Cissus quadrangularis is a perennial plant of the grape family. It is commonly known as veldt grape, devil's backbone, adamant creeper, asthisamharaka, hadjod and pirandai. The species is native to tropical Asia, Arabia and much of Africa.
Cissus quadrangularis reaches a height of 1.5 m (4.9 ft) and has quadrangular-sectioned branches with internodes 8–10 cm (3–4 in) long and 1.2–1.5 cm (0.5–0.6 in) wide. Along each angle is a leathery edge. Toothed trilobe leaves 2–5 cm (0.8–2.0 in) wide appear at the nodes. Each has a tendril emerging from the opposite side of the node. Racemes of small white, yellowish, or greenish flowers; globular berries are red when ripe.
Cissus quadrangularis is an evergreen climber growing to 5 m (16 ft) by .5 m (1.6 ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity. Cissus has been used in various Ayurvedic classical medicines to heal broken bones and injured ligaments and tendons. In siddha medicine it is considered a tonic and analgesic, and is believed to help heal broken bones, thus its name asthisamharaka (that which prevents the destruction of bones). The Assamese people and the Garo tribe of Meghalaya and Bangladesh have used C. quadrangularis for bone fracture.
One preliminary clinical study found a benefit in weight reduction and an improvement in the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome in obese patients who had been given C. quadrangularis supplements. Another study found a potential synergistic effect between C. quadrangularis and Irvingia gabonensis. A weight loss supplement containing Cissus quadrangularis and other ingredients including green tea, soy, selenium, chromium, and B vitamins was evaluated in an 8-week trial. The supplement helped reduce body weight by 4–8% (placebo 2.4%) a clinically significant weight loss.
A paper published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology in October 2010, on conflicts of interest in alternative weight loss product research, noted that at least three studies supported the safety and effectiveness of CQ for weight loss, but "lack financial disclosures or funding sources, beyond mentioning that the CQ being tested was provided by" General Health Alliances, an herbal products manufacturer. The studies did not disclose that one of its authors was a chief scientific officer for GHA that holds a patent on a CQ product.
C. quadrangularis has been studied in animal models of bone fracture.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "Cissus quadrangularis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Mia, Md. Manzur-ul-Kadir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Hossan, Md. Shahadat; Rahmatullah, Mohammed (Jan–Apr 2009). "Medicinal plants of the Garo tribe inhabiting the Madhupur forest region of Bangladesh". American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 3 (2): 165–171.
- Oben, J.; Kuate, D.; Agbor, G.; Momo, C.; Talla, X. (2006). "The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome". Lipids in Health and Disease. 5: 24. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-5-24. PMC 1570348. PMID 16948861.
- Oben, J. E.; Ngondi, J. L.; Momo, C. N.; Agbor, G. A.; Sobgui, C. (2008). "The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: A double-blind placebo-controlled study". Lipids in Health and Disease. 7: 12. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-7-12. PMC 2330043. PMID 18377661.
- Greenway, FL; Bray, GA (2010). "Combination drugs for treating obesity". Current Diabetes Reports. 10 (2): 108–15. doi:10.1007/s11892-010-0096-4. PMID 20425569.
- Lobb, Anno (14 October 2010). "Science of weight loss supplements: Compromised by conflicts of interest?". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 16 (38): 4880–4882. doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i38.4880. PMC 2955261. PMID 20939120.
- Potu, B. K.; Rao, M. S.; Nampurath, G. K.; Chamallamudi, M. R.; Prasad, K.; Nayak, S. R.; Dharmavarapu, P. K.; Kedage, V.; Bhat, K. M. R. (2009). "Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. On ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis". Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 114 (3): 140–8. doi:10.1080/03009730902891784. PMC 2852762. PMID 19736603.
- "Effect of Cissus Quadrangularis in Accelerating Healing Process of Experimentally Fracture Radius-Ulna of Dog: A Preliminary Study" (PDF). Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 26: 44–45. 1994.
- Jainu, M.; Mohan, K. V.; Devi, C. S. S. (2006). "Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 104 (3): 302–5. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.076. PMID 16338111.
- Mallika Jainu; C.S. Shyamala Devi (2005). "In vitro and In vivo evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of Cissus quadrangularis". African Journal of Biomedical Research. 8: 95–99.
- Wenling Li; Hao Li; Ying Li; Zijie Hou (2006). "Total Synthesis of (±)-Quadrangularin A". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 45 (45): 7609–7611. doi:10.1002/anie.200603097.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cissus quadrangularis.|
- Cissus quadrangularis in West African plants – A Photo Guide.
- Austin, A. Jegadeesan, M. Gowrishankar, R. (2004) "Helicobactericidal Activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. Variant I"; Natural Product Sciences 10 (5): 217-219. Korean Society of Pharmacognosy.
- Chopra SS, Patel MR, Awadhiya R (1976). "Studies of Cissus quadrangularis in experimental fracture repair: a histopathological study". Indian Journal of Medical Research. 64 (9): 1365–1368.
- Jainu, Mallika; Devi, Shyamala (2003). "Tent antiulcerogenic activity of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis by antioxidative mechanism". Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 34 (2): 43–47. doi:10.3164/jcbn.34.43.
- Kashikar, ND; Indu, George (2006). "Antibacterial activity of Cissus quadrangularis Linn". Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 68 (2): 245–247. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.25727.
- Oben, Julius; Damaris Mandob, Enyegue; Fomekong, Gilles I; Soukontoua, Yves B; Agbor, Gabriel A (2007). "The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress". Lipids in Health and Diseases. 6: 4. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-6-4. PMC 1800848. PMID 17274828.
- Oben, Julius; Kuate, Dieudonne; Agbor, Gabriel; Momo, Claudia; Talla, Xavio (2006). "The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome". Lipids in Health and Diseases. 5: 24. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-5-24. PMC 1570348. PMID 16948861.
- Analysis of the effect of Asthishrinkhla Kandaswarasa [stem juice of Cissus quadrangularis] in fracture healing in a rat model 'Dr. Deepanshu K. Mishra, Prof. Sanjeev Sharma, R.G.G.P.G. Ayu. College - Paprola' Prof. V.K. Gupta, Dr. G.C. Negi College of Vet. and Animal sciences - Palampur - Dec. 2010.