Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in a non- xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.   Ernest Renan and  John Stuart Mill are often thought to be early civic nationalists. Civic nationalists often defend the value of  national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity in order to lead meaningful, autonomous lives and that democratic  polities need national identity in order to function properly. 
Concept [ edit ]
Civic nationhood is a political identity built around shared citizenship in a democratic state. Thus, a "civic nation" isn't defined by its language or culture, but by its political institutions and liberal principles, which its citizens pledge to uphold. Membership in the civic nation is open to anyone who shares these values.
In theory, a civic nation or state does not aim to promote one culture over another.
German philosopher  Jürgen Habermas argued that immigrants to a liberal-democratic state need not assimilate into the host culture, but only need to accept the principles of the country's constitution. 
Contrasted with "ethnic nationalism" [ edit ]
Civic nationalism can be contrasted with "
Michael Ignatieff points out the following distinctions between these two forms of nationalism. 
Nation characterized by a common law and common constitution
Nation characterized by common roots or ancestry
Membership can be chosen by immigration
Membership is inherited
Government is a
pluralist democracy Government is where the ethnic majority rules over all others
Individuals create their nation
The nation creates the individual
History [ edit ]
Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of
rationalism and liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism. Membership of the civic nation is considered voluntary, as in Ernest Renan's classical definition in " Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?" of the nation as a "daily referendum" characterized by the "will to live together". Civic-national ideals influenced the development of  representative democracy in countries such as the United States and France (see the United States Declaration of Independence of 1776, and the of 1789). Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
SNP   and  Plaid Cymru, which advocate independence of their respective nations from the United Kingdom, proclaim themselves to be civic nationalist parties, in which they advocate the independence and popular sovereignty of the people living in their nations society, not individual ethnic groups. 
Outside Europe, it has also been used to describe the
Civil War-era Republican Party in the United States. 
Civic nationalism contrasts with more restrictive forms, such as
Centre Party of Norway is an example of a civic nationalist party. 
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Auer, Stefan (2004). . Routledge. p. 5. Liberal Nationalism in Central Europe ISBN 1134378602 . Retrieved . 13 May 2017
^ Tamir, Yael. 1993. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07893-9; Will Kymlicka. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3; David Miller. 1995. Oxford University Press. On Nationality. ISBN 0-19-828047-5.
^ Renan, Ernest. 1882. What is a Nation?.
^ Mill, John Stuart. 1861. . Considerations on Representative Government
^ Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3. For criticism, see: Patten, Alan. 1999. "The Autonomy Argument for Liberal Nationalism." 5(1): 1-17. Nations and Nationalism.
^ Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. For criticism, see: Abizadeh, Arash. 2002. "Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments." American Political Science Review 96 (3): 495-509; Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. " Liberal Nationalist versus Postnational Social Integration." 10(3): 231-250. Nations and Nationalism
^ a b c ANNA STILZ. "Civic Nationalism and Language Policy". Philosophy & Public Affairs. 37 (3): 257.
^ "Civic Nationalism & Ethnic Nationalism".
^ "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"
^ Michael O'Neill (2004). . Pearson/Longman. pp. 92–. Devolution and British Politics ISBN 978-0-582-47274-7.
^ Trevor C. Salmon; Mark F. Imber (6 June 2008). . Taylor & Francis. pp. 50–. Issues In International Relations ISBN 978-0-203-92659-8.
^ a b Brubaker, Rogers (2004). . Harvad University Press. p. 134. Ethnicity Without Groups ISBN 0674015398.
^ Snay, Mitchell (2007). . Louisiana State University Press. Fenians, Freedmen, and Southern Whites: Race and Nationality in the Era of Reconstruction ISBN 9780807132739.
^ "Rekordmåling for Senterpartiet: - Norsk nasjonalisme er en positiv kraft". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 9 February 2017.
Sources [ edit ]
Tournier-Sol, Karine (2015). "Reworking the Eurosceptic and Conservative Traditions into a Populist Narrative: UKIP's Winning Formula?". Journal of Common Market Studies. 53 (1): 140–56. doi: 10.1111/jcms.12208.