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Civic nationalism, also known as progressive nationalism, is a kind of nationalism and identified by political philosophers who believe in a non-xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with progressive values of freedom, tolerance, equality and individual rights. Ernest Renan and John Stuart Mill are often thought to be early civic nationalists. Civic nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity in order to lead meaningful, autonomous lives and that democratic polities need national identity in order to function properly.
Civic nationhood is a political identity built around shared citizenship in a democratic state. Thus, a "civic nation" isn't defined by its language or culture, but by its political institutions and progressive principles, which its citizens pledge to uphold. Membership in the civic nation is open to anyone who shares these values.
In theory, a civic nation or state does not aim to promote one culture over another. German philosopher Jürgen Habermas argued that immigrants to a progressive state need not assimilate into the host culture, but only need to accept the principles of the country's Constitution.
Contrasted with "ethnic nationalism"
Civic nationalism can be contrasted with "ethnic nationalism".
|Civic Nationalism||Ethnic Nationalism|
|Nation characterized by a common law and common Constitution||Nation characterized by common roots or ancestry|
|Membership can be chosen by immigration||Membership is inherited|
|Government is a Pluralist democracy||Government is where the ethnic majority rules over all others|
|Individuals create their nation||The nation creates the individual|
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Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalism and progressivism, but as a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism. Membership of the civic nation is considered voluntary, as in Ernest Renan's classical definition in "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?" of the nation as a "daily referendum" characterized by the "will to live together".[full citation needed] Civic-national ideals influenced the development of representative democracy in countries such as the United States and France (see the United States Declaration of Independence of 1776, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789).
The SNP and Plaid Cymru, which advocate independence of their respective nations from the United Kingdom, proclaim themselves to be civic nationalist parties, in which they advocate the independence and popular sovereignty of the people living in their nations society, not individual ethnic groups.
Civic nationalism contrasts with more restrictive forms, such as ethnic nationalism.
- Auer, Stefan (2004). Liberal Nationalism in Central Europe. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 1134378602. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- Tamir, Yael. 1993. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07893-9[page needed]; Will Kymlicka. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3[page needed]; David Miller. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5.
- Renan, Ernest. 1882. "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"
- Mill, John Stuart. 1861. Considerations on Representative Government.
- "On Liberty and Utilitarianism". Goodreads. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3. For criticism, see: Patten, Alan. 1999. "The Autonomy Argument for Liberal Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism. 5(1): 1-17.
- Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. For criticism, see: Abizadeh, Arash. 2002. "Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments." American Political Science Review 96 (3): 495-509; Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. "Liberal Nationalist versus Postnational Social Integration." Nations and Nationalism 10(3): 231-250.
- ANNA STILZ. "Civic Nationalism and Language Policy". Philosophy & Public Affairs. 37 (3): 257.
- "Civic Nationalism & Ethnic Nationalism".
- "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"
- Michael O'Neill (2004). Devolution and British Politics. Pearson/Longman. pp. 92–. ISBN 978-0-582-47274-7.
- Trevor C. Salmon; Mark F. Imber (6 June 2008). Issues In International Relations. Taylor & Francis. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-203-92659-8.
- Brubaker, Rogers (2004). Ethnicity Without Groups. Harvad University Press. p. 134. ISBN 0674015398.
- https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YJ3CrOiJ6wYC&pg=PA140&dq=conservative+%22civic+nationalism%22&hl=en&ei=t9naTJWbAdGahQe3q2A&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=conservative%20%22civic%20nationalism%22&f=false[full citation needed]
- "Rekordmåling for Senterpartiet: - Norsk nasjonalisme er en positiv kraft". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 9 February 2017.
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