City, University of London
Coat of arms of City, University of London
|Motto||To Serve Mankind|
|Type||Public Research University|
|Established||1852 – Inns of Court School of Law|
1894 – Northampton Institute
1966 – gained university status by royal charter
2016 – constituent college of University of London
|Endowment||£5.2 million (as of 31 July 2017)|
|Budget||£227.0 million (2016–17)|
|Chancellor||Anne, Princess Royal (as Chancellor of the University of London)|
|President||Sir Paul Curran|
|Rector||Lord Mayor of the City of London ex officio|
|Colours||Red and white |
|Affiliations||University of London|
Association of MBAs
City, University of London (abbreviated CUL) is a public research university in London, United Kingdom and a member institution of the federal University of London. It was founded in 1894 as the Northampton Institute, and became a university when The City University was created by royal charter in 1966. The Inns of Court School of Law, which merged with City in 2001, was established in 1852, making it the University's oldest constituent part. City joined the federal University of London on 1 September 2016, becoming part of the eighteen colleges and ten research institutes that then made up that university.
City has strong links with the City of London, and the Lord Mayor of London serves as the university's rector. The university has its main campus in Central London in the London Borough of Islington, with additional campuses in Islington, the City, the West End and East End. The annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £227.0 million, of which £11.6 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £221.4 million. It is organised into five schools, within which there are around forty academic departments and centres, including the Department of Journalism, the City, University of London Business School, and City Law School which incorporates the Inns of Court School of Law.
City is a founding member of the WC2 University Network which developed for collaboration between leading universities of the heart of major world cities particularly to address cultural, environmental and political issues of common interest to world cities and their universities. The university is a member of the Association of MBAs, EQUIS and Universities UK. Alumni of City include a Founding Father,[which?] members of Parliament of the United Kingdom, Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, governors, politicians and CEO's.
City traces its origin to the Northampton Institute, established in 1852, which was named after the Marquess of Northampton who donated the land on which the institute was built, between Northampton Square and St John Street in Islington. The institute was established to provide for the education and welfare of the local population. It was constituted under the City of London Parochial Charities Act (1883), with the objective of "the promotion of the industrial skill, general knowledge, health and well-being of young men and women belonging to the poorer classes".
Alumni include Colin Cherry, Stuart Davies and Anthony Hunt. Arthur George Cocksedge, a British gymnast who competed in the 1920 Summer Olympics, was a member of the Northampton Polytechnic Institute's Gymnastics Club and was Champion of the United Kingdom in 1920. In 1937 Maurice Dennis of the (Northampton Polytechnic ABC) was the 1937 ABA Middleweight Champion. Frederick Handley Page was a lecturer in aeronautics at the institute. The Handley Page Type A, the first powered aircraft designed and built by him, ended up as an instructional airframe at the school. The novelist Eric Ambler studied engineering at the institute.
The six original departments at the institute were Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering; Artistic Crafts; Domestic Economy and Women's Trades; Electro-Chemistry; Horology (the science of time and art of clock-making); and Mechanical Engineering and Metal Trades.
A separate technical optics department was established in 1903–04. In 1909, the first students qualified for University of London BSc degrees in engineering as internal students. The Institute had been involved in aeronautics education since that year, and the School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences celebrated the centenary of aeronautics at City in 2009. The Institute was used for the 1908 Olympic Games; boxing took place there.
The Institute's involvement in information science began in 1961, with the introduction of a course on "Collecting and Communicating Scientific Knowledge". City received its royal charter in 1966, becoming "The City University" to reflect the institution's close links with the City of London. The Apollo 15 astronauts visited City in 1971, and presented the Vice-Chancellor, Tait, with a piece of heat shield from the Apollo 15 rocket.
In October 1995, it was announced that City University would merge with both the St Bartholomew School of Nursing & Midwifery and the Charterhouse College of Radiography, doubling the number of students in City's Institute of Health Sciences to around 2,500.
The University formed a strategic alliance with Queen Mary, University of London in April 2001. In May 2001, a fire in the college building gutted the fourth-floor offices and roof. In August 2001 City and the Inns of Court School of Law agreed to merge. Following a donation from Sir John Cass's Foundation, a multimillion-pound building was built at 106 Bunhill Row for the Business School.
A new £23 million building to house the School of Social Sciences and the Department of Language and Communication Science was opened in 2004. The reconstruction and redevelopment of the university's Grade II listed college building (following the fire in 2001) was completed in July 2006.
In 2007 the School of Arts received a £10m building refurbishment. A new students' union venue opened in October 2008 called "TEN squared", which provides a hub for students to socialise in during the day and hosts a wide range of evening entertainment including club nights, society events and quiz nights.
In January 2010, premises were shared with the University of East Anglia (UEA) London, following City's partnership with INTO University Partnerships. Since then City has resumed its own International Foundation Programme to prepare students for their pre-university year. City was ranked among the top 30 higher education institutions in the UK by the Times Higher Education Table of Tables.
In April 2011, it was announced that the current halls of residence and Saddler's Sports Centre will be closed and demolished for rebuilding in June 2011. The new student halls and sports facility, now known as CitySport, opened in 2015.
City has sites throughout London, with the main campus located at Northampton Square in the Finsbury area of Islington. The Rhind Building which houses the School of Arts and Social Sciences is directly west of Northampton Square. A few buildings of the main campus are located in nearby Goswell Road in Clerkenwell.
Other academic sites are:
- The City Law School (incorporating the former Inns of Court School of Law) in Holborn, Camden
- City, University of London Business School in St Luke's, Islington, and at 200 Aldersgate in Smithfield, City of London
- INTO City in Spitalfields, Tower Hamlets
Organisation and administration
The rector of City, University of London, is ex officio the Lord Mayor of the City of London. The day-to-day running of the university is the responsibility of the president. The current president is Professor Sir Paul Curran.
City, University of London is organised into five schools:
- The City Law School, incorporating The Centre for Legal Studies and the Inns of Court School of Law
- School of Health Sciences, incorporating St Bartholomew School of Nursing & Midwifery
- School of Arts and Social Science, including the Department of Journalism
- School of Mathematics, Computer Science and Engineering
- City, University of London Business School
In the financial year ended 31 July 2011, City had a total income (including share of joint ventures) of £178.6 million (2008/09 – £174.4 million) and total expenditure of £183.62 million (2008/09 – £178.82 million). Key sources of income included £39.58 million from Funding Council grants (2008/09 – £39.52 million), £116.91 million from tuition fees and education contracts (2008/09 – £104.39 million), £7.86 million from research grants and contracts (2008/09 – £9.29 million), £1.04 from endowment and investment income (2008/09 – £1.83 million) and £15.05 million from other income (2008/09 – £19.37 million).
During the 2010/11 financial year, City had a capital expenditure of £9.77 million (2008/09 – £16.13 million).
At year end, City had reserves and endowments of £112.89 million (2009/10 – £110.05 million) and total net assets of £147.64 million (2008/09 – £147.27 million).
Courses and rankings
|Times / Sunday Times (2021)||82|
|British Government assessment|
|Teaching Excellence Framework||Silver|
City, University of London, offers Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctoral degrees as well as certificates and diplomas at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. More than two-thirds of City's programmes are recognised by the appropriate professional bodies such as the BCS, BPS, CILIP, ICE, RICS, HPC etc. in recognition of the high standards of relevance to the professions. The University also has an online careers network where over 2,000 former students offer practical help to current students.
The City Law School offers courses for undergraduates, postgraduates, master graduates and professional courses leading to qualification as a solicitor or barrister, as well as continuing professional development. Its Legal Practice Course has the highest quality rating from the Solicitors Regulation Authority.
The Department of Radiography (part of the School of Community and Health Sciences) offers two radiography degrees, the BSc (Hons) Radiography (Diagnostic Imaging) and BSc (Hons) Radiography (Radiotherapy and Oncology), both of which are recognised by the Health Professions Council (HPC).
Partnerships and collaborations
Queen Mary, University of London, and City, University of London, were jointly awarded Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) status by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in recognition of their work in skills training for 3,000 students across six healthcare professions.
City of London
City, University of London, has links with businesses in the City of London. City has also joined forces with other universities such as Queen Mary and the Institute of Education (both part of the University of London) with which it jointly delivers several leading degree programmes.
London Centre for Arts and Cultural Exchange is a consortium of nine universities. It was established in 2004 to foster collaboration and to promote and support the exchange of knowledge between the consortium's partners and London's arts and cultural sectors. The nine institutions involved are: University of the Arts London; Birkbeck, University of London; City, University of London; The Courtauld Institute of Art; Goldsmiths, University of London; Guildhall School of Music & Drama; King's College London; Queen Mary, University of London, and Royal Holloway, University of London.
WC2 University Network
City is a founding member of the WC2 University Network, a network of universities developed with the goal of bringing together leading universities located in the heart of major world cities in order to address cultural, environmental and political issues of common interest to world cities and their universities. In addition to City, University of London, the founding members of WC2 members are: City University of New York, Technische Universität Berlin, Universidade de São Paulo, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Politecnico di Milano, University of Delhi, Northeastern University Boston and Tongji University.
Erasmus Mundus MULTI
City was selected as the sole British university to take part in the selective Erasmus Mundus MULTI programme, funded by the European Commission to promote scientific exchange between Europe and the industrialised countries of South-East Asia. It is the first Erasmus program to involve universities outside of Europe. In addition to City, the partner universities are: Aix-Marseille University (France), Univerzita Karlova v Praze (Czech Republic), Freie Universität Berlin (Germany), Universität des Saarlandes (Germany), Università di Pisa (Italy), Universidad de Sevilla (Spain), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong, SAR China), Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Brunei), University of Macau (Macau, SAR China), Nanyang Technological University (Singapore), and National Taiwan University (Taiwan).
City has joined the executive group of UCL Partners, one of five accredited academic health science groups in the UK. City was invited to join the partnership in recognition of its expertise in nursing, allied health, health services research and evaluation and health management.
The City Students' Union is run primarily by students through three elected sabbatical officers, an executive committee and a union council, with oversight by a trustee board. The Students' Union provides support, representation, facilities, services, entertainment and activities for its members. It is run for students, by students.
City currently has two student-run media outlets, including Carrot Radio, which was co-founded by journalism postgraduates Jordan Gass-Poore' and Winston Lo in the autumn of 2018. Carrot Radio currently records weekday podcasts. The second is the student-led online magazine, Carrot Magazine. They recently released their first print magazine in December 2017.
For a number of years, City students have taken part in the annual Lord Mayor's Show, representing the university in one of the country's largest and liveliest parades.
City ranked joint 5th out of the 168 universities surveyed in the 2019 People & Planet league table of the most sustainable UK universities having climbed from 7th place in the 2016 league. In both the 2016 and 2019 rankings, it was the highest ranking University of London institution, and one of only four London institutions in the top twenty.
The league table's Fossil Free Scorecard report, drawn from Freedom of Information requests, found that £800,000 (6.4%) of City's £12.5m endowment was invested in fossil fuels, and that the institution had not made a public commitment to fossil fuel divestment. It also noted nearly £1m of research funding into renewables since 2001 with just £64k of total funding from fossil fuel companies; and no honorary degrees or board positions held by fossil fuel executives.
Government, politics and society
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah – founder of Pakistan, first Governor-General of Pakistan graduated from the Inns of Court school of Law (now part of The City Law School)
- Margaret Thatcher – Conservative Party Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990, graduated from the Inns of Court School of Law (now part of The City Law School)
- Clement Attlee – Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951
- H. H. Asquith – Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916
- Tony Blair – Labour Party Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007, graduated from the Inns of Court School of Law (now part of The City Law School)
- Christos Staikouras – Finance Minister of Greece from 2019 to present
- Roderic Bowen – Welsh Liberal Party politician
- Robert Chote – chief of the Office for Budget Responsibility; former director of Institute for Fiscal Studies
- Ali Dizaei – former police commander
- Jody Dunn – Liberal Democrat politician, and a barrister specialising in family law
- Sir James Dutton – Royal Marine general and former deputy commander of the International Security Assistance Force
- Chloë Fox – Australian politician, former Labor MP for the South Australian electoral district of Bright
- Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada – Noted Pakistani lawyer & Politician. Also served as 5th secretary general of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
- Mahatma Gandhi – Leader of the Indian Independence Movement, graduated 1891 from the Inns of Court School of Law (now part of The City Law School)
- James Hart – Commissioner of the City of London Police
- David Heath – Politician and Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Somerton and Frome
- Syed Kamall – Conservative Party politician and Member of the European Parliament for the London European Parliament constituency
- David Lammy – Labour MP for Tottenham
- Liu Mingkang – Chinese Politician and Businessman, current Chairman of the China Banking Regulatory Commission, former Vice-Governor of the China Development Bank
- Jawaharlal Nehru – First Prime Minister of the Republic of India
- Houda Nonoo – Bahraini Ambassador to the United States
- Patrick O'Flynn – UK Independence Party MEP
- Stav Shaffir – Youngest member of the Israeli Knesset, leader of the social justice movement
- Aris Spiliotopoulos – Minister of Greek Tourism
- Ivy Williams – First woman to be called to the English bar
Arts, science and academia
- L. Bruce Archer – British mechanical engineer and Professor of Design Research at the Royal College of Art
- John Brignell – former professor of Industrial Instrumentation, science author
- George Daniels – Horologist, regarded as the greatest watchmaker of modern times and inventor of the coaxial escapement
- Jerry Fishenden – technologist, former Microsoft National Technology Officer for the UK
- Julia Gomelskaya – Ukrainian contemporary music composer, professor of Odessa State Music Academy in Ukraine
- Norman Gowar – Professor of Mathematics at the Open University and Principal of Royal Holloway College, University of London
- Clare Hammond – Concert pianist
- David Hirsh – Academic and sociologist
- Muhammad Iqbal – Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, born in present-day Pakistan, graduated from the Inns of Court School of Law and University of Cambridge
- John Loder – sound engineer, record producer and founder of Southern Studios, as well as a former member of EXIT
- Sharon Maguire – director of Bridget Jones's Diary
- Rhodri Marsden – Journalist, musician and blogger; columnist for The Independent
- Robin Milner – computer scientist and recipient of the 1991 ACM Turing Award
- John Palmer – instrumental and electroacoustic music composer
- Sebastian Payne – journalist
- Ziauddin Sardar – Academic and scholar of Islamic issues, Commissioner of the Equality and Human Rights Commission
- Theresa Wallach – pioneer female engineer, motorcycle adventurer, author, educator and entrepreneur, holder of Brooklands Gold Star.
Business and finance
- Winston Set Aung – Politician, Economist and Management Consultant, incumbent Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Myanmar
- Brendan Barber – General Secretary of the Trades Union Congress
- Jonathan Breeze – Founder and CEO of Jet Republic, private jet airline company in Europe
- Michael Boulos – associate director of Callian Capital Group, and partner of Tiffany Trump
- William Castell – former Chairman of the Wellcome Trust and a Director of General Electric and BP, former CEO of Amersham plc
- Peter Cullum – British entrepreneur
- James J. Greco – former CEO and President of Sbarro
- Sir Stelios Haji-Ioannou – Founder of easyGroup
- Bob Kelly – former CEO of Bank of New York Mellon and CFO of Mellon Financial Corporation and Wachovia Corporation
- Muhtar Kent – current Chairman and former CEO The Coca-Cola Company
- William Lewis – CEO Dow Jones Publisher, The Wall Street Journal
- Ian Livingstone – Chairman and co-owner, London & Regional Properties
- Liu Mingkang – former Chairman of the China Banking Regulatory Commission
- Dick Olver – former Chairman of BAE Systems, member of the Board of Directors at Reuters
- Syed Ali Raza – former President and Chairman of the National Bank of Pakistan
- Martin Wheatley – former CEO of the Financial Conduct Authority
- Brian Wynter – Governor of the Bank of Jamaica
- Durmuş Yılmaz – Governor of the Central Bank of Turkey
Media and entertainment
- Samira Ahmed – Channel 4 News presenter, BBC News presenter, writer and journalist
- Joanna Blythman – Non-fiction writer, Britain's leading investigative food journalist
- Emily Buchanan – BBC World Affairs correspondent
- Ellie Crisell – BBC Presenter
- Imogen Edwards-Jones – Novelist
- Gamal Fahnbulleh – Sky News Presenter and journalist
- Michael Fish – BBC weatherman
- Adam Fleming – CBBC Reporter
- Lourdes Garcia-Navarro – Journalist, Jerusalem foreign correspondent for National Public Radio (NPR)
- Alex Graham – Chairman of PACT and the Scott Trust
- Michael Grothaus – Novelist and journalist; author of Epiphany Jones
- Rachel Horne – BBC and Virgin Radio presenter and journalist
- Faisal Islam – Sky News Political Editor
- Gillian Joseph – Sky News Presenter
- Kirsty Lang – BBC Presenter and journalist
- Ellie Levenson – Freelance Journalist and Author
- William Lewis – Journalist and editor of the Daily Telegraph
- Donal MacIntyre – Investigative journalist
- Sharon Maguire – Writer and Director, directed Bridget Jones's Diary
- Rhodri Marsden – Journalist, musician and blogger; columnist for The Independent
- Sharon Mascall – Journalist, broadcaster and writer; lecturer at the University of South Australia
- Lucrezia Millarini – Freelance Journalist and ITV News Reader
- Dermot Murnaghan – Presenter on Sky News
- Tiff Needell – Grand Prix driver, Presenter of Fifth Gear on Five
- Maryam Nemazee – Presenter for Al Jazeera London
- Linda Papadopoulos – Psychologist, appearing occasionally on TV
- Catherine Pepinster – journalist, religion writer
- Raj Persaud – British consultant psychiatrist, broadcaster, and author on psychiatry
- Richard Preston – Novelist
- Gavin Ramjaun – Television presenter and journalist
- Sophie Raworth – Newsreader, presenter on BBC One O'Clock News
- Apsara Reddy – journalist
- Joel Rubin – World-renowned klezmer clarinetist
- Ian Saville – British magician
- Barbara Serra – Presenter for Al Jazeera London
- Sarah Walker – BBC Radio 3 presenter
- Mark Worthington – BBC Correspondent
- Sally Bundock – BBC Presenter
Notable faculty and staff
- Rosemary Crompton – Professor of Sociology
- Roy Greenslade – Journalist
- Steven Haberman – Professor of Actuarial Science at City, University of London
- Rosemary Hollis – Professor of International Politics at City, University of London
- Jamal Nazrul Islam – Physicist, Mathematician, Cosmologist, Astronomer
- Ernest Krausz (1931-2018) - Israeli professor of sociology and President at Bar Ilan University
- David Leigh – Journalist
- David Marks – Psychologist
- Penny Marshall – Journalist
- Stewart Purvis – Broadcaster
- Denis Smalley – Composer
- Bill Thompson – Journalist
- David Willets – Conservative Member of Parliament for Havant; Shadow Secretary of State for Education and Skills
- 1966–1974: Sir James Sharp Tait
- 1974–1978: Sir Edward W. Parkes
- 1978–1998: Raoul Franklin
- 1998–2007: David William Rhind
- 2007–2009: Malcolm Gillies
- 2009–2010: Julius Weinberg (acting)
- 2010–present: Sir Paul Curran
In popular culture
- "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2017" (PDF). City, University of London. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Where do HE students study?". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- "Royal Charter" (PDF). Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- "A History of City University London". City University London. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Grove, Jack (16 July 2015). "City University London to join University of London". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "City, University of London". www.FindAMasters.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "The City of London and City, University of London". City, University of London. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Academic Schools and departments". City, University of London. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- "Schools and Academic Departments". City University London. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "WC2 University Network". City University London. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "Our history – City University London". City University, London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- "University of London Students 1836–1933". Senate House Library. 30 June 1930. Archived from the original on 14 September 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "100 years of education in aeronautics" (PDF). Royal Aeronautical Society. Retrieved 15 June 2009.[permanent dead link]
- 1908 Summer Olympics official report. p 33.
- "Progressing through change: The Recent History of City University London, 1978–2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- "Video of Apollo 15 astronauts visiting City". City University London. Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Institute nurses health". Times Higher Education. 6 October 1995. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Queen Mary, City kick off alliance". Times Higher Education. 12 April 2001. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Plomin, Joe (22 May 2001). "Fire destroys part of City University building". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "Law school to merge with City". Times Higher Education. 24 August 2001. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "City Business School seeks global profile". Times Higher Education. 11 May 2001. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "Key milestones in our history". City.ac.uk.
- "University location maps". City University London. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2011" (PDF). City University London. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "University League Table 2021". The Complete University Guide. 1 June 2020.
- "University league tables 2021". The Guardian. 5 September 2020.
- "The Times and Sunday Times University Good University Guide 2021". Times Newspapers.
- "QS World University Rankings 2021". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd.
- "World University Rankings 2021". Times Higher Education.
- "Teaching Excellence Framework outcomes". Higher Education Funding Council for England.
- "City's Online Careers Network". City University London. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Solicitors Regulation Authority Executive Summary" (PDF). Solicitors Regulation Authority. 20 March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "CETL – Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning". Queen Mary University of London. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- "Links with businesses". QAA. 24 May 2005. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- https://web.archive.org/web/20110321083722/http://www.city.ac.uk/studentcentre/studentsunion/about_the_su.html. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Missing or empty
- "Carrot Radio to go "On Air" soon". City Students' Union.
- Lightfoot, Liz (16 July 2019). "University green rankings at risk despite climate emergency". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
- "City, University of London People & Planet University League 2016 Scorecard". People & Planet. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- "Microsoft UK's national technology officer moves on". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Leading alumni in online and digital". City, University of London. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Biographical details: Brendan Barber". Trades Union Congress. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "City University- Institution Profiles". PTC. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Minutaglio, Rose (18 March 2019). "Private Dining, Family Holiday Parties, and Clubbing: Inside Tiffany Trump's New Relationship". Town & Country. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
- "Dow Jones". DowJones.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Ian Livingstone". Questex Hospitality+Travel Group. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Professor Liu". Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "MasterChef Studio".
- "MasterChef Studio". 29 April 2016.
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