Claire M. Fraser

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Claire M Fraser
Born1955
NationalityAmerican
Alma mater
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
InstitutionsUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore
ThesisAutoantibodies and monoclonal antibodies to ℓgbℓs-adrenergic receptors : their role in receptor characterization and human physiology (1981)
Website[1]

Claire M. Fraser (born 1955) is an American genome scientist and microbiologist who is considered a pioneer in the fields of microbial genomics and genome medicine. [1] Her research has facilitated understanding of the diversity and evolution of microbial life. Fraser is the director of the Institute for Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD, where she holds the Dean's Endowed Professorship in the School of Medicine. She has joint faculty appointments at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in the Departments of Medicine and Microbiology/Immunology. In 2019, she began serving a one-year term as President-Elect for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which will be followed by a one-year term as AAAS president starting in February 2020 and a one-year term as chair of the Board of Directors in February 2021. [2]

Early life[edit]

Fraser was raised by a high school principal and an elementary school teacher in Saugus, MA a suburb of Boston, MA.[1] She loved learning, was a straight-A student, and was always eager to return to school in the fall.[1] Her passion for science was ignited by a high school biology teacher.[1] At Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), during her senior year, she performed independent research in a research lab and loved it.[1]

Education[edit]

Fraser received her B.S. degree in Biology from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1977 and her Ph.D. degree in Pharmacology at the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1981 with a thesis entitled "Autoantibodies and monoclonal antibodies to ℓgbℓs-adrenergic receptors : their role in receptor characterization and human physiology".[3][4][5]

Career[edit]

Fraser has authored more than 300 publications with more than 50,000 citations, edited four books, and served on the editorial boards of nine scientific journals[6]. She is included on 23 issued patents and 19 published patents[6].

Genomics[edit]

From 1998 to 2007, Fraser was president and director of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville, MD, and led the teams that sequenced the genomes of many important bacterial and parasitic pathogens and the first model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana.[7][8][9][10] In 1995, Fraser was part of the team to first sequence the complete genome of a free-living organism—Haemophilus influenza—the bacterium that causes lower respiratory tract infections and meningitis in infants and young children.[11] She helped launch the new field of microbial genomics and revolutionized the way microbiology has been studied. In 2007, Fraser joined the University of Maryland School of Medicine as director of the new Institute for Genome Sciences.[12]

Genomics in the Amerithrax investigation[edit]

Fraser's work on the 2001 Amerithrax investigation led to the identification of four genetic mutations in the anthrax spores that enabled the FBI to trace the material back to its original source.[13] This effort catalyzed the development of the field of microbial forensics. She is one of the world's experts in microbial forensics and the growing concern about dual uses – research that can provide knowledge and technologies that could be misapplied.[14]

Genome Centers for Infectious Disease[edit]

For over twenty years, Fraser has led large NIAID-funded efforts in the genomics of infectious disease, including the current iteration of the Genome Centers for Infectious Disease[15]. Past and current studies funded through these initiatives aim to explore the dynamic interactions between high-priority pathogens, hosts, their microbiota, the immune system, and the environment, with the goal to provide a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of infectious disease with hypothesis-driven research using high-throughput "-omics" technologies.[16][17][18][19][20] These projects both stimulate and enhance ongoing technology development in technology and data cores.[21][22][23]

Human Microbiome Project[edit]

Fraser's current research is an integral part of the Human Microbiome Project and is focused on how the structure and function of microbial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract change in association with diseases such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease, and how these communities respond to interventions including oral vaccination and probiotics administration.[24][25]

AAAS and other Scientific Advisory Panels and Editorial Boards[edit]

In 2019, Fraser is serving a one-year term as President-Elect for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which will be followed by a one-year term as AAAS president starting in February 2020 and a one-year term as chair of the Board of Directors in February 2021 [2]. In accepting the nomination to be a candidate for AAAS President, Fraser expressed a desire to use this position to be an ardent spokesperson for science and to promote application of the scientific method to the solution of our most pressing problems, including climate change, antimicrobial resistance as well as food security, water security, and energy security.[26] She notes that "our ability to respond to these challenges has been hampered to a considerable extent by a lack of adequate funding, a tendency to fund 'safer' research projects, and a relative lack of public trust in science."[26].

Fraser has also served on many advisory panels for all the major federal funding agencies, the National Research Council, the Department of Defense, and the intelligence community. In addition, she has contributed her time as a board member for universities, research institutes, and other non-profit groups. She has been an editor for numerous journals, including mBio, Journal of Bacteriology, Microbial Genomics (journal), Molecular Case Studies, and DNA and Cell Biology.[27][28][29][30][31] Since 2006, Fraser has also served as a member of the Board of Directors of Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD), a Fortune 500 medical technology company.[32]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Personal life[edit]

Fraser was previously married to Craig Venter. Since 2013, she has been married to Jack Kammer, an author who examines gender issues from a male point of view[47]. Fraser has owned several standard poodles, including Shadow whose genome was sequenced [48].

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Katherine Lee (December 17, 2018). ""Claire M. Fraser Is a Pioneer Who's Just Getting Started"". Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Microbial Genomics Trailblazer Claire M. Fraser Named AAAS President-Elect".
  3. ^ "Claire Fraser-Liggett".
  4. ^ "Claire M. Fraser Biography".
  5. ^ "Full Catalog - View of Record".
  6. ^ a b "Google Scholar".
  7. ^ Fraser, C. M.; Gocayne, J. D.; et al. (1995). "The minimal gene complement of Mycoplasma genitalium". Science. 270 (5235): 397–403. Bibcode:1995Sci...270..397F. doi:10.1126/science.270.5235.397. PMID 7569993.
  8. ^ Fraser, C. M.; Casjens, S.; et al. (1997). "Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580–586. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..580F. doi:10.1038/37551. PMID 9403685.
  9. ^ Fraser, C. M.; Norris, S. J.; et al. (1998). "Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete". Science. 281 (5375): 375–388. Bibcode:1998Sci...281..375F. doi:10.1126/science.281.5375.375. PMID 9665876.
  10. ^ Rasko, D. A.; Worsham, P. L.; Abshire, T. G.; Stanley, S. T.; Bannan, J. D.; Wilson, M. R.; Langham, R. J.; Decker, R. S.; Jiang, L.; Read, T. D.; Phillippy, A. M.; Salzberg, S. L.; Pop, M.; Van Ert, M. N.; Kenefic, L. J.; Keim, P. S.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Ravel, J. (2011). "Bacillus anthracis comparative genome analysis in support of the Amerithrax investigation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (12): 5027–5032. doi:10.1073/pnas.1016657108. ISSN 0027-8424.
  11. ^ Fleischmann, R.; Adams, M.; White, O; Clayton, R.; Kirkness, E.; Kerlavage, A.; Bult, C.; Tomb, J.; Dougherty, B.; Merrick, J.; al., e. (1995). "Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd". Science. 269 (5223): 496–512. doi:10.1126/science.7542800. ISSN 0036-8075.
  12. ^ "University of Maryland School of Medicine". somvweb.som.umaryland.edu.
  13. ^ Rasko, D. A.; Worsham, P. L.; Abshire, T. G.; Stanley, S. T.; Bannan, J. D.; Wilson, M. R.; Langham, R. J.; Decker, R. S.; Jiang, L.; Read, T. D.; Phillippy, A. M.; Salzberg, S. L.; Pop, M.; Van Ert, M. N.; Kenefic, L. J.; Keim, P. S.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Ravel, J. (2011). "Bacillus anthracis comparative genome analysis in support of the Amerithrax investigation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (12): 5027–5032. doi:10.1073/pnas.1016657108. ISSN 0027-8424.
  14. ^ Fraser, Claire M.; Dando, Malcolm R. (2001). "Genomics and future biological weapons: the need for preventive action by the biomedical community". Nature Genetics. 29 (3): 253–256. doi:10.1038/ng763. ISSN 1061-4036.
  15. ^ "Genomic Centers for Infectious Diseases (GCID)". Retrieved March 30, 2019.
  16. ^ "Overview, Host, Pathogen and the Microbiome: Determinants of Disease Outcome". Retrieved March 30, 2019.
  17. ^ Richter, Taylor K. S.; Hazen, Tracy H.; Lam, Diana; Coles, Christian L.; Seidman, Jessica C.; You, Yaqi; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Fraser, Claire M.; Rasko, David A.; Bradford, Patricia A. (2018). "Temporal Variability of Escherichia coli Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Tanzanian Children with and without Exposure to Antibiotics". mSphere. 3 (6). doi:10.1128/mSphere.00558-18. ISSN 2379-5042.
  18. ^ Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F.; Travassos, Mark A.; Moser, Kara A.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B.; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Silva, Joana C. (2017). "New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali". Genome Medicine. 9 (1). doi:10.1186/s13073-017-0422-4. ISSN 1756-994X. PMC 5368897.
  19. ^ Chibucos, Marcus C.; Soliman, Sameh; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lee, Hongkyu; Daugherty, Sean; Orvis, Joshua; Shetty, Amol C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Hazen, Tracy H.; Etienne, Kizee A.; Kumari, Priti; O’Connor, Timothy D.; Rasko, David A.; Filler, Scott G.; Fraser, Claire M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Skory, Christopher D.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Bruno, Vincent M. (2016). "An integrated genomic and transcriptomic survey of mucormycosis-causing fungi". Nature Communications. 7 (1). doi:10.1038/ncomms12218. ISSN 2041-1723.
  20. ^ Sahl, Jason W.; Sistrunk, Jeticia R.; Fraser, Claire M.; et al. (2015). "Examination of the Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Population Structure during Human Infection". mBio. 6 (3). doi:10.1128/mBio.00501-15. ISSN 2150-7511.
  21. ^ Chung, Matthew; Teigen, Laura; Liu, Hong; Libro, Silvia; Shetty, Amol; Kumar, Nikhil; Zhao, Xuechu; Bromley, Robin E.; Tallon, Luke J.; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Fraser, Claire M.; Rasko, David A.; Filler, Scott G.; Foster, Jeremy M.; Michalski, Michelle L.; Bruno, Vincent M.; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C. (2018). "Targeted enrichment outperforms other enrichment techniques and enables more multi-species RNA-Seq analyses". Scientific Reports. 8 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-31420-7. ISSN 2045-2322.
  22. ^ Robinson, Kelly M.; Hawkins, Aziah S.; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Adkins, Ricky S.; Shetty, Amol C.; Nagaraj, Sushma; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Tallon, Luke J.; Rasko, David A.; Fraser, Claire M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Silva, Joana C.; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C. (2017). "Aligner optimization increases accuracy and decreases compute times in multi-species sequence data". Microbial Genomics. 3 (9). doi:10.1099/mgen.0.000122. ISSN 2057-5858.
  23. ^ Kumar, Nikhil; Lin, Mingqun; Zhao, Xuechu; Ott, Sandra; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Daugherty, Sean; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Tallon, Luke J.; Fraser, Claire M.; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C. (2016). "Efficient Enrichment of Bacterial mRNA from Host-Bacteria Total RNA Samples". Scientific Reports. 6 (1). doi:10.1038/srep34850. ISSN 2045-2322.
  24. ^ Zhang, Yan; Brady, Arthur; Jones, Cheron; Song, Yang; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Magder, Laurence S.; Fasano, Alessio; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fraser, Claire M.; Dominguez Bello, Maria Gloria (2018). "Compositional and Functional Differences in the Human Gut Microbiome Correlate with Clinical Outcome following Infection with Wild-Type Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi". mBio. 9 (3). doi:10.1128/mBio.00686-18. ISSN 2150-7511.
  25. ^ Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A.; Brady, Arthur; Crabtree, Jonathan; Drabek, Elliott F.; Ma, Bing; Mahurkar, Anup; Ravel, Jacques; Haverkamp, Miriam; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Botelho, Christine; Andreyeva, Irina; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Fraser, Claire M.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J. (2015). "Functional Dynamics of the Gut Microbiome in Elderly People during Probiotic Consumption". mBio. 6 (2). doi:10.1128/mBio.00231-15. ISSN 2150-7511.
  26. ^ a b University of Maryland School of Medicine. "UMSOM's Claire Fraser appointed president-elect of AAAS". Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  27. ^ "mBio Board of Editors". Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  28. ^ "Journal of Bacteriology Masthead" (PDF). January 2005. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  29. ^ ""Microbial Genomics Editorial Board"". Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  30. ^ "About Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies". Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  31. ^ "DNA and Cell Biology About This Journal". Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  32. ^ "BD Board of Directors Elects Dr. Claire M. Fraser-Liggett". Retrieved March 30, 2019.
  33. ^ a b c d "Top 100 Women honorees".
  34. ^ "The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Laureates" (PDF). US Department of Energy.
  35. ^ "TIGR's Fraser, Salzberg Honored As AAAS Fellows".
  36. ^ "TIGR President Wins ASM's Promega Biotechnology Research Award". June 6, 2005.
  37. ^ "Charles Thom Award and Lecture".
  38. ^ "Claire Fraser-Liggett to be Inducted in Maryland Women's Hall of Fame". March 19, 2010.
  39. ^ "Two firms, two university programs win GBC's 2010 Maryland Bioscience Awards".
  40. ^ "Women in Technology Announces Winners for Its Eleventh Annual Leadership Award".
  41. ^ "Alumni Hall of Fame".
  42. ^ "IOM Elects 65 New Members, Five Foreign Associates". October 17, 2011.
  43. ^ "Influential Marylander Honorees".
  44. ^ "2014 Awards".
  45. ^ "The World's Most Influential Scientific Minds 2014" (PDF).
  46. ^ "Claire Fraser Named the Inaugural Dean's Endowed Professor". December 9, 2015.
  47. ^ ""Amazon Jack Kammer"". Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  48. ^ ""Venter, Fraser Use Pet Poodle for Celera/TIGR Dog Genome Project"". May 10, 2002. Retrieved March 31, 2019.

External links[edit]