Citadelle of Quebec

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La Citadelle
La Citadelle de Québec, vue du ciel.JPG
Aerial view of the Citadelle
Citadelle of Quebec is located in Quebec City
Citadelle of Quebec
Location within Quebec City
General information
Architectural style Canadian Norman, Greek Revival
Town or city The Citadelle of Quebec
Quebec City, Quebec
Country Canada
Coordinates 46°48′27″N 71°12′26″W / 46.807517°N 71.207108°W / 46.807517; -71.207108
Construction started 1673
Client The Crown of France (1693, 1701, 1745, 1750), The Crown of Great Britain and Ireland (1820, 1831, 1842), The Crown in Right of Canada
(1872, 1984)
Owner The Queen in Right of Canada
(Elizabeth II)
Design and construction
Architect Various
Official name: Québec Citadel National Historic Site of Canada[1]
Designated: 1981
View of the fortifications of the Citadelle, with the Quebec Parliament Building behind

The Citadelle of Quebec (French: Citadelle de Québec) is a military installation and official residence of both the Monarch of Canada and the Governor General of Canada located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. This citadel is part of the fortifications of Quebec City. The city of Quebec is the only one in North America that is still surrounded by fortifications.

The Citadelle is a National Historic Site of Canada,[1] and also forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.[2] The fortress is located within the "Historic District of Old Québec", which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.[3]

History[edit]

Royal 22e Régiment badge at Citadelle of Quebec

The first protective wall (enceinte) was built in the 17th century under Louis de Buade, sieur de Frontenac. A plan of fortifications was developed by the French military engineer Jacques Levasseur de Néré (1662–1723) and approved by Louis XIV's commissary general of fortifications Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban in 1701. Considerable work took place on the fortifications after the fall of Louisbourg in 1745 under the direction of military engineer Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry.

The existing star-shaped fortifications were built by the United Kingdom between 1820 and 1831 under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Elias Walker Durnford of the Royal Engineers, and incorporated a section of the French enceinte (enclosure) of 1745. Their purpose was to secure the strategic heights of Cap Diamant against the Americans and to serve as a refuge for the British garrison in the event of attack or rebellion. The preservation of much of the fortifications and defences of Quebec is due to the intervention of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, Governor General of Canada 1872–1878, who also established the Citadelle as a vice-regal residence.

The Quebec Conferences of 1943 and 1944, in which Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and William Lyon Mackenzie King discussed strategy for World War II, were held at the Citadelle of Quebec.

The Citadelle has been the home station of the Royal 22e Régiment of the Canadian Forces since 1920. In addition to its use as a military installation, it has been also an official residence of the Queen in Right of Canada and the Governor General of Canada since 1872,[4] who by tradition resides there for several weeks out of the year. (The Governor General's primary official residence is Rideau Hall in Ottawa.)

Buildings[edit]

The Officer's Barracks, built in 1831 by the British Army, has been the residence of the Governor General of Canada since 1871. The two storey Neoclassical building was expanded and damaged by a fire in 1976.[5]

Inside the building are various rooms:

  • Sun Room
  • Ballroom
  • State Rooms
  • Bedrooms
  • Dining Room
  • Kitchen
The Governor General of Canada's residence in The Citadelle
  • Building 10, also called: L'ancienne Prison militaire, Former Military Prison, Museum Annex, Annexe du Musée (constructed in 1842) is on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.[6]
  • Building 15, also known as the Powder Magazine, Museum of the Royal 22e Régiment, Musée des Forces canadiennes, Canadian Forces Museum, Musée du Royal 22e Régiment, Ancienne poudrière (constructed in 1750) is on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.[7]
  • Building 16, also known as the Museum Office and former Cooperage is on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.[8]

Royal 22e Régiment Museum[edit]

Royal 22e Régiment Régiment Museum
Citadel quebec city 2010y.JPG
Location La Citadelle de Québec PO Box 6020, Haute-Ville Station Quebec, QC G1R 4V7Canada
Type Regimental Museum
Website [1]

The museum authenticates, classifies, evaluates and registers acquisitions received. The museum collects, preserves and displays to the public, artifacts of Canadian military historical significance.[9] Visitors are given guided tours of buildings 10 and 15, as well as the Royal 22e Régiment Museum, which features weapons, uniforms, and other military artifacts of the regiment. The Museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, OMMC and Virtual Museum of Canada.

Context[edit]

The Quebec Parliament Building and many other provincial government buildings and several large hotels are also nearby, towering over this sunken or flat citadel, typical of late 18th century and early 19th century castramentation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Québec Citadel. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. ^ Fortifications of Québec. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  3. ^ "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  4. ^ The Citadelle of Québec, Governor General of Canada
  5. ^ http://www.gg.ca/document.aspx?id=95
  6. ^ http://www.historicplaces.ca/visit-visite/affichage-display.aspx?id=10169 Canadian Register de Historic Places.
  7. ^ http://www.historicplaces.ca/visit-visite/affichage-display.aspx?id=3641 Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  8. ^ http://www.historicplaces.ca/visit-visite/affichage-display.aspx?id=10707 Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  9. ^ A-AD-266-000/AG-001 Canadian Forces Museums –Operations and Administration 2002-04-03

External links[edit]