Cisnădie

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Cisnădie
Town
Panorama of Cisnădie
Panorama of Cisnădie
Coat of arms of Cisnădie
Coat of arms
Location of Cisnădie
Location of Cisnădie
Cisnădie is located in Romania
Cisnădie
Cisnădie
Location of Cisnădie
Coordinates: 45°42′46″N 24°09′03″E / 45.71278°N 24.15083°E / 45.71278; 24.15083Coordinates: 45°42′46″N 24°09′03″E / 45.71278°N 24.15083°E / 45.71278; 24.15083
Country  Romania
County Sibiu County
Status Town
Government
 • Mayor Johann Krech[1] (Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania)
Area
 • Total 138.56 km2 (53.50 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 13,410
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Climate Dfb
Website Cisnadie.Ro

Cisnădie (Romanian pronunciation: [t͡ʃisnəˈdi.e]; German: Heltau; Transylvanian Saxon dialect: Hielt; Hungarian: Nagydisznód) is a town in Sibiu County, Transylvania, Romania located approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of Sibiu. One village, Cisnădioara (Michelsberg; Kisdisznód), is administered by the town.

History[edit]

Cisnădie was mentioned for the first time in a document from the year 1204 under the name "Rivetel". In the 12th century Saxon colonists settled here, and in 1323 the German name Heltau is mentioned.[2] The town flourished, particularly the guilds of blacksmiths and wool weavers (weaving remained the traditional occupation of the town population until the 20th century, when large textile factories were built).

Cisnădie shared most of Transylvania's eventful history. The town suffered several raids, starting with the 1241 raid of the Mongols and continuing with Ottoman attacks. The plague did not spare the town, neither did the fire nor political agitations. In 1806 under Emperor Franz of Austria, Cisnădie/Heltau renewed its market rights, proving prosperity.

In 1945, large parts of the German population was deported to the Soviet Union (see also Expulsion of Germans from Romania after World War II).

In 1948 all factories were nationalized and run under the Communist regime. Along with its fall, most of the factories collapsed, but in the last years the economic situation has been ameliorating.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1948 7,284 —    
1956 12,246 +68.1%
1966 14,979 +22.3%
1977 20,135 +34.4%
1992 17,807 −11.6%
2002 17,204 −3.4%
2011 13,410 −22.1%
Source: Census data

According to the 2011 census, there was a total population of 13,410 people living in the town. Of these, 97.1% were ethnic Romanians, 1.5% ethnic Germans, 0.7% Hungarians and 0.3% Romani.[3]

Economy[edit]

In Cisnădie, there are the SC Pralin SRL, the chocolate factory of Florin Balan, where the Kamasutra chocolate is made.

Sights[edit]

The most important architectural sight of Cisnădie is the fortified complex located in the town center. Originally built in the 12th century as a Romanesque basilica, the church was fortified during the 15th century, after the 1493 Turkish invasion, to protect the local population of Saxons against repeated Ottoman raids.[4] The fortification process included the construction of fortified towers over the two side entrances and the choir, the building of a double structure of defence walls, a moat and several defensive towers along the walls. Simultaneously to the fortification work the church itself suffered a gothicization process. The altar inside the Lutheran church, which forms the center of this complex, is a wing altar/triptych from 1520, realized by the school of Veit Stoss Jr.[2]

The complex is very well preserved and besides being a medieval architectural place of interest, it offers a variety of theme exhibitions:

  • the "Cisnădie/Heltau throughout 12 centuries" Museum located over the old Ossarium
  • the Museum of Medieval Defensive Structures located in the northern side tower
  • the Museum of the History of the Communist Era
  • some alternating Art Expositions.

Cisnădioara village[edit]

Cisnădioara (German: Michelsberg; Hungarian: Kisdisznód; Transylvanian Saxon dialect: Mächelsbärch) is a village located 2 km west of Cisnădie. Initially, it was listed as one of the ten possessions of the Cistercian abbey at Cârţa. The fortified church, dedicated to Saint Michael and built entirely of stone, was first referred to in a document dated November 20, 1223, which mentioned its donation to the abbey. The oldest Romanesque style church in Romania, it stands atop a 100-meter high hill, surrounded by circular fortifications, with a defensive turret above the entrance. Some of the original walls have been preserved to this day. The layout of the church, composed of a small basilica with three naves, as well as the decoration of the carved western entrance portal, dating from 1260, attest to the strong influence of Rhineland architecture.[5] Another church in the valley, dedicated to Saint Mary, was first mentioned in 1428 as a Gothic style church, but it was rebuilt in the 18th century in the Baroque style.[5]

Image gallery[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Augustin Ioan, Hanna Derer. The Fortified Churches of the Transylvanian Saxons. Noi Media Print, 2004

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.cisnadie.ro/portal/Sibiu/cisnadie/portal.nsf/AllByUNID/F8DBB3713EEDE359422575510042322D?OpenDocument
  2. ^ a b Fabini, Hermann (2015). The Church-fortresses of the Transylvanan Saxons. Sibiu: MonuMenta. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-973-7969-19-4. 
  3. ^ 2011 census data
  4. ^ "Kirchenburg" (in German). Lutheran Church in Cisnădie. Retrieved 17 September 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Fabini, Hermann (2015). The Church-fortresses of the Transylvanan Saxons. Sibiu: MonuMenta. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-973-7969-19-4. 

External links[edit]