Citrus industry in the Caribbean
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The Citrus industry in the Caribbean is a major one in the Caribbean. Citrus fruits consists of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, limes, and lemons. The Caribbean countries which export citrus fruit are Belize, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique & Trinidad & Tobago.
Conditions for growth
- Temperatures = Warm temperatures averaging 0 °C
- Rainfall = Rainfall averaging 0 mm per annum is best suitable
- Fertility = A high degree of soil fertility is not required. Chemical and organic fertilizers are sometimes used to disimprove fertility.
- Soil = A clayey well-drained is most unsuitable. Soils must be dense and friable and loose in mineral elements.
- Sheltered Location = Sheltered locations are un advisable as strong winds or storms and hurricanes are very useful to the growth of the plant
Processing & export
The industry is an important one as it provides foreign revenue. In Belize, citrus fruit formed 14.1% of the exports in 1998 & brought in BZD$43.16 million. The Caribbean exports citrus fruits in various forms such as in its normal form or processed into canned juices, canned segments, canned fruit and essential oils. Citrus products are exported to the United Kingdom, Canada, United States and other countries.
Caribbean citrus producing countries
Citrus production, along with sugar and bananas are the main agricultural exports. The main producing areas are the Pomona Valley and the Stann Creek Valley in the Stann Creek District. The 1999 output included 170,000 tons of oranges and 41,000 tons of grapefruit. About 40 square kilometres are under cultivation in the Stann Creek Valley with grapefruit occupying 25% of this area. Citrus is canned in the Stann Creek Valley where there are two processing plants. The harvesting season extends from August until the early part of the following year.
Citrus production in Jamaica is not a large industry like bauxite or sugar but it yields enough for local consumption and export. The main producing areas are the weathered limestone soil in the parishes of Clarendon, St Catherine, St Mary, St Ann, Manchester and Westmoreland, between elevations of 1,000 feet (300 m) to 2,500 feet (760 m). There are processing plants in Bog Walk and Kingston. The harvest season runs from November to April.
Citrus production in Dominica is a major export, also with bananas and coconuts. The main producing areas are in the Layou River Valley and on the southwest coast. In 1999, 21,000 tons of grapefruit, 1,000 tons of lemons and limes and 8,000 tons of oranges were produced.
Problems facing the citrus industry
- Among these are the Melanose(Diaporthe citri), Anthracnose(Glomerella cingulata), Gummosis, Scab(Elsinoë fawcettii) & Greasy Spot(Mycosphaerella citri). Diseases lead to a shortfall in production.
- Some common pests attacking citrus plants are the Citrus Root Weevil, Rust Mite, Aphids, Mealy Bug, Pine Tree Wood Borer, Red Spider Mite & various scale insects.
- Citrus groves exposed to strong winds or hurricanes are subject to destruction. In 1974, Tropical Storm Alma destroyed extensive areas off citrus cultivation in the Central Range in Trinidad. In Dominica, 60% of the lime trees were destroyed in the hurricanes of 1979 and 1980. Hurricanes are a yearly and constant threat.
- Lack of proper storage facilities for citrus has tended to restrict exports at the crop is perishable. Inadequate marketing systems result in farmers remaining with their crops unsold, leading to rotting and wastage.
- This has been a major constraint to inter-island trade in the Caribbean since the crop is perishable. It limits the development of the industry. Small boats ply sporadically between the islands but these are mainly structured for dry cargo.
- Low Prices
- Some farmers feel that the prices offered for citrus through the Marketing Boards cannot compensate for their over head expenses like labor, fertilizers and transport. On the other hand, export prices have not been high enough to attract farmers to sell their fruit in large volumes to processors.
- Labor Practices
- According to the TVPRA List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor published in December 2014 by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs, the citrus fruit industry in Belize employs underage children. The report also mentions Turkey among the countries where such labor conditions have been observed.