Civil Aviation Administration of China

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Civil Aviation Administration of China
中国民用航空局
CAAC logo.svg
Agency overview
Formed1949
Jurisdiction People's Republic of China
HeadquartersDongcheng District, Beijing
Agency executive
Parent agencyMinistry of Transport
Websitewww.caac.gov.cn
CAAC headquarters
Flight Inspection Center of CAAC

The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC; simplified Chinese: 中国民用航空局; traditional Chinese: 中國民用航空局; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Jú), formerly the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (simplified Chinese: 中国民用航空总局; traditional Chinese: 中國民用航空總局; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Zǒngjú), is the aviation authority under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China. It oversees civil aviation and investigates aviation accidents and incidents.[2] As the aviation authority responsible for China, it concludes civil aviation agreements with other aviation authorities, including those of the Special administrative regions of China which are categorized as "special domestic".[3] It directly operated its own airline, China's aviation monopoly, until 1988. The agency is headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing.[4]

The CAAC does not share the responsibility of managing China's airspace with the Central Military Commission under the regulations in the Civil Aviation Law of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国民用航空法, Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Fǎ).

History[edit]

On November 2, 1949, shortly after the founding of the People's Republic of China, the CCP Central Committee decided to found the Civil Aviation Agency under the name of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission, and under the command of the People's Liberation Army Air Force, to manage all non-military aviation in the country, as well as provide general and commercial flight service. The Civil Aviation Agency was created in December of the same year, and set offices in Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Tianjin and Wuhan.[5] On March 10, 1950, the Guangzhou Office began to work, managing civil flight services in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, later it was merged with Wuhan Office to form the Civil Aviation Office of Central and Southern China on January 21, 1951 in Guangzhou, and renamed Central and Southern Civil Aviation Office, working for civil flight administrations in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei and Hunan.

On May 7, 1952, the People's Revolutionary Military Commission and the State Council issued the Decision for Reorganizing Civil Aviation, the Civil Aviation Agency of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission was transferred to military system and under the direct control of the PLA Air Force, then split the civil aviation administration division and airline division to form the separate Civil Aviation Agency and civil airline. Under this decision, from July 1951 to November, the Civil Aviation Agency having four administration offices in Shanghai (Eastern China), Guangzhou (Central-Southern), Chongqing (Southwestern China) and Tianjin (Northern China), the Southern China branch was briefly renamed the Civil Aviation Administration Office of Southern China. On July 17, 1952, the People's Aviation Company of China was created, headquartered in Tianjin.[6]

On 9 June 1953, following the Aeroflot in the Soviet Union, the People's Aviation Company of China was merged with the Civil Aviation Agency of the Central Revolutionary Military Commission. Later, the SKOGA was merged with the Beijing administration office on January 1, 1955.[7]:275

In November 1954, the Civil Aviation Agency of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission was renamed Civil Aviation Agency of China, it was transferred to the State Council and under the leadership of both State Council and PLA Air Force. The PLA Air Force was also responsible for technical, flight, aircrew, communicating, human resource and political works.

On February 27, 1958, the Civil Aviation Agency was transferred to the Ministry of Transport, later the Agency ratified the Report for the Opinions of Structure Devolving from the party branch of the Ministry of Transport in June 17, both national and local authorities have responsibilities of civil aviation, international and main domestic flights were mainly under leadership of the national authority, local and agricultural flights were mainly under the leadership of local authority, thus most of provinces and autonomous regions established their own civil aviation administration offices. Five administration offices in Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Tianjin and Ürümqi were changed to be reginal administration agency in December 13. The Agency was renamed the General Administration of Civil Aviation of the Ministry of Transport on November 17, 1960.

In April 1962, the Presidium of the 2nd National People's Congress decided to rename the General Administration of Civil Aviation of the Ministry of Transport to the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China on the 53rd meeting, transferred to the State Council, and mandated by PLA Air Force. The General Administration of Civil Aviation was transferred to the PLA Air Force on November 20, 1969.

CAAC Ilyushin Il-62 at Moscow Sheremetyevo Airport in 1974

In 1963, China purchased six Vickers Viscount aircraft from Great Britain, followed in 1971 with the purchase of four Hawker Siddeley Trident aircraft from Pakistan International Airlines. In August 1971 the airline purchased six Trident 2Es directly from Hawker Siddeley.[8] The country also placed provisional orders for three Concorde aircraft. With the 1972 Nixon visit to China the country ordered 10 Boeing 707 jets. In December 1973 it took the unprecedented step of borrowing £40 million from Western banks to fund the purchase of 15 additional Trident jets. Soviet built Ilyushin Il-62 aircraft were used on long range routes during the 1970s and 1980s.

On March 5, 1980, the General Administration of Civil Aviation was no longer mandated by PLA Air Force, and transferred to the State Council,[9] some administrative works were still under the People's Liberation Army, the air controlling was managed by PLA General Stuff Department and Air Force Command.

On January 30, 1987, the State Council ratified the Report for the Reform Solution and Implement Steps of the Civil Aviation System Administration Structure.[10] Since then, CAAC acts solely as a government agency, reorganized six reginal administration agencies, and no longer provides commercial flight services. In 1988 CAAC Airlines was divided up into a number of individual air carriers, many of them named after the region of China where it had its hub.

On April 19, 1993, the General Administration of Civil Aviation became the ministry-level agency of the State Council.

In March 2008, CAAC was made a subsidiary of the newly created Ministry of Transport, and its official Chinese name was slightly adjusted to reflect its being no longer a ministry-level agency. Its official English name has remained Civil Aviation Administration of China.

On 11 March 2019, the CAAC was the first civil aviation authority to ground the Boeing 737 MAX.[11] After so doing, most of the world's aviation authorities grounded the MAX, including the European Union Aviation Safety Agency the next day.[12] It took the US Federal Aviation Administration until 13 March to ground the MAX.[13] Aviation commentators saw this as having bolstered the global reputation of the CAAC at the expense of the FAA.[14][15][16] After the MAX was cleared to return by the FAA in November 2020,[17] the CAAC reiterated that there "is no set timetable" to lifting the MAX grounding in China.[18]

CAAC Airlines[edit]

Current role[edit]

Currently, CAAC is an administrative department mostly intended to supervise aviation market. CAAC releases route applications every week and for routes that don't fly to an open-sky country/region, there will be monthly scoring releases that determine the score for each of them. CAAC subsequently grant those whose score highest on the list permission to start.

CAAC also issue frequent operation data and notices.

List of directors[edit]

List of Directors of the Civil Aviation Administration of China:[19]

Affiliated universities[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.caac.gov.cn/en/GYMH/LDJS/
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-05-03. Retrieved 2009-06-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ the citation is in the treaty "Air Services Arrangement between the Mainland and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" which calls intranational service as "specially managed domestic" this needs a proper ref statement.
  4. ^ "English Archived September 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Civil Aviation Administration of China. Retrieved on June 9, 2009. "北京市东城区东四西大街155号."
  5. ^ "成立军委民航局 - 中国民航局60周年档案展". CAAC (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2013-04-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ "中国人民航空公司始末 - 中国民航局60周年档案展". CAAC (in Chinese). Retrieved 2021-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ 北京市地方志编纂委员会 (2000). 北京志·市政卷·民用航空志 (in Chinese). Beijing Publishing House. ISBN 7-200-04040-1.
  8. ^ Tridents for China, Flight International, 2 September 1971, p. 348
  9. ^ "庆祝新中国民航成立70周年专题 (1980)". CAAC (in Chinese). Retrieved 2021-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ "庆祝新中国民航成立70周年专题 (1987)". CAAC (in Chinese). Retrieved 2021-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. ^ For a full timeline of the groundings, see Boeing 737 MAX groundings § Regulators.
  12. ^ "EASA suspends all Boeing 737 Max operations in Europe". European Union Aviation Safety Agency. 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  13. ^ "Emergency Order of Prohibition" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. 2019-03-13. Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  14. ^ "Chinese air safety regulators gain global influence as FAA refuses to ground Boeing 737 Max". Los Angeles Times. 2019-03-13. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  15. ^ "Across the globe, a question of air safety becomes a question of American leadership". Los Angeles Times. 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  16. ^ Isidore, Chris. "Boeing desperately needs to get the 737 Max back in the air. Getting it approved will be hard". CNN. Retrieved 2019-09-18. The 737 Max does not appear close to flying again. Aviation experts doubt global regulators will act in concert to approve the 737 Max for flight, because serious questions remain about how and why the FAA approved the 737 Max for flight and whether it rushed the certification process.
  17. ^ "Boeing Responds to FAA Approval to Resume 737 MAX Operations". MediaRoom. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  18. ^ Chua2020-11-20T07:58:00+00:00, Alfred. "China in no hurry to return 737 Max to service". Flight Global. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  19. ^ "历任局长" (in Chinese). Civil Aviation Administration of China. Retrieved 17 December 2017.