City of Durham (UK Parliament constituency)
|City of Durham|
for the House of Commons
Boundary of City of Durham in County Durham.
Location of County Durham within England.
|Population||94,375 (2011 census)|
|Electorate||72,659 (December 2010)|
|Major settlements||Durham, Brandon, Coxhoe, Bowburn, Framwellgate Moor, Sherburn and Ushaw Moor|
|Member of parliament||Roberta Blackman-Woods (Labour)|
|Number of members||One|
|Number of members||1678–1885: Two
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
|European Parliament constituency||North East England|
- 1 Constituency profile
- 2 History
- 3 Historic and current boundaries
- 4 Members of Parliament
- 5 Elections
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 External links
The constituency contains a large minority of students, researchers and academics at the early 19th century founded University of Durham,[n 3] that has a claim towards being the third oldest in England and has elected Labour MPs since 1935, although there have been strong Liberal-SDP Alliance and Liberal Democrat challenges to Labour since the 1980s.
The parliamentary borough (1678–1918)
The City of Durham was first given the right to return Members to Parliament by an Act of Parliament in 1678, the last new borough but one to be enfranchised before the Great Reform Act of 1832. It was the only borough in County Durham, the county also having been unrepresented until the same Act of Parliament, which created two MPs for the county and two for the city. Both constituencies were frequently referred to simply as Durham, which can make for some confusion.
The constituency as constituted in 1678 consisted only of the city of Durham itself, though this included its suburbs which were within the municipal boundary. The right to vote was held by the corporation and the freemen of the city, many of whom were not resident within the boundaries. Unlike the situation in many small rotten boroughs, the corporation had no jurisdiction over the creation of freemen: freemen were generally created by connection with companies of trade, either by apprenticeship or by birth (by being the son of an existing freeman), though the common council of the city had a power to create honorary freemen.
The creation of honorary freemen with the specific intention of swaying elections was a common abuse in a number of boroughs in the 18th century, and at the Durham election of 1762 became sufficiently controversial to force a change in the law. The election was disputed because 215 new freemen, most of them not resident in the city, had been made after the writ for the election was issued. The existing freemen petitioned against this dilution of their voting rights, the candidate who had been declared elected was unseated by the Commons committee which heard the case, and the following year an Act of Parliament was passed to prevent any honorary freeman from voting in a borough election within twelve months of their being accorded that status.
Through having a freeman franchise the electorate was comparatively numerous for the period, though comprising only a small fraction of the city's population; at the time of the Reform Act there were between 1,100 and 1,200 freemen in total, of whom 427 were resident and 558 lived within seven miles, while the total population of the borough was 9,269. The Lambton and Tempest families were influential, and were generally able to secure election, but fell far short of the sort of control common in pocket boroughs.
The city retained both its MPs under the 1832 Reform Act, with its boundaries adjusted only very slightly, although as elsewhere the franchise was reformed. The Reform Act 1867 extended the boundaries to include part of Framwellgate parish which had previously been excluded. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the borough's representation was reduced from the 1885 general election to a single MP. In the boundary changes of 1918, the borough was abolished, but a division of County Durham was named after the City.
County constituency (since 1918)
From 1918, Durham City was included in a county constituency officially called The Durham Division of (County) Durham, consisting of the central part of the county. In the 1983 boundary changes, the constituency officially acquired the unambiguous City of Durham name for the first time and its boundaries were realigned to match the new City of Durham local government district.
Historic and current boundaries
1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of Durham, the Urban District of Hetton, the Rural District of Durham except the civil parish of Brancepeth, and in the Rural District of Houghton-le-Spring the civil parishes of East Rainton, Great Eppleton, Little Eppleton, Moor House, Moorsley, and West Rainton.
1950-1974: The Municipal Borough of Durham, the Urban Districts of Hetton and Spennymoor, and the Rural District of Durham.
1974-1983: The Municipal Borough of Durham and Framwelgate, the Rural District of Sedgefield, and the Rural District of Durham except the civil parish of Brancepeth.
1983-present: The City of Durham.
The constituency corresponds to the former City of Durham local government district and as such includes a number of surrounding villages and suburbs as well as Durham itself, the largest of these are Brandon, Coxhoe, Bowburn, Framwellgate Moor, Sherburn and Ushaw Moor. The seat extends as far west as Waterhouses and as far east as Ludworth. The seat has traditionally been dominated by Labour, with support particularly strong in those villages historically connected to County Durham's mining industry. Durham is famous as an educational centre, for Durham University and the feepaying preparatory school, Chorister School where Tony Blair was educated. The city centre is more inclined to the Liberal Democrats. Like many other university cities such as Cambridge and Oxford, in the 2005 election it swung strongly towards the Liberal Democrats, one possible reason being these cities' sizeable student population who were viewed as being hostile to Labour's policies on areas such as top-up fees and the Iraq War. The Liberal Democrats were able to reduce Labour's majority by over 10,000 votes, although they were still unable to gain the seat from Labour, as was the case in the 2010 election.
Following a review of parliamentary representation in County Durham, the Boundary Commission for England has made no changes to the City of Durham constituency, which will remain co-terminous with the boundaries of the former district. The City of Durham local council was abolished in the 2009 structural changes to local government in England.
Members of Parliament
Durham City (borough)
- Constituency created (1678)
|1898 by-election||Arthur Elliot||Liberal Unionist|
|1906||John Waller Hills||Liberal Unionist|
|1918||Parliamentary borough abolished|
Durham, Durham/City of Durham (county constituency)
MPs since 1918
|1918||John Waller Hills||Conservative|
Elections in the 2010s
|Liberal Democrat||Craig Martin||5,183||11.3||−26.3|
|Liberal Democrat||Carol Woods||17,429||37.7||−2.1|
Elections in the 2000s
|Liberal Democrat||Carol Woods||17,654||39.8||+16.1|
|Liberal Democrat||Carol Woods||9,813||23.7||+8.4|
Elections in the 1990s
|Conservative||Richard E.O. Chalk||8,598||17.50|
|Liberal Democrat||Nigel Martin||7,499||15.26|
|Referendum||Margaret G. Robson||1,723||3.51|
|Natural Law||Paul A. Kember||213||0.43|
|Conservative||Martin I. Woodroofe||12,037||23.7||+1.7|
|Liberal Democrat||Nigel Martin||10,915||21.5||−11.7|
|Green||Ms. Jane Banks||812||1.6||+1.6|
Elections in the 1980s
|Social Democratic||David Stoker||17,257||33.16|
|Conservative||Gordon Matthew Colquhoun||11,408||21.92|
|Labour||William Mark Hughes||18,163||36.48|
|Social Democratic||David Stoker||16,190||32.52|
Elections in the 1970s
|Labour||William Mark Hughes||30,903||52.25|
|Liberal||Christopher Foote Wood||8,572||14.49|
|Labour||William Mark Hughes||31,305||58.51|
|Conservative||Derek Leslie Conway||13,189||24.65|
|Labour||William Mark Hughes||31,405||52.48|
|Conservative||Timothy John Robert Kirkhope||16,202||27.07|
|Labour||William Mark Hughes||33,766||66.90|
Elections in the 1960s
|Labour||Charles Frederick Grey||32,200||70.64|
|Conservative||Richard Michael Yorke||13,383||29.36|
|Labour||Charles Frederick Grey||32,818||68.33|
|Conservative||Joseph Meredith Whittaker||15,209||31.67|
Elections in the 1950s
|Labour||Charles Frederick Grey||33,795||66.39|
|Conservative||Charles P. MacCarthy||17,106||33.61|
|Labour||Charles Frederick Grey||32,412||66.08|
|Conservative||Charles P. MacCarthy||16,640||33.92|
|Labour||Charles Frederick Grey||35,597||67.11|
|Labour||Charles Frederick Grey||36,024||68.06|
|Conservative||Henry Camden Ridge Laslett||16,903||31.94|
Election in the 1940s
|Labour||Charles Frederick Grey||24,135||66.18|
|Liberal National||John Bunyan||12,331||33.82|
Elections in the 1930s
|Liberal National||William McKeag||14,910||40.93|
|Labour gain from Liberal||Swing|
|Liberal gain from Labour||Swing|
Elections in the 1920s
|Unionist||George Mervyn Anstey Hamilton-Fletcher||6,820||20.9|
|Labour||Joshua Riley Ritson||13,819||56.8||+1.6|
|Unionist||Thomas Andrew Bradford||10,530||43.2||-1.6|
Notes and references
- A county constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
- As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
- In the 2001 Census 14.5% of those aged 16-74 were further education students and 2.4% were students aged 16 or 17 such as at a sixth form or college.
- "City of Durham: Usual Resident Population, 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "D" (part 4)[self-published source][better source needed]
- On petition, Gowland's election was declared void and his opponent, Lambton, was seated in his place
- Wharton was unseated on petition for illegal practices during the election
- On petition, Gresley's election was declared void and a by-election was held
- Dungannon's election at the by-election of April 1843 was declared void on petition and a new election held
- Sir William Atherton from 1861
- Vane's election at the by-election of December 1852 was declared void on petition and a new election held
- Henderson and Wharton were re-elected at the general election of 1874, but the election was declared void on petition, and neither stood in the ensuing by-election
- "Durham (city) 1678-". Hansard 1803-2005. UK Parliament. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Craig Martin".
- "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "BBC NEWS – Election 2010 – Durham, City of". BBC News.
- "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- F W S Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885" (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
- J Holladay Philbin, "Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales" (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
- Michael Kinnear, "The British Voter" (London: Batsford, 1968)
- E Porritt and AG Porritt, "The Unreformed House of Commons, Vol I: England and Wales" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1903)
- Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
- Robert Waller, "The Almanac of British Politics" (3rd edition, London: Croom Helm, 1987)
- Frederic A Youngs, jr, "Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol II" (London: Royal Historical Society, 1991)
- The Constitutional Yearbook, 1913" (London: National Unionist Association, 1913)
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "D" (part 4)[self-published source][better source needed]
- nomis Constituency Profile for City of Durham — presenting data from the ONS annual population survey and other official statistics.