Cissus quadrangularis

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Cissus quadrangularis
Cissus quadrangularis MS0938.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Vitales
Family: Vitaceae
Genus: Cissus
C. quadrangularis
Binomial name
Cissus quadrangularis
  • Cissus bifida Schumach. & Thonn.
  • Cissus edulis Dalzell
  • Cissus fischeri Gilg
  • Cissus quadrangula L.
  • Cissus quadrangula Salisb.
  • Cissus succulenta (Galpin) Burtt-Davy
  • Cissus tetragona Harv.
  • Cissus tetraptera Hook.f.
  • Cissus triandra Schumach. & Thonn.
  • Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight
  • Vitis succulenta Galpin
Adamant creeper sprouts

Cissus quadrangularis is a perennial plant of the grape family. It is commonly known as veldt grape,[2] devil's backbone[citation needed], adamant creeper[citation needed], asthisamharaka or asthisamhara,[3] hadjod and pirandai.[3] The species is native to tropical Asia, Arabia and much of Africa.[2]


Cissus quadrangularis reaches a height of 1.5 m (4.9 ft) and has quadrangular-sectioned branches with internodes 8–10 cm (3–4 in) long and 1.2–1.5 cm (0.5–0.6 in) wide. Along each angle is a leathery edge. Toothed trilobe leaves 2–5 cm (0.8–2.0 in) wide appear at the nodes. Each has a tendril emerging from the opposite side of the node. Racemes of small white, yellowish, or greenish flowers; globular berries are red when ripe.

Cissus quadrangularis is an evergreen climber growing to 5 m (16 ft) by .5 m (1.6 ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.[4]

Traditional medicine[edit]

Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity.[citation needed] Cissus has been used in various Ayurvedic classical medicines to heal broken bones and injured ligaments and tendons.[5] In siddha medicine it is considered a tonic and analgesic, and is believed to help heal broken bones, thus its name asthisamharaka (that which prevents the destruction of bones). The Assamese people and the Garo tribe of Meghalaya and Bangladesh have used C. quadrangularis for bone fracture.[3]

Experimental studies[edit]

C. quadrangularis has been studied for its effects in a rat model for osteoporosis.[6] C. quadrangularis has been studied in animal models of bone fracture.[7]

Its bactericidal effects on Helicobacter pylori indicate a potential use for treating gastric ulcers in conjunction with NSAID therapy.[8]


C. quadrangularis has been found to contain carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid.[9] The plant also produces the resveratrol dimer quadrangularin A.[10]


  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Cissus quadrangularis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Upadhyay, Bhuvaneshwar; Singh, Kamini P.; Kumar, Ashwani (Jan 2011). "Ethno-veterinary uses and informants consensus factor of medicinal plants of Sariska region, Rajasthan, India". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 133 (1): 14–25. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.08.054.
  4. ^
  5. ^ Vibha, Singh (Jan–Jun 2017). "Medicinal plants and bone healing". National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery. 8 (1): 4–11. doi:10.4103/0975-5950.208972. PMC 5512407. PMID 28761270.
  6. ^ Potu, B. K.; Rao, M. S.; Nampurath, G. K.; Chamallamudi, M. R.; Prasad, K.; Nayak, S. R.; Dharmavarapu, P. K.; Kedage, V.; Bhat, K. M. R. (2009). "Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. On ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis". Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 114 (3): 140–8. doi:10.1080/03009730902891784. PMC 2852762. PMID 19736603.
  7. ^ "Effect of Cissus Quadrangularis in Accelerating Healing Process of Experimentally Fracture Radius-Ulna of Dog: A Preliminary Study" (PDF). Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 26: 44–45. 1994. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-27. Retrieved 2014-06-03.
  8. ^ Jainu, M.; Mohan, K. V.; Devi, C. S. S. (2006). "Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 104 (3): 302–5. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.076. PMID 16338111.
  9. ^ Mallika Jainu; C.S. Shyamala Devi (2005). "In vitro and In vivo evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of Cissus quadrangularis". African Journal of Biomedical Research. 8: 95–99.
  10. ^ Wenling Li; Hao Li; Ying Li; Zijie Hou (2006). "Total Synthesis of (±)-Quadrangularin A". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 45 (45): 7609–7611. doi:10.1002/anie.200603097. PMID 17051632.

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