City of Literature
UNESCO's City of Literature program is part of its Creative Cities Network which was launched in 2004. The Network was born out of UNESCO's Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity initiative which was created in 2002. Its aim is to "promote the social, economic and cultural development of cities in both the developed and the developing world." The cities in network promote their local creative scene and conform to UNESCO’s goal of fostering cultural diversity.
An important aspect of the "Creative Cities" concept is that the cities foster public/private partnerships particularly by encouraging the entrepreneurial and creative potential of small enterprises. Literature is just one of several categories of Creative Cities. Others include music, film, media, gastronomy, crafts and folk art, and design.
Criteria for Cities of Literature
To be approved as a City of Literature, cities need to meet a number of criteria. In essence, these are:
- Quality, quantity and diversity of publishing in the city
- Quality and quantity of educational programmes focusing on domestic or foreign literature at primary, secondary and tertiary levels
- Literature, drama and/or poetry playing an important role in the city
- Hosting literary events and festivals which promote domestic and foreign literature;
- Existence of libraries, bookstores and public or private cultural centres which preserve, promote and disseminate domestic and foreign literature
- Involvement by the publishing sector in translating literary works from diverse national languages and foreign literature
- Active involvement of traditional and new media in promoting literature and strengthening the market for literary products.
Cities of Literature
- Edinburgh, Scotland (2004)
- Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (2008)
- Iowa City, Iowa, United States (2008)
- Dublin, Ireland (2010)
- Reykjavík, Iceland (2011)
- Norwich, England (2012)
- Kraków, Poland (2013)
- Heidelberg, Germany (2014)
- Dunedin, New Zealand (2014) 
- Granada, Spain (2014)
- Prague, Czech Republic (2014)
- Baghdad, Iraq (2015)
- Barcelona, Catalonia (2015)
- Ljubljana, Slovenia (2015)
- Lviv, Ukraine (2015)
- Montevideo, Uruguay (2015)
- Nottingham, England (2015)
- Óbidos, Portugal (2015)
- Tartu, Estonia (2015)
- Ulyanovsk, Russia (2015)
- UNESCO What is the Creative Cities Network?
- Do you have what it takes to be a City of Literature?
- Reykjavík designated as UNESCO Creative City
- Goodwin, Eileen (2 Dec 2014). "City of Literature writes new chapter". ODT. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- Edinburgh UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Melbourne UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Iowa City UNESCO City of Literature site
- Dublin UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Reykjavík UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Norwich UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Kraków UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Dunedin UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Barcelona UNESCO City of Literature official site
- Nottingham UNESCO City of Literature official site