|• Municipal President||Isaac Pimentel Mejia (Panal)|
|Elevation||1,147 m (3,763 ft)|
|• City||6.869 inhabitants|
|• Density||1,604/km2 (4,154/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||04|
|Website||City of Ciudad Ayala, Morelos|
Ciudad Ayala is a city in the east-central part of the Mexican state of Morelos. It stands at , at a mean height of 1,220 metres (4,000 ft) above sea level. The city is named for Coronel Francisco Ayala (1760-1812) who fought with José María Morelos during the 1812 Siege of Cuautla. The town's previous name was Mapachtlan. Ayala became a municipality on April 17, 1869.
Although it had a 2005 census population of only 6,190 inhabitants, the city serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality of Ayala. In 2015, the municipality reported 85,521 inhabitants and it has an area of 345.688 km² (133.47 sq mi) and includes such towns as San Pedro Apatlaco, Anenecuilco, and Tenextepango, which are all larger than Ciudad Ayala. It was previously known as San Francisco Mapachtlan.
The town of Anenecuilco, birthplace of Emiliano Zapata, is in this municipality; as is the Hacienda de San Juan, near the town of Chinameca, where he was betrayed and assassinated. Ayala itself is mostly known for giving the name to Emiliano Zapata's manifesto: the Plan of Ayala.
In 1603 Don Nicolas Abad built the hacienda of San Francisco Mapachtlan in 1603. Twelve years later this was elevated to a congregación. In 1750, supported by Dominican friars, the people built their own church, called San José de Mapachtlan. This was dependent upon Cuautla, Morelos, (formally called Cuautla de Ampilas) and in 1834 it became a pueblo. In 1868 it became a municipalidad of the State of Mexico, district of Cuernavaca, and changed its name to Villa de Ayala in honor of Francisco Ayala, a leader of the Mexican War of Independence. Ayala became a Centro de Poblacion (Population Center) on March 17, 1976.
- Coronel Francisco Ayala (Mexican Insurgent) (1760-1812) was the first Insurgent leader from Morelos.
- General Pablo Torres Burgos (1877-1911). Torres Burgos founded the liberation club called Melchor Ocampo in 1909 and became a general in 1911. He is remembered for the phrase, "Down with the haciendas! Long live the people!"
- General Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919) who was born in Anencuilco and assassinated in Chinameca. Zapata wrote the Plan de Ayala and is remembered for the slogan, "Land and Liberty."
- Otilio Montaño Sánchez (1887-1917) was the ideologue behind the Plan de Ayala. He was a Zapatista general who became the Minister of Public Education and Fine Arts in 1914. He was executed for betraying the Revolution in 1917.
- General Emiliano Zapata Salazar (1879-1919) was the leader of the agrarian movement who proposed the Plan de Ayala.
- Eufemio Zapata (1873-1917) was the brother of Emiliano Zapata. He was killed by Sidronio Camacho, one of Zapata's commanders, because Eufemio had become drunk and beat and insulted Camacho's father.
The Cuautla Industrial Park, located in Ayala, covers 130 hectares (320 acres) and is the second largest in Morelos. Most of the companies are related to the automotive industry. The largest employers are Saint-Gobainl, (glass), Sekurit (windshields), and Continental Automotive Temic (industrial parts and transmissions).
Agriculture is the dominant occupation. Crops include sugar cane, corn, sorghum, rice, onions, zucchini, and gladiolas. Cattle, sheep, horses, and poultry are raised. Tourism is also important.
The archaeological ruins of Olintepec in Ciudad Ayala date from 1500 BCE to 1610 CE, although its peak was from 1200 to 1610 CE. The people paid tribute to Huaxtepec (Oaxtepec), the Mexicas, and the Texcocanos. Tlayecac has Prehispanic paintings and a small pyramid. The novel Tiro al vuelo by Alejandro Volnie is set in the village. The 1962 movie Pueblito, directed by Emilio Fernández was filmed there.
There are ex-haciendas in Tenextepango and Coahuixtla as well as Chinameca. General Emiliano Zapata and three of his men were assassinated in Chinameca on April 10, 1919, and the hacienda has been transformed into the National Museum of Agrarian Reform Movement. There is also a large statue of Zapata on the property.
Zapata was born in Anencuilco on August 8, 1879, and his boyhood home is now a museum. San Miguel Arcangel is venerated at the parish church on September 29. There is a statue of Zapata in the town square.
There are two small water parks,El Axocoche or El Axochochetl, located in Rafael Merino neighborhood, which is ejidal and El Colobri (the hummingbird) which is privately owned. Both have large parking lots and allow camping.
Communities and holidays
Ciudad de Ayala is the municipal seat. It has 7,249 inhabitants and is located 60 km (37.3 miles) from Cuernavaca and 6 km (3.7 miles) from Cuautla. It is primarily an agricultural community; the most important crops are sugar cane, corn, sorghum, rice, onions, and vegetables, grown on 2,002.4 hectares (4,948 acres). Cattle, goats, horses, and poultry are raised. Commerce and tourism are also important to the economy. Holidays are March 19 (San Jose) and December 12 (Our Lady of Guadalupe).
San Pedro Apatlaco is an agricultural community with 736 hectares (1,819 acres) belonging to 318 producers. The most important crops are onions, beans, and corn. Dairy cattle are raised. There is small-scale commerce and industry. Apatlaco has a population of 11,278. The distance from Ciudad Ayala is approximately 2 kilometers. Its holidays are February 2 (Candelaria) and June 29 (San Pedro).
Anenecuilco is an agricultural community with 1,328 hectares (3,283 acres) and 507 farmers who grow sugarcane, corn, sorghum, onions, and gladiolus. There is also trade and to a lesser extent, tourism. Its holidays are the fifth Friday of Lent, August 8 (birth of Emiliano Zapata); September 29 (San Miguel Arcangel).
Tenextepango is an agricultural community. Principal crops are vegetables such as beans, corn, and zucchini, as well as sugar cane. 1,039 hectares are cultivated by 456 producers. Trade is another important activity, as well as tourism since its annual fair is one of the most important in the area. It has a population of 7,829 inhabitants and its distance to Ciudad Ayala head is 6 km. Its fair is July 25 (Santiago Apóstol).
Jaloxtoc has 3,209 inhabitants. Onions, corn, and sorghum are grown on 1,195 hectares by 295 farmers. Cattle, goats, and horses are raised. It is 15 km (9.3 miles) from Ciudad Ayala.
Tlayecac is agricultural with sorghum and corn grown on 1,234 hectares by 195 producers. Cattle, pigs, and goats are raised. The industrial park is located in Tlayecac, which is 13 km from Ciudad Ayala. April 25 (San Marcos) is its local holiday.
The municipality of Ayala is located in the central part of the state, between 18°46'North and 98°59'West, at an altitude of 1,220 meters (4,000 ft.) above sea level. To the north are the municipalities of Yautepec, Cuautla. and Yecapixtla, to the south Tepalcingo and Tlaquiltenango; to the east Temoac, Jantetelco, and Jonacatepec; while to the west are Tlaltizapán and Yautepec. It is approximately 60 km from Cuernavaca. and 117 km (73 miles) south of Mexico City.
Ayala is part of the fertile valley of the Plain of Amilpas. The most important hills are El Tenayo, El Aguacate, El Jimil and Cerro Prieto each has an altitude of about 1,500 meters (4920 ft.) above sea level.
The Ayala River receives water from El Hospital and Calderón ravines, flowing south past Abelardo L. Rodríguez, Olintepec, and Moyotepec, where the waters of the Ahuehueyo ravine join it. In the east, it crosses the Barranca de la Cuera, the Papayos, the Guayabos, and Tlayecac, then continues south through Jaloxtoc. Downstream it joins the Cuautla River, which continues through San Vicente de Juárez and Tecomalco, to flow into the Amacuzac River, a branch of the Balsas River. There are also small springs such as Axocoche, El Colibrí, and El Platanal. There is a dam in Palo Blanco.
Ayala has a warm subhumid climate. Its average annual rainfall is 800 mm. (31") and it has an average annual temperature of 24°C (75°F). Prevailing winds blow from northeast to southwest. The rainy season is June to October, and the dry season is October to June. April and May are the hottest months.
The vegetation consists of low deciduous forest, mainly cubatas, casahuates, tulips, amates (acacia), framboyanes, guamuchil (a thorny tree with red fruit), guaje colorado, mesquite, palo dulce, bonnet, tepejuaje, and fruit trees such as anono, chirimoyo, mamey, plum, and guava.
Animal life is also very varied. Mammals include raccoon, badger, rabbit, skunk, armadillo, tlacuache, and coyote. Birds include magpie, buzzard, owl, and sparrowhawk. There are iguanas and scorpions. Fish include catfish and mojarra.
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005(INEGI) Archived June 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- http://red.ilce.edu.mx/20aniversario/componentes/redescolar/c03/c031/acni/estados/morelos/mor-fay.htm accessed Dec 27, 2018
- http://www.morelos.gob.mx/?q=printpdf/ayala )Dec 15, 2018=
- http://www.nuestro-mexico.com/Morelos/Ayala/Ciudad-Ayala/ (Dec 13, 2018)
- http://cuentame.inegi.org.mx/monografias/informacion/mor/poblacion/ (Dec 13,2018)
- http://impepac.mx/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Candidatos-electos-2018.pdf Retrieved Dec 14, 2018
- "Tu Municipio" [Your Municipality] (in Spanish). H. Ayuntamiento Municipal de Ayala 2019-2021. Retrieved Feb 28, 2019.
- "Morelos en la Guerra de Independencia" [Morelos in the War of Independence] (in Spanish). Morelos Turistico. Retrieved Feb 28, 2019.
- http://www.morelos.gob.mx/?q=printpdf/ayala (Dec 15, 2018)
- http://www.municipios.mx/morelos/cuautla/ Retrieved Dec 18, 2018.
- "Ayala, Morelos" [Ayala, Morelos] (in Spanish). Enciclopedia de los Municipios y Delegaciones de Mexico. Retrieved Feb 28, 2019.
- https://inah.gob.mx/zonas/56-zona-arqueologica-de-olintepec (Dec 15, 2018)
- http://ayala.gob.mx/turistico/Contenido.php?seccion=2&lat=1142 *Dec 15, 2018)
- https://tlayecac.com/2015/pueblito-pelicula-tlayecac/ (Dec 15, 2018)
- https://www.mexicodesconocido.com.mx/la-hacienda-de-chinameca-morelos.html (Dec 15, 2018)
- "El Axocochetl". Balnearios Morelos. Retrieved Feb 28, 2019.