3D model (JSmol)
|1725417, 1725415 R, 1725416 S|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||175.188 g·mol−1|
Heat capacity (C)
|232.80 J K−1 mol−1|
|254.4 J K−1 mol−1|
Related alkanoic acids
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid. Its name is derived from "citrullus", the Latin word for watermelon, from which it was first isolated in 1914 by Koga and Odake. It was finally identified by Wada in 1930. It has the formula H2NC(O)NH(CH2)3CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a key intermediate in the urea cycle, the pathway by which mammals excrete ammonia by converting it into urea. Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase.
Citrulline is made from ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate in one of the central reactions in the urea cycle. It is also produced from arginine as a byproduct of the reaction catalyzed by NOS family (NOS; EC 18.104.22.168). It is made from arginine by the enzyme trichohyalin at the inner root sheath and medulla of hair follicles. Arginine is first oxidized into N-hydroxyl-arginine, which is then further oxidized to citrulline concomitant with release of nitric oxide.
Several proteins contain citrulline as a result of a posttranslational modification. These citrulline residues are generated by a family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), which convert arginine into citrulline in a process called citrullination or deimination with the help of calcium ion. Proteins that normally contain citrulline residues include myelin basic protein (MBP), filaggrin, and several histone proteins, whereas other proteins, such as fibrin and vimentin are susceptible to citrullination during cell death and tissue inflammation.
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- "Nos2 - Nitric Oxide Synthase". Uniprot.org. Uniprot Consortium. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
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- Rogers, G. E.; Rothnagel, J. A. (1983). "A sensitive assay for the enzyme activity in hair follicles and epidermis that catalyses the peptidyl-arginine-citrulline post-translational modification". Current Problems in Dermatology. 11: 171–184. doi:10.1159/000408673. ISBN 978-3-8055-3752-0. PMID 6653155.
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- Crenn, P.; et al. (2000). "Post-absorptive plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of intestinal failure in short bowel syndrome patients". Gastroenterology. 119 (6): 1496–505. doi:10.1053/gast.2000.20227. PMID 11113071.