipping Campden, Cirencester, Fairford, Moreton-in-Marsh, Northleach, Stow-on-the-Wold, and Tetbury.

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1547[edit]

Year First member Second member
1547 John Eston George Ferrers

Borough constituency (1571–1885)[edit]

MPs 1571–1640[edit]

Year First member Second member
1571 Gabriel Blike Thomas Poole
1572 Thomas Poole Thomas Strange
1584 Thomas Poole (jun) William Estcourt
1586 George Master William Bridges, sat for Gloucestershire
and was replaced by
Charles Danvers
1589 Charles Danvers George Master
1593 Oliver St John[1] Henry Ferrers
1597 Henry Poole James Wroughton
1601 Richard Browne Richard George
1604–1611 Arnold Oldsworth Richard Martin, sat for Christchurch
and was replaced by
Edward Jones, who died
and was replaced by
Sir Anthony Manie
1614 Sir Anthony Manie Robert Strange
1621–1622 Sir Thomas Roe Thomas Nicholas
1624 Henry Poole Sir William Master
1625 Sir Miles Sandys Henry Poole
1626 Sir Neville Poole John George
1628–1629 Sir Giles Estcourt John George

MPs 1640–1868[edit]

Year First member First party Second member Second party
April 1640 Henry Poole John George
November 1640 Sir Theobald Gorges Royalist John George Royalist
January 1644 Gorges and George disabled from sitting - both seats vacant
February 1648 Sir Thomas Fairfax [2] Nathaniel Rich
December 1648 Fairfax not recorded as sitting after Pride's Purge
1653 Cirencester was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 John Stone Cirencester had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Richard Southby
May 1659 Nathaniel Rich One seat vacant
April 1660 Thomas Master Henry Powle
1661 The Earl of Newburgh John George
1671 Henry Powle
1679 Sir Robert Atkyns
1685 Thomas Master Charles Levingston
1689 John Grubham Howe
March 1690 Richard Grobham Howe Henry Powle
November 1690 John Grubham Howe
1698 Henry Ireton Charles Coxe
January 1701 James Thynne
December 1701 William Master
1705 Allen Bathurst Henry Ireton
1708 [3] Charles Coxe
1712 Thomas Master Tory
1713 Benjamin Bathurst Tory
1727 Peter Bathurst Tory
1734 William Wodehouse [4]
1735 Henry Bathurst Tory
1747 Thomas Master Tory
1749 John Coxe
1754 Hon. Benjamin Bathurst Tory Hon. John Dawnay [5] Whig
1761 James Whitshed Tory
1768 Estcourt Creswell
1774 Samuel Blackwell
1783 Henry Bathurst Tory
1785 Richard Master [6] Tory
1792 (Sir) Robert Preston [7]
1794 Michael Hicks-Beach
1806 Joseph Cripps
1812 Henry Bathurst Tory
1818 Joseph Cripps Tory
1834 Conservative Lord Edward Somerset Conservative
1837 Thomas Chester-Master I Conservative
1841 William Cripps Conservative
1844 George Child-Villiers Conservative
1848 Joseph Mullings Conservative
1852 Hon. Ashley Ponsonby Whig[8]
1857 Allen Bathurst Conservative
1859 Hon. Ashley Ponsonby Liberal
1865 Hon. Ralph Dutton Conservative
1868 Representation reduced to one member

MPs 1868–1885[edit]

Election Member Party
1868 Allen Bathurst, later Earl Bathurst Conservative
1878 by-election Thomas Chester-Master II Conservative
1885 Borough abolished - name transferred to county division

County constituency (1885–1918)[edit]

Election Member Party
1885 Arthur Winterbotham Liberal
1886 Liberal Unionist
1892 Liberal
1892 by-election Thomas Chester-Master Conservative
1893 by-election Harry Levy-Lawson Liberal
1895 Hon. Benjamin Bathurst Conservative
1906 Walter Essex Liberal
1910 Hon. Benjamin Bathurst Conservative
1918 constituency abolished

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 1830s[edit]

General Election 1832: Cirencester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Henry Bathurst Unopposed
Conservative Joseph Cripps Unopposed
Registered electors 604
Conservative win (new seat)
Conservative win (new seat)
Cirencester by-election, 6 August 1834
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Edward Somerset Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1835: Cirencester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Joseph Cripps 494
Conservative Edward Somerset 405
Liberal T.D. Whatley 91
Registered electors 615
Conservative hold
Conservative hold
General Election 1837: Cirencester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Joseph Cripps Unopposed
Conservative Thomas Chester-Master Unopposed
Registered electors 585
Conservative hold
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General Election 1841: Cirencester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Cripps Unopposed
Conservative Thomas Chester-Master Unopposed
Registered electors 552
Conservative hold
Conservative hold
Cirencester by-election, 2 August 1844
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Child Villiers Unopposed
Conservative hold
Cirencester by-election, 14 August 1845
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Cripps Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1847: Cirencester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Cripps Unopposed
Conservative George Child Villiers Unopposed
Registered electors 485
Conservative hold
Conservative hold
Cirencester by-election, 24 May 1848
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Joseph Mullings 262 66.8 n/a
Liberal Charles Ponsonby 130 33.2 n/a
Majority 132 33.7 n/a
Turnout 392 82.0 n/a
Registered electors 478
Conservative hold
  • Death of Cripps

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1852: Cirencester (2 seats)[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Joseph Mullings 235 35.2 N/A
Whig Ashley Ponsonby 218 32.7 N/A
Conservative George Child Villiers 214 32.1 N/A
Turnout 334 (est) 76.8 (est) N/A
Registered electors 434
Majority 17 2.5 N/A
Conservative hold
Majority 4 0.6 N/A
Whig gain from Conservative
General Election 1857: Cirencester (2 seats)[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Allen Bathurst 307 44.2 +12.1
Conservative Joseph Mullings 200 28.8 −6.4
Whig Ashley Ponsonby 188 27.1 −5.6
Majority 12 1.7 −0.8
Turnout 348 (est) 82.2 (est) +5.4
Registered electors 423
Conservative hold Swing +7.5
Conservative gain from Whig Swing −1.8
General Election 1859: Cirencester (2 seats)[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Allen Bathurst 273 42.3 −1.9
Liberal Ashley Ponsonby 190 29.5 +2.4
Conservative Brent Follett[10] 182 28.2 −0.6
Turnout 323 (est) 76.6 (est) −5.6
Registered electors 421
Majority 83 12.9 +11.2
Conservative hold Swing −1.6
Majority 8 1.2 N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +2.5

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1865: Cirencester (2 seats)[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Allen Bathurst 296 42.9 +0.6
Conservative Ralph Dutton 222 32.2 +4.0
Liberal Julian Goldsmid 172 24.9 −4.6
Majority 74 10.7 −2.2
Turnout 431 (est) 92.9 (est) +16.3
Registered electors 464
Conservative hold Swing +1.5
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +3.2

Seat reduced to one member

General Election 1868: Cirencester[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Allen Bathurst 629 68.9 −6.2
Liberal Frederick Andrew Inderwick 284 31.1 +6.2
Majority 345 37.8 +27.1
Turnout 913 84.9 −8.0
Registered electors 1,076
Conservative hold Swing −6.2

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 1874: Cirencester[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Allen Bathurst Unopposed
Registered electors 1,101
Conservative hold
  • Bathurst succeeded to the peerage, becoming Earl Bathurst.
By-election, 13 Mar 1878: Cirencester[11][9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Chester-Master 698 66.8 N/A
Liberal Ashley Ponsonby 347 33.2 N/A
Majority 351 33.6 N/A
Turnout 1,045 92.6 N/A
Registered electors 1,128
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1880: Cirencester[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Chester-Master Unopposed
Registered electors 1,145
Conservative hold
Dorington
General Election 1885: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Arthur Winterbotham 4,782 54.2 N/A
Conservative John Dorington 4,037 45.8 N/A
Majority 745 8.4 N/A
Turnout 8,819 86.8 N/A
Registered electors 10,157
Liberal gain from Conservative
General Election 1886: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Arthur Winterbotham Unopposed
Liberal Unionist gain from Liberal

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

General Election 1892: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Arthur Winterbotham 4,207 50.9 N/A
Conservative Thomas Chester-Master 4,054 49.1 N/A
Majority 153 1.9 N/A
Turnout 8,261 81.8 N/A
Registered electors 10,095
Liberal gain from Liberal Unionist
Cirencester by-election, 1892[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Chester-Master 4,275 50.0 −0.9
Liberal Harry Levy-Lawson 4,275 50.0 +0.9
Majority 0 0.0 −1.9
Turnout 8,550 84.7 +2.9
Registered electors 10,095
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +0.9
  • Chester-Master was originally declared the victor by 3 votes, but on petition and after scrutiny, the votes were declared equal and a new election was held.
Cirencester by-election, 1893[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Harry Levy-Lawson 4,687 51.3 +0.4
Conservative Thomas Chester-Master 4,445 48.7 −0.4
Majority 242 2.6 +0.8
Turnout 9,132 90.9 +9.1
Registered electors 10,048
Liberal hold Swing +0.4
Bathurst
General Election 1895: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Benjamin Bathurst 4,509 51.2 +2.1
Liberal Harry Levy-Lawson 4,294 48.8 −2.1
Majority 215 2.4 −0.4
Turnout 8,803 89.6 +7.8
Registered electors 9,825
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +2.1

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 1900: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Benjamin Bathurst Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1906: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Walter Essex 4,517 53.0 n/a
Conservative Benjamin Bathurst 4,011 47.0 n/a
Majority 506 5.9 n/a
Turnout 8,528 88.2 n/a
Registered electors 9,673
Liberal gain from Conservative

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election January 1910: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Benjamin Bathurst 5,091 55.3 +8.3
Liberal Walter Essex 4,108 44.7 −8.3
Majority 983 10.7 +4.8
Turnout 9,199 92.6 +4.4
Registered electors 9,934
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +8.3
General Election December 1910: Cirencester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Benjamin Bathurst 4,788 54.4 −0.9
Liberal Gilbert Beyfus 4,007 45.6 +0.9
Majority 781 8.9 −1.8
Turnout 8,795 88.5 −4.1
Registered electors 9,934
Conservative hold Swing −4.1

References[edit]

  1. ^ s:St. John, Oliver (1559-1630) (DNB00)
  2. ^ Fairfax was delayed from taking his seat by a dispute over the election; although he was eventually declared duly elected in February 1649, it is unlikely that he ever took his seat in the Rump, so probably never sat for Cirencester
  3. ^ At the election of 1708, Bathurst and Coxe were initially declared elected; but on petition, the election was declared void because the inhabitants of the Abbey, Emery and Sperringate Lane had been excluded from voting. However, both were re-elected in the ensuing by-election.
  4. ^ Wodehouse was also elected for Norfolk, but died before having chosen which constituency to represent
  5. ^ Succeeded as the 4th Viscount Downe (in the Peerage of Ireland), 1760
  6. ^ Master was re-elected in 1790, but on petition the committee declared he had not been duly elected, and seated his opponent, Preston, in his place
  7. ^ Succeeded to a baronetcy, March 1800
  8. ^ MikeMCSG (11 November 2013). "315 Ashley Ponsonby". Clarke Chronicler's Politicians. Retrieved 29 April 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3. 
  10. ^ "The Nominations". Morning Post. 30 April 1859. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 29 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  11. ^ "Cirencester Election". Gloucester Citizen. 13 March 1878. Retrieved 5 October 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "C" (part 4)
  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • John Cannon, Parliamentary Reform 1640-1832 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
  • Lewis Namier & John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1754-1790 (London: HMSO, 1964)
  • T. H. B. Oldfield The Representative History of Great Britain and Ireland (London: Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, 1816)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Frederic A Youngs, jr, Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol I (London: Royal Historical Society, 1979)

External links[edit]