They had a central trunk, from the top of which several lateral branches were attached. Fossils of these plants originate in the Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous periods (around ), mostly just as stems.
A recent (2017) discovery in Xinjiang in China of early Late Devonian (Frasnian, ca. 374 Ma) silicified fossil cladoxylopsid tree trunks (diameter up to c.70 cm) with preserved cellular anatomy showed an internal arrangement with many xylem bundles in the outer part and none in the interior; each bundle was surrounded by its own cambium layer, by which the tree's trunk widened.
Links with images:
- Thomas N. Taylor, Edith L. Taylor, Michael Krings: Paleobotany. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants . Second Edition, Academic Press 2009, ISBN 978-0-12-373972-8 , p. 387-401, 1028
- http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/10/18/1708241114.abstract (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America) Unique growth strategy in the Earth’s first trees revealed in silicified fossil trunks from China, by Hong-He Xu, Christopher M. Berry, William E. Stein, Yi Wang, Peng Tang, and Qiang Fu
- https://www.cardiff.ac.uk/news/view/981090-worlds-oldest-and-most-complex-trees (with image of trunk cross-section)
Media related to Cladoxylopsida at Wikimedia Commons
- UC Museum of Paleontology
- Stein, W. E., F. Mannolini, L. V. Hernick, E. Landling, and C. M. Berry. 2007. Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa. Nature, 446:904-907.
|This fern-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|