|Body and chassis|
|Class||Large family car (D)|
|Body style||5-door hatchback
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
|Kerb weight||870 kg (1,918 lb) - 1,220 kg (2,690 lb)|
The Citroën BX is a large family car that was produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1982 to 1994. In total, 2,315,739 BXs were built during its 12-year history. The hatchback was discontinued in 1993 with the arrival of the Xantia, but the estate continued for another year. The BX was designed to be lightweight, using particularly few body parts, including many made from plastics.
The Citroën BX was announced in June 1982, but its commercial life really only began in the Autumn of that year, with a Paris presentation on 2 October 1982 under the Eiffel Tower. The BX was designed to replace the successful small family car Citroën GS/GSA that was launched in 1970, with a larger vehicle (although the GSA continued until 1986). The French advertising campaign used the slogan "J'aime, j'aime, j'aime" showing the car accompanied by music written specially by Julien Clerc. The British advertising campaign used the slogan "Loves Driving, Hates Garages", reflecting the effort of Citroën to promote the reduced maintenance costs of the BX, over the higher than average maintenance costs of the technologically advanced GS/GSA; while still performing in the Citroën style on the road.
The angular hatchback was designed by Marcello Gandini of Bertone, based on his unused design for the British 1977 Reliant FW11 concept and his 1979 Volvo Tundra concept car. It was the second car to benefit from the merger of Peugeot and Citroën in 1976, the first being the Citroën Visa launched in 1978. The BX shared its platform with the more conventional 405 that appeared in 1987. Among the features that set the car apart from the competition was the traditional Citroën hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension, extensive use of plastic body panels (bonnet, tailgate, bumpers), and front and rear disc brakes.
The BX dispensed with the air cooled, flat four engine which powered the GS, and replaced it with the new PSA group XY, TU and XU series of petrol engines in 1360 cc, 1580 cc and, from 1984, 1905 cc displacements. A 1124 cc engine, very unusual in a car of this size, was also available in countries where car tax was a direct function of engine capacity, such as Italy, Portugal and Greece. The 1.1 and 1.4 models used the PSA X engine (known widely as the "Douvrin" or "Suitcase Engine"), the product of an earlier Peugeot/Renault joint venture, and already fitted in the Peugeot 104 and Renault 14. The 1.6 version was the first car to use the all-new short-stroke XU-series engine. It was produced in a new engine plant at Trémery built specifically for this purpose, and was later introduced in a larger 1.9-litre version and saw long service in a variety of Peugeots and Citroëns. The XUD diesel engine version was launched in November 1983. The diesel and turbo diesel models were to become the most successful variants, they were especially popular as estates and became the best selling diesel car in Britain in the late 1980s. Despite being launched on the continent in the autumn of 1982, it wasn't launched onto the British market until August 1983, initially only with 1.3 and 1.6 petrol engines, although further engine options and the estate model would arrive later, and it was one of the most popular foreign-built cars there during the second half of the 1980s. However, just 485 examples were remaining on Britain's roads by February 2016.
All petrol engines were badged as 11, 14, 16, 19—signifying engine size (in some countries, a weaker, 80 PS (59 kW) version of the 1.6 L engine was badged as the BX15E instead of BX16). The 11TE model was seen by foreign motoring press as slow and uncomfortable. The 1.1 L engine with engine code H1A was specially tuned for Italy, Greece and Portugal. It was fitted to the cars made from 1988 to 1993 and produced 40 kW (55 hp DIN) at 5800 rpm.
A year after the launch of the hatchback model, an estate version was made available. In 1984 power steering became optional, welcome particularly in the diesel models. In the late 1980s, a four-wheel drive system and turbodiesel engines were introduced.
In 1986 the MK2 BX was launched. The interior and dashboard was redesigned to be more conventional-looking than the original, which used Citroën's idiosyncratic "satellite" switchgear, and "bathroom scale" speedometer. These were replaced with more conventional stalks for light and wipers and analogue instruments. The earlier GT (and Sport) models already had a "normal" speedometer and tachometer. The exterior was also slightly updated, with new more rounded bumpers, flared wheelarches to accept wider tyres, new and improved mirrors and the front indicators replaced with larger clear ones which fitted flush with the headlights. The elderly Douvrin engine was replaced by the newer TU-series engine on the 1.4 litre models, although it continued to be installed in the tiny BX11 until 1992.
1988 saw the launch of the BX Turbo Diesel, which was praised by the motoring press. The BX diesel was already a strong seller, but the Turbo model brought new levels of refinement and performance to the diesel market, which brought an end to the common notion that diesel cars were slow and noisy. Diesel Car magazine said of the BX "We can think of no other car currently on sale in the UK that comes anywhere near approaching the BX Turbo's combination of performance, accommodation and economy".
In 1989, the BX range had further minor revisions and specification improvements made to it, including smoked rear lamp units, new wheeltrims and interior fabrics.
Winning many Towcar of the Year awards, the BX was renowned as a tow car (as was its larger sister, the CX), especially the diesel models, due to their power and economy combined with the self levelling suspension.
The biggest problem of the BX was its variable build quality, compared to its competition. In 1983, one quarter of the production needed "touchups" before they could be shipped. The last BX was sold around 1994, by which time its successors had already been launched. It had been partially replaced by the smaller ZX in early 1991, but its key replacement was the slightly larger Xantia that went on sale at the beginning of 1993.
As well as the normal BX, Citroën produced the BX Sport from 1985 to 1987. During this period, Citroën produced 7,500 BX Sports; 2,500 in the first series, then an extra 5,000 due to its sales success. Rated at 126 PS (93 kW) at 5800 rpm and equipped with dual twin-barrel carburettors, the BX Sport was the most powerful BX in production at that time. The engine modifications, including a reshaped combustion chamber and larger valves, were developed by famous French tuner Danielson. It also stood out with its unique body kit, alloy wheels later also used on the GTi, a unique dashboard and Pullman interior. The seat fabric was the same as that used on the CX Turbo at the time. The body kit included a rear wing, side skirts, and fender extensions that added 10 cm to each side of the car in order to accommodate the larger wheels. The car was only available in LHD, so it was not sold in the United Kingdom. Period road tests complimented the ride quality (as usual with Citroëns) but complained that the driving characteristics were not all that sporty as a result, even though the suspension had also been modified.
The BX GT was launched in 1985 and featured a 1.9 L Peugeot-sourced engine, in general a Sport engine with only one twin choke carburettor. Max power is 105 PS (77 kW). That same year, Citroën produced a "Digit" model, which was based on the BX GT. It featured a digital instrument cluster and an onboard computer. Citroën only produced 4,000 BX Digits in 1985.
Citroën entered Group B rallying with the BX in 1986. The specially designed rally BX was called the BX 4TC and bore little resemblance to the standard BX. It had a very long nose because the engine (a turbocharger fitted version of Chrysler Europe's Simca Type 180 engine) was mounted longitudinally unlike in the regular BX. The engine was downsleeved to 2,141.5 cc (from 2,155 cc) to stay under the three-litre limit after FIA's multiplication factor of 1.4 was applied. The rally version of the BX also featured the unique hydropneumatic suspension, and the five-speed manual gearbox from Citroën SM. Because of the Group B regulations, 200 street versions of the 4TC also had to be built, with a 200 PS (147 kW) at 5,250 rpm version of the N9TE engine.
The 4TC was not successful in World Rally Championship competition, its best result being a sixth place in the 1986 Swedish Rally. The 4TC only participated in three rallies before the Group B class was banned in late 1986, following the death of Henri Toivonen in his Lancia Delta S4 at the Tour de Corse Rally. Already discouraged by the car's poor performance in motorsport and the demise of Group B, Citroën was only able to sell 62 road-going 4TCs; build quality and reliability problems led Citroën to buy back many of these 4TCs for salvage and destruction. With only a fraction of the original 200 examples remaining, the 4TC is now highly sought-after.
An uprated version of the BX GT, the BX19 GTi was fitted with an 1.9 L eight-valve fuel injected engine producing 122 PS (90 kW) (this engine also fitted to the Peugeot 405 SRi, and being very similar to the engine also fitted to the 205 GTi, however the BX19 GTi and Peugeot 405 SRi used a different inlet manifold and cylinder head to the Peugeot 205 GTi,), a spoiler and firmer suspension spheres/anti-roll bar than the standard model; it could reach 198 km/h. There was also a special export model, the BX16 GTi, using the 113 PS (83 kW) XU5JA engine from the Peugeot 205 GTi 1.6. Top speed was 194 km/h.
In May 1987, a 16-valve version of the GTi was launched. This was the first mass-produced French car to be fitted with a 16-valve engine. A DOHC twin-exhaust port cylinder head, based on that of the Peugeot 205 Turbo 16 Group B rally car was bolted to an uprated version of the 1905cc XU9 8v alloy engine block as fitted to the BX GTi and Peugeot 205 GTi. The result was the XU9J4; a naturally aspirated 1.9 L engine, (also fitted to the phase 1 Peugeot 405 Mi16) producing 160 bhp (120 kW) and 177 N·m (131 lb·ft) of torque. More specifically, it produced a specific output of 84 bhp/litre, which for a fixed cam-timing, naturally aspirated engine was fairly impressive at the time. This helped rocket the BX to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 7.4 seconds and then 160 km/h (99 mph) in 19.9 seconds before then finally stopping at a top speed of 220 km/h (140 mph). Anti-lock brakes were fitted as standard. Its side skirts made it easily recognizable from all other BX models. In 1990, the facelift of the 16V gave the car a new lease of life. The updated car came with new fibreglass bumpers, anthracite painted wheels, smoked taillight lenses, and a redesigned rear spoiler. These cosmetic changes made the car look even more distinctive from other BXs. There were also a few subtle changes made to the car's performance, the most noticeable being harder suspension and a thicker anti-roll bar, which improved handling. The BX 16V was found to be faster around a race-track than the "in house" competitor Peugeot 405 Mi16 in a test in the Swedish motoring magazine Teknikens Värld.
|Citroën BX Petrol (gasoline) engines|
|Model||Engine family/type||Engine capacity
|Max. Power||Max. Torque||Fuel feed||Catalytic converter||0–100 km/h||Top speed||Years|
|BX 11||PSA-Renault XW 3 "Douvrain"||1124||43 kW (58 PS) @ 6250 rpm||79 Nm @ 2750 rpm||1 chamber carb||No||17.3 s||150 km/h
|BX 11||PSA TU1/K||1124||40 kW (55 PS) @ 5800 rpm||89 Nm @ 3200 rpm||1 chamber carb||No||16.3 s||154 km/h
|BX 14||PSA-Renault XY7 "Douvrain"||1360||46 kW (62 PS) @ 5500 rpm||108 Nm @ 2500 rpm||1 chamber carb||No||14.1 s||162 km/h
|BX 14||PSA-Renault XY7 "Douvrain"||1360||40 kW (55 PS) @ 5000 rpm||103 Nm @ 2500 rpm||1 chamber carb||Yes||18.5 s||154 km/h
|BX 14||PSA-Renault XY 6B "Douvrain"||1360||53 kW (72 PS) @ 5750 rpm||108 Nm @ 3000 rpm||2 chamber carb||No||13.5 s||163 km/h
|BX 14||PSA-Renault XY 6B(?) "Douvrain"||1360||53 kW (72 PS) @ 5600 rpm||111 Nm @ 3400 rpm||Carburettor||No||14.9 s||167 km/h
|BX 14||PSA TU3||1360||55 kW (75 PS) @ 6200 rpm||109 Nm @ 4000 rpm||Fuel injection||Yes||13.3 s||170 km/h
|BX 15||PSA XU5 1C||1580||59 kW (80 PS) @ 5600 rpm||132 Nm @ 2800 rpm||1 chamber carb||No||12.6 s||170 km/h
|BX 15||PSA XU5 1C(?)||1580||53 kW (72 PS) @ 5600 rpm||111 Nm @ 3400 rpm||Carburettor||Yes||14.1 s||165 km/h
|BX 16||PSA XU5 2C||1580||66 kW (90 PS) @ 6000 rpm||128 Nm @ 3500 rpm||2 chamber carb||No||11.5 s||176 km/h
|BX 16||PSA XU5 2C||1580||68 kW (92 PS) @ 6000 rpm||131 Nm @ 3500 rpm||2 chamber carb||No||11.3 s||176 km/h
|BX 16||PSA XU5 2C||1580||69 kW (94 PS) @ 6000 rpm||137 Nm @ 3250 rpm||2 chamber carb||No||11.3 s||176 km/h
|BX 16||PSA XU5||1580||55 kW (75 PS) @ 5600 rpm||120 Nm @ 3500 rpm||Carburettor||Yes||14.9 s||167 km/h
|BX 16||PSA XU5 M3/Z||1580||65 kW (88 PS) @ 6000 rpm||128 Nm @ 2700 rpm||Fuel injection||Yes||12.6 s||174 km/h
|BX 16||PSA XU5 J (180A)||1580||77 kW (105 PS) @ 6250 rpm||134 Nm @ 4000 rpm||Bosch Jetronic Fuel injection||No||11.0 s||185 km/h
|BX 16||PSA XU5 JA (B6D)||1580||83 kW (113 PS) @ 6250 rpm||131 Nm @ 3000 rpm||Bosch Jetronic Fuel injection||No||10.2 s||194 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 S||1905||77 kW (105 PS) @ 5600 rpm||162 Nm @ 3000 rpm||2 chamber carb||No||10.0 s||185 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 J1/Z||1905||77 kW (105 PS) @ 6000 rpm||141 Nm @ 3000 rpm||Fuel injection||Yes||14.1 s||180 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 2C||1905||79 kW (107 PS) @ 6000 rpm||163 Nm @ 3500 rpm||2 chamber carb||No||10.7 s||187 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9M||1905||80 kW (109 PS) @ 6000 rpm||162 Nm @ 3000 rpm||Fuel injection||Yes||10.9 s||189 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 J2 (D6D)||1905||90 kW (122 PS) @ 5500 rpm||169 Nm @ 2750 rpm||Fuel injection||No||9.1 s||192 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 J2 (D6A)||1905||88 kW (120 PS) @ 6000 rpm||150 Nm @ 3000 rpm||Fuel injection||Yes||10.9 s||189 km/h
|BX Sport||PSA XU9 4C||1905||93 kW (126 PS) @ 5800 rpm||169 Nm @ 4200 rpm||2 x 2 chamber carbs||No||8.9 s||195 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 J2||1905||92 kW (125 PS) @ 5500 rpm||175 Nm @ 4500 rpm||Bosch Jetronic Fuel injection||No||8.5 s||198 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 JAZ||1905||90 kW (122 PS) @ 5500 rpm||169 Nm @ 2750 rpm||Bosch Motronic Fuel injection||No||9.8 s||198 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 JAZ||1905||88 kW (120 PS) @ 6000 rpm||150 Nm @ 3000 rpm||Bosch Motronic Fuel injection||Yes||10.9 s||196 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 J4 / D6C (MI16)||1905||118 kW (160 PS) @ 6500 rpm||181 Nm @ 5000 rpm||Bosch Motronic Fuel injection||No||8.6 s||220 km/h
|BX 19||PSA XU9 J4/Z / DFW (MI16)||1905||108 kW (147 PS) @ 6400 rpm||166 Nm @ 5000 rpm||Bosch Motronic Fuel injection||Yes||9.6 s||215 km/h
|BX 4TC||(Group B rally special)||2141
|147 kW (200 PS) @ 5250 rpm||294 Nm @ 2750 rpm||Bosch K-Jetronic Fuel injection||No||7.5 s||220 km/h
|Citroën BX Diesel engines|
|Model||Engine family/type||Engine capacity
|Max. Power||Max. Torque||Fuel feed||Catalytic converter||0–100 km/h||Top speed||Year|
|BX 17 D||PSA XUD7/K||1769||44 kW (60 PS) @ 4600 rpm||110 Nm @ 2000 rpm||Swirl chamber||No||17.2 s||155 km/h
|BX 17 D Turbo||PSA XUD7 TE||1769||66 kW (90 PS) @ 4300 rpm||180 Nm @ 2000 rpm||Swirl chamber||No||10.8 s||180 km/h
|BX 17 D Turbo||PSA XUD7 TE||1769||66 kW (90 PS) @ 4300 rpm||180 Nm @ 2100 rpm||Swirl chamber||Yes||11.0 s||180 km/h
|BX 19 D||PSA XUD9||1905||48 kW (65 PS) @ 4600 rpm||120 Nm @ 2000 rpm||Swirl chamber||No||15.5 s||157 km/h
|BX 19 D||PSA XUD9 A||1905||52 kW (71 PS) @ 4600 rpm||123 Nm @ 2000 rpm||Swirl chamber||No||16.3 s||165 km/h
- "Dates" (Paris: Automobiles Citroën Corporate Communications Division, 1999), p.76.
- Pirotte, Marcel (1984-07-05). "Gedetailleerde Test: Citroën BX19 TRD" [Detailed Test]. De AutoGids (in Flemish). Brussels, Belgium: Uitgeverij Auto-Magazine. 5 (125): 14.
- "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1982 (salon [Oct] 1981). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 80s: 16. 2006.
- "Citroen Bx ()". Histomobile.com. 1982-10-02. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
- Pirotte, p. 7
- Pirotte, p. 15
- Bernardet, Alain (April 1985). "Place au sport?" [Room for sport?]. Echappement (in French). Paris, France: Michael Hommell (198): 80–81.
- Diesel Car, Future Publishing Limited, August–September 1998, p. 22
- Diesel Car, p. 96
- Rombauts, Walter (1983-11-24). "Citroën BX 19 D: Een tweede Citroën die dieselt" [The second Citroën to diesel]. De AutoGids (in Flemish). Brussels, Belgium: Uitgeverij Auto-Magazine. 4 (109): 119.
- "Dates" (Paris: Automobiles Citroën Corporate Communications Division, 1999), p.78.
- Pierre, Jean-François. "BX 4TC Story". CITF.nl. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. pp. 144–145.
- Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990, p. 143
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citroën BX.|
|« previous — Citroën car timeline, 1980s–present|
|City car||C1 I||C1 II|
|Supermini||LN / LNA||AX|
|Visa||C3 I||C3 II|
|Small family car||C4 Cactus|
|GSA||ZX||Xsara||C4 I||C4 II|
|Large family car||BX||Xantia||C5 I||C5 II|
|Convertible||Visa cabriolet||C3 Pluriel|
|Mini MPV||Nemo Multispace|
|Compact MPV||Xsara Picasso||C3 Picasso|
|C4 Picasso I||C4 Picasso II|
|Crossover SUV||C-Crosser||C4 Aircross|
|Van||H Van||C25||Jumpy I||Jumpy II||Space Tourer|
|C35||Jumper I||Jumper II|