|Motto||Clarior hinc honos or "Henceforth forward the honour shall grow ever brighter"|
|War cry||Clar Innes|
|Clan Buchanan has no chief, and is an armigerous clan|
|Buchanan of Buchanan|
|Historic seat||Buchanan Auld House|
|Last Chief||John Buchanan of Buchanan. Description of arms: Or, a lion rampant Sable, armed and langued Gules, within a double tressure flory counterflory of the Second|
|Died||c Aug 1680|
Clan Buchanan (Scottish Gaelic: Na Cananaich [nə ˈkʰanənɪç]) is an armigerous Scottish clan whose origins are said to lie in the 1225 grant of lands on the eastern shore of Loch Lomond to clergyman Sir Absalon of Buchanan by the Earl of Lennox.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Etymology
- 1.2 11th-13th centuries and origins
- 1.3 14th century and Wars of Scottish Independence
- 1.4 15th century, Hundred Years' War and other clan conflicts
- 1.5 16th century, Anglo-Scottish Wars and the King of Kippen
- 1.6 17th century, Wars of the Three Kingdoms and loss of the Buchanan Estate
- 1.7 18th century and Jacobite uprisings
- 2 Clan chiefs
- 2.1 The chiefs
- 2.2 Other people with some measure of recognition as chief
- 2.3 Recent claims to the chiefship
- 2.4 Contemporary matters
- 3 Name spelling variations
- 4 Castles
- 5 Branches
- 6 Septs
- 7 Clan organisations
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The name is said to derive from Macauselan (meaning son of Anselan)., The following two names are given as the root of the territorial name Buchanan, Mac a Chanonaich (The Son of the Canon) and Buth Chanain (meaning house or seat of the canon).
11th-13th centuries and origins
Traditionally, Clan Buchanan can trace its chiefly line back to Anselan O Kyan who was of the clan Ó Catháin, provincial king of north Ulster (and had his seat in Limavady, Co. Londonderry) who landed in Argyll in 1016. However, the traditional account is inconsistent with other accounts for the period in Ireland, and may be little more than an origin myth. For his services against the Danes he is traditionally said to have received the lands of Buchanan from king Malcolm II which lie to the east of Loch Lomond around the village of Killearn.
During the reign of Malduin, Mormaer (Earl) of Lennox, 1217–1250, Anselan (third of that name) was granted, in 1225, the island of Clareinch. (Clár Inis). He is referred to as 'clericus meus', meaning 'my clergyman'. He is subsequently recorded as Absalom de Buchanan and it is understood that to have this title, there must have been other grants of land in the parish of Buchanan. During the reign of king Alexander II (1214–1249), Gilbert de Buchanan, seneschal to the Earl of Lennox, received, in 1231, a charter confirming Clareinch and other lands in Buchanan. It is from the lands of Buchanan that the Clan name is derived.
14th century and Wars of Scottish Independence
Unenviable William Wallace Link. Sir Maurice Buchanan 10th of Buchanan married Margaret Menteth (also spelt Menteith). Margaret was the daughter of Sir Walter Menteth of Rusky, and granddaughter of Sir John of Menteth, Sherriff of Dunbarton Castle, and Helena daughter of Gartnait, Earl of Mar. Sir John is reputed to have betrayed Sir William Wallace to king Edward I of England on 5 Aug 1305. Sir John was imprisoned by king Robert I but in 1314 "through influence of his sons-in-law; Malice, Earl of Strathern; Sir Archibald Campbell, of Lochow; and Maurice Buchanan, of Buchanan, he was released immediately before the Battle of Bannockburn, where he deported himself valiantly on the part of the Scottish king."  Sir John was also a signatory to the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320.
During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Buchanan supported King Robert the Bruce by aiding his escape in 1306, the chief, Maurice 10th of Buchanan, refused to sign the Ragman Roll, and the chief and lairds of the clan (and presumably their clansmen) served under Malcolm the Earl of Lennox. It is tradition and likely given the aforementioned service, but ill-documented, that the clan fought at the Battle of Bannockburn.
During the reign of Donald Mormaer (Earl) of Lennox (1333–1365), and confirmed by the king David II in 1370/71, "Confirmation is of charter by Donald, Earl of Lennox, in favour of Maurice Buchanan, son and heir of late Maurice Buchanan, of that carucate of land called Buchanan with Sallochy, with these bounds ie Akehin up to Aldmarr [Auchmar] just as it descends below the water of Hanerch [Endrick], and the land of Sallochy, with these bounds, from Sallochy all along to Kelg and then it descends to the water of Lochlomon [Loch Lomond], to hold in fee and with the freedom to hold as many courts with jurisdiction of life and limb as he may wish." 
15th century, Hundred Years' War and other clan conflicts
Sir Alexander Buchanan, second son of Walter Buchanan of Buchanan, led men of the clan in support of the French against the English at the Battle of Baugé in 1421. It is said that Sir Alexander Buchanan came face to face with the Duke of Clarence and, escaping his thrust, pierced the Duke through the left eye, killing him. Sir Alexander Buchanan however was later killed leading the clan against the English at the Battle of Verneuil in 1424.
The 15th century is a watershed in the evolution of Buchanan heraldry. In the Armorial de Barry, c 1445 the arms of Buchanan (Le sire de bouguenal) are Or (gold/yellow), chevron checky of Azure (Blue) and Argent (silver/white), and the three boars heads erased and erect of Gules (red). The following three events are believed to have resulted in a total transformation in the Chief’s arms:
1421 - The Battle of Baugé in which Sir Alexander Buchanan (son of the Chief) killed the Duke of Clarence (second son of King Henry IV of England).
1443 – Marriage of Isobel Stewart (daughter of Murdoch Stewart) to Sir Walter Buchanan.
The arms described in the Scots Roll, c1455, 'Or, a lion rampant Sable goutty Or within a double tressure flory counter-flory Sable', contain many of the elements of the arms registered by John Buchanan in 1657, the coat of arms we recognise today. The adoption of the double tressure flory counterflory into the Chief’s arms alludes to the nearness of the Buchanan chiefly line to that of the Scottish royal line by the marriage of Isobel Stewart. The Chief’s 1657 crest (which also is the centre piece of clanfolk’s badge) is a hand couped at the wrist holding a ducal cap, which celebrates Sir Alexander Buchanan’s slaying of the Duke of Clarence in combat. However, the seal of George Buchanan c1557, 'Three (bear or boar) heads erased', is similar to the 1445 arms.
In the 15th century a feud broke out between the Buchanan's of Leny and the Clan MacLaren resulting in a full-scale battle. On the day of a fair where the Clan MacLaren were busy buying, selling and enjoying themselves word came that the Clan Buchanan were marching up towards them through Strathyre. There was no time to lose and the Clan MacLaren rushed to arms. The MacLarens had not all come in by the time the Buchanans arrived, however they were not daunted and attacked the Buchanans. At first the Buchanans were faring better and drove the MacLarens back. The Chief of MacLarens saw one of his sons cut down and being suddenly seized with battle madness turned and shouted the famous MacLaren battle cry "Creag An Tuirc" and whirling his Claymore rushed furiously at the enemy. His clansmen followed him and the Buchanans were cut down like corn. Only two escaped by swimming the River Balvaig but even they were followed. One was cut down at Gartnafuaran and the second was cut down at a place since known by the circumstance as Sron Laine.
16th century, Anglo-Scottish Wars and the King of Kippen
During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Buchanan fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden in 1513 where the chief's elder son Patrick was killed. However Patrick had already married a daughter of the Earl of Argyll and had two sons and daughters. Later the Clan Buchanan fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547.
John Buchanan, the second son of Walter Buchanan the 14th of Buchanan and uncle of George Buchanan the 15th of Buchanan, became proprietor of Arnprior, and afterwards the noted "King of Kippen", a phrase which originated in a whimsical episode between himself and James V. The story is well retold by Sir Walter Scott in the following paragraph.
When James V travelled in disguise he used a name which was known only to some of his principal nobility and attendants. He was called the Goodman (the tenant, that is) of Ballengiech. Ballengiech is a steep pass which leads down behind the Castle of Stirling. Once upon a time when he was feasting in Stirling, the King sent for some venison from the neighbouring hills. The deer were killed and put on horse’s backs, to be transported to Stirling. Unluckily they had to pass the castle gates of Arnpryor, belonging to a chief of the Buchanans, who had a considerable number of guests with him. It was late, and the company were rather short of victuals, though they had more than enough of liquor. The chief, seeing so much fat venison passing his very door, seized on it; and to the expostulations of the keepers, who told him it belonged to King James, he answered insolently, that if James was King in Scotland, he, Buchanan, was King in Kippen, being the name of the district in which the Castle of Arnpryor lay. On hearing what had happened, the King got on horseback, and rode instantly from Stirling to Buchanan's house, where he found a strong fierce looking Highlander, with an axe on his shoulder, standing sentinel at the door. This grim warder refused the King admittance, saying, that the Laird of Arnpryor was at dinner, and would not be disturbed. “Yet go up to the company my good friend,” said the King, “and tell him that the Goodman of Ballengiech is come to feast with the King of Kippen.” The porter went grumbling into the house, and told his master, that there was a fellow with a red beard, who called himself the Goodman of Ballengiech, at the gate, who said he was come to dine with the King of Kippen. As soon as Buchanan heard these words, he knew that the King was there in person, and hastened down to kneel at James's feet, and to ask forgiveness for his insolent behaviour. But the King, who only meant to give him a fright, forgave him freely, and going into the castle feasted on his own venison which Buchanan had intercepted. Buchanan of Arnpryor was ever afterwards called the King of Kippen.
17th century, Wars of the Three Kingdoms and loss of the Buchanan Estate
During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms Sir George Buchanan commanded the Stirlingshire Regiment and led the clan at the Battle of Dunbar (1650) on the side of the Scottish Covenanters. He later led the clan at the Battle of Inverkeithing but here he was captured and died in captivity later the same year. It is claimed that in Buchanan's Stirlingshire Regiment "most of his officers, and a good many of the soldiers" were of the name Buchanan, and that at the Battle of Inverkeithing a "vast number of the name Buchanan" died. Other Buchanans involved with the Royalist cause include:
- David Buchanan, Royalist soldier captured at Worchester. Transported on the John and Sarah, from Gravesend 13 May 1652 to Boston.
- John Buchanan, Royalist soldier captured at Worchester. Transported on the John and Sarah, from Gravesend 13 May 1652 to Boston.
Some Buchanans fought on the side of the Covenanters at the Battle of Bothwell Brig in 1679. One was George Buchanan (1657–1719) (later a magistrate, maltman (whisky distiller) and successful Glasgow merchant), the son of Andrew Buchanan of Gartacharne (a small farm ( ) 2 km due south-east of Drymen). George was the father of four of Glasgow’s most distinguished citizens: George Buchanan of Moss and Auchentoshan (maltman and Glasgow city treasurer and bailie), Andrew Buchanan of Drumpellier (Tobacco Lord and Lord Provost of Glasgow), Archibald Buchanan of Silverbanks and Auchentortie (Tobacco Lord) and Neil Buchanan of Hillington (Tobacco Lord and Member of Parliament for Glasgow district of burghs). These four sons were among the founding members of the charity, The Buchanan Society of Glasgow.
The full scope of Buchanan Covenanters is unknown; however,
- Alexander Buchanan, Buchlivie, Covenanter, was sent from Tollbooth, 12 Dec 1678, on St. Michael of Scarborough, to Themes for on forwarding to the American plantations.
- Andrew Buchanan, Shirgarton, Covenanter, was sent from Tollbooth, 12 Dec 1678, on St. Michael of Scarborough, to Themes for on forwarding to the American plantations.
- Gilbert Buchanan, Glasgow, banished to the Indies, 13 Jun 1678.
Regarding the Buchanan Estate (c1681), according to William Buchanan of Auchmar, "The most flourishing condition it has been in, for diverse ages, was upon the last laird's accession to it" (c1652). (By last laird, he was referring to John Buchanan, son of Sir George Buchanan.) At this time the estate included the Barony of Buchanan, "several lands in the parishes of Killearn, Strablane, and others in Lennox" (Strablane is likely to be Strathblane which is between the parishes of Killearn and Lennox); "the whole estate of Badindalloch" (in Stirlingshire); and "the estate of Craigmillar in Midlothian". Along with the inheritance of the estate and clan chiefship, there was significant debt. John Buchanan was unwilling to receive his inheritance until his brother-in-law to be, David Erskine, 2nd Lord Cardross, arranged for creditors to accept as payment only a portion of what was owed (a composition). Debt continued to plague John Buchanan, and in about 1680, he and his named successor, Major George Grant (alias Major George Buchanan of that Ilk), sold some of the Highland lands to James Grahame, the Third Marquess of Montrose. It appears that there were other claimants to the Highland lands and as a guarantee that the sale would proceed, John Buchanan offered the Barony of Buchanan as security (an infeftment of real warrandice). It transpired that the sale did not proceed and the Marquess of Montrose became the owner of the Barony of Buchanan and it became the seat of Clan Graham. Prior to the sale, John Buchanan of Arnpryor had been the estate manager for John Buchanan. After the sale, John Buchanan of Arnpryor received a quarter of the estate from the Marquess of Montrose for his services and assistance in evicting the whole estate. (Precisely what his services were and the meaning of "evicting the whole estate" is unclear.)
18th century and Jacobite uprisings
As a unified entity, Clan Buchanan took no part in the Jacobite uprisings of 1715 to 1716 or the 1745 to 1746 uprising. A likely contributing factor was the leadership vacuum resulting from the death of the last Chief in c1681. There is clear evidence of some Buchanans supporting the Jacobite cause (including the reintroduction of the absolute monarchy of the Stuarts) while others were supporting the Government cause (including the continuance of the limited monarchy of the Hanoverians: limited by law and Parliament).
1) Alexander Buchanan, born 1728, son of the Laird of Auchleishie, Callander, Perthshire, Stirlingshire, Jacobite Captain in the Duke of Perth's Regiment, prisoner at Perth, Canongate, Carlisle, ship, and London; transported 22 Apr 1747 from Liverpool to the Colony of Maryland on the ship "Johnson",
2) John Buchanan, servant to Alexander Buchanan, resident of Auchterarder, Perthshire, Jacobite in the Duke of Perth's Regiment, prisoner at Auchterarder, Stirling, and Carlisle; transported 24 Feb 1747 on the ship "Gildart" to the Colony of Maryland.
4) Francis Buchanan, of Arnpryor, Lenny House, Callander. Arrested before battle of Culloden for stockpiling weapons. Tried for high treason and executed at Carlisle 18 Oct 1746. Writing to Philip Webb on 9 Sep 1746, Lord Milton, the Lord Justice Clerk, said of Francis Buchanan that it would be of "more consequence to His Majesty’s Service … to get rid of such a person than to convict 99 of the lowest rank."  For further details on whether Francis Buchanan of Arnprior was the chief of the clan, see the section below.
5) Patrick Buchanan, brother of Francis Buchanan of Arnpryor, brewer from Kilmahog, Callander. Joined the Jacobites in the Duke of Perth's Regiment and went with them to Crieff. Tried at Carlisle and acquitted on account of his youth.
6) Thomas Buchanan, brother of Francis Buchanan of Arnpryor. Tried and acquitted on account of his youth.
8) John Buchanan, in Stuart of Appin's Regiment, died in prison.
10) John Buchanan, servant to David Stewart of Ballachallan in Strathallan?s Perthshire Horse. Subsequent condition unknown.
11) Duncan Buchanan, prominent Jacobite agent and clerk to Aeneas MacDonald, the banker to Charles Edward Stuart in Paris. He was one of "The Seven Men of Moidart."  Subsequent condition unknown.
1) Andrew Buchanan of Drumpellier, Tobacco Lord and Lord Provost of Glasgow (1740–42). After the Jacobite victory at the battle of Prestonpans (21 Sep 1745), John Hay, quarter-master of Prince Charles’ Jacobite Army, arrived at Glasgow 25 Sep 1745 with a letter demanding a loan of £15,000. Buchanan and five others were chosen to negotiate with Hay, and succeeded in obtaining a reduction to £5,500. On account of Buchanan’s zeal in raising new levies on behalf of the government, the Jacobites demanded in December 1745 a special levy of £500 from him. Despite threats of military execution, he replied "they might plunder his house if they pleased, for he would not pay one farthing." 
2) Archibald Buchanan of Drummakill (alternate spellings: Drumnakil, Drumakiln and Drumnakiln), overt supporter of the Government, magistrate and militia officer. After the defeat at Culloden on 16 Apr 1746, the escaping William Murray, Marquis of Tullibardine, took refuge in the Loch Lomond house of Archibald Buchanan of Drummakill (husband of Tullibardine's cousin). Depending on the source, Drummakill accepted the surrender of the exhausted Tullibardine, captured him or, in defiance of Highland hospitality norms, betrayed him to the garrison at Dumbarton Castle. Most sources cite the 'betrayal' version of events and advise that Drummakill was forever after ostracised in Scotland. Tullibardine died 9 Jul 1746 as a prisoner at the Tower of London.
Title of the Chief. The two main Clan historians, Buchanan of Auchmar writing in 1723 uses the term ‘laird of Buchanan’, while Guthrie Smith writing in 1896 uses the term ‘laird of Buchanan’ to describe the chiefs up to and including Sir Maurice the 10th of Buchanan and then ‘Buchanan of that Ilk’ up to and including Sir George the 15th of Buchanan and thereafter Buchanan of Buchanan. The chief of a Highland clan could be referred to as the ‘Laird of’, meaning the head of the clan (a patrimonial title), e.g. Laird of Buchanan. The title ‘of that Ilk’ was historically used by both Highland and Lowland clans to indicate head or chiefship (again a patrimonial title), e.g. Buchanan of that Ilk. However, in the early 19th century ‘of that Ilk’ fell out of favour with Highland chiefs who adopted a duplication of the patronymic, regardless of ownership of territory or estate, e.g. Buchanan of Buchanan. Given the current Highland practice, Buchanan of Buchanan is likely to be the preferred contemporary title but for ease of reading and clarity, n th of Buchanan is used in the following paragraphs. Both the spelling Buchanan and Buchannan are used interchangeably in historical documents.
The first six Clan Chiefs are poorly represented in historical records and are included by some Clan historians and omitted by others. Buchanan of Auchmar and Guthrie Smith commence their respective numbering of Chiefs at a different person, and describe a different order and number of Chiefs following Sir Walter 11th of Buchanan. In part this is due to the heir apparent not succeeding to the chiefship before he dies and chiefship passing directly from grandfather to grandchild. The following lineage reconciles Guthrie Smith and Buchanan of Auchmar and their respective numbering is in parenthesis.
1st – Anselan O'Kyan, son of a petty king from Ulster, Ireland, in the service of Malcolm II of Scotland from whom he received a grant of land in Lennox. He married an heiress of Denniestoun and by her had a son, John.
2nd – John, whose son and successor was Anselan.
3rd – Anselan, whose son and successor was Walter.
4th – Walter, whose son and successor was Girald.
5th – Girald also called Bernard, whose son and successor was McBeath.
6th –McBeath (MacBethe/McBeth) McCausland, whose son and successor was Anselan.
7th – Anselan McCausland, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as the 7th Laird of Buchanan and commences his numbering of Chiefs from him.) Seneschal to Earl of Lennox in about 1225 and obtained the charter for the Loch Lomond island of Clareinch (the Clan’s call to war and alternately rendered as Clairinch or Clar Innis), had three sons (Gilbert his successor, Methlin the ancestor of the MacMillans, and Coleman the ancestor of the MacColemans).
9th – Sir Maurice Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 3rd Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 9th Chief) had three sons (Maurice his successor, Allan who married the heiress of Leny and John the first ancestor of the cadets of Auchneiven).
10th – Sir Maurice Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 4th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 10th Chief) lived to a considerable age, married the daughter of Sir William Menteith of Rusk and by her a son and successor (Walter).
11th – Sir Walter Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 5th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 11th Chief) married Margaret and had three sons (Walter his successor, Alexander who reputedly killed the Duke of Clarence at the battle of Beaugé in 1421 and who later died in the battle of Verneuil in 1424, and John [Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 12th Chief ] who married Janet the heiress of Leny and was the first ancestor of the cadets of Leny) and two daughters (Elizabeth and Jean).
12th – Sir Walter Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 6th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 13th Chief) first married an unidentified women and by her three sons (Patrick his successor, Walter and Thomas first ancestor of cadets of Gartincaber, Drumikill and Carbeth) and one daughter. He married secondly to Isobel Stewart.
13th – Patrick Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 7th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 14th Chief) married Jonet Cunningham of Galbraith and by her a son (Walter his successor) and a daughter (Anabella). He also had an illegitimate son (Patrick).
14th – Walter Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 8th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 15th Chief) married Isobel Graham and by her four sons (Patrick [Guthrie Smith identifies him as 9th Chief but then goes on to advise that the Chiefship passed from Patrick’s father to Patrick’s son and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 16th Chief ] who married the daughter of the Earl of Argyle and by her had George who succeeded his grandfather; John first ancestor of cadets of Arnprior; Maurice; and Walter first ancestor of cadets of Spittal) and two daughters (Margaret and Elizabeth).
15th – George Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 10th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 17th Chief) succeed his grandfather, Walter 14th of Buchanan, in 1526 and died 1560. He first married Margaret Edmonstone and by her a son (John [Guthrie Smith identifies him as 11th Chief but then goes on to advise that the Chiefship passed from John’s father to John’s son and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 18th Chief] who married Elizabeth Livingston and by her had George who succeeded his grandfather) and two daughters (Helen and Susanna). Second he married Janet Cunningham and by her had a son (William first ancestor of the cadets of Auchmar) and a daughter (Margaret).
16th – Sir George Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 12th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 19th Chief) succeed his grandfather, George 15th of Buchanan, in 1561, married Lady Mary Graham and by her one son (John his successor) and two daughters (Helen and Susanna).
17th – Sir John Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 13th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 20th Chief) known for his frequent travels to foreign nations and other extravagances put the estate into much debt, married Annabel Erskin and by her two sons (George his successor and Walter).
18th – Sir George Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 14th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 21st Chief) married Elizabeth Preston and by her a son (John his successor) and three daughters (Helen, Agnes and Jean). Sir George commanded the Stirlingshire Regiment in the Civil Wars of Charles I, fought at the battle of Dunbar, and was taken prisoner at Inverkeithing. He died in prison in 1651.
19th – John Buchanan, (Guthrie Smith identifies him as 15th Chief and Buchanan of Auchmar identifies him as 22nd Chief) married in 1653 Mary Erskine and by her a daughter (Elizabeth). After the death of Mary, he married in 1677 Jean Pringle and by her had a daughter (Janet). When he died in 1682, he left no male heirs. He made two attempts to pass the chiefship to suitable candidates by arranging their marriage to his oldest daughter (Elizabeth). Firstly to Robert Buchanan, Advocate (the son of John Buchanan of Arnprior), and secondly to Major George Grant (details in a following section). In both cases, Elizabeth refused these arranged marriages. Consequently, no arrangement was finalised by which chiefship could be passed on to the descendants of his daughter. He inherited significant debt and during his chiefship, significant parts of the Buchanan Estate were sold, and the final portions of it were lost due to defaulting on creditors. With the lack of male heirs, the direct chiefly line ended at this time.
Chiefs’ Burial Ground. The reputed burial ground of the chiefs of Clan Buchanan is in the grounds of the Old Buchanan Parish Church  This church, the Chapel of St Mary & St Michael, served as a parish church after the abandonment of Inchcailleach in 1621 until a new church, in Milton of Buchanan, was built about 1764. Nothing now remains of the original chapel..
Other people with some measure of recognition as chief
The following four people have been cited as chief of Clan Buchanan but none appears to have been formally recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon (the heraldry court of Scotland). Before addressing the claims to chiefship it is necessary to establish how the office and title of chief is passed to succeeding generations in Scotland.
Patrilineal Descent. Firstly, the office and title is usually passed patrilineally (from father to child) in descending order of male birth then descending order of female birth, hence the oldest surviving son is the heir presumptive. If the heir presumptive produces no heirs, then on the heir presumptive’s death the office and title goes to the next younger son, etc., then eldest daughter, etc. The term ‘cadet’ is used to describe family groups which are descendants of younger sons, thus the oldest surviving son of each generation maintains the main or principal family line, and younger sons establish cadet lines. In the case of the chiefly line of Buchanan, the first recognised cadet was Buchanan of Auchneiven and the last was Buchanan of Auchmar. Cadets can have their own cadets, e.g. Buchanans of Drumpellier, Auchintorlie, Craigend and Hillington are cadets of Buchanan of Leny through Gartacharne. When chiefly line is extinguished, the most recent cadet line to branch off the chiefly line becomes the new chiefly line.
Maintenance of Surname. Secondly the office and title is implicitly linked to the surname, thus a McKay, a Cairns, etc. cannot be chief of Clan Buchanan. In some cases, where the heir is a daughter, arrangements have been made so that her husband and children assume her surname, and thus the office and title can be passed to her offspring. This practice has given rise to the use of compound (hyphenated or ‘double-barrelled’) names. The matter of principal names was established by the Lord Lyon Innes of Learney when in the case of Monro-Lucas-Tooth that he was a Tooth rather than a Monro or Lucas. It is now clearly established that it is the last name which decides the matter. Thus by the Court of the Lord Lyon, a Moodie-Buchanan is consider a Buchanan but a Buchanan-Moodie is considered a Moodie. Further, in the case of a chief as the representer of the family, the surname cannot be a compound surname.
Major George Buchanan (alias Major George Grant)
Neither Guthrie Smith nor Buchanan of Auchmar identify him as a chief (hence why John Buchanan is the last recognised chief); however, Buchanan of Auchmar advises that John Buchanan transferred "his estate to an old comrade of his, Major George Grant, Governor of Dumbarton castle, with this provision, that the Major should marry his eldest daughter, and assume the name and arms of Buchanan; reserving his own life-rent and his lady's jointure, and settling the estate so as to return to Buchanan's heirs-male, and, failing heirs of Grant's own body, to Buchanan's heirs whatsoever ." Despite George Grant never marrying the daughter of John Buchanan, National Archives of Scotland (NAS) records show the legal paperwork for this transfer occurred on 9 Apr 1679. NAS records show that by late 1679, George Grant had assumed the name George Buchanan, and that by 28 Aug 1680 he was cited as being Major George Buchanan of that Ilk. (The use of the title, Buchanan of that Ilk, implies that George had taken over the chiefship but it might also imply that John Buchanan was deceased by 28 Aug 1680.) Major George Buchanan never married and by his death had "given up all Buchanan evidences, both the rights and the fortune."
Buchanan of Arnprior
Sir Walter Scott in 1830, cites Francis Buchanan of Arnpryor (alternate spelling: Arnprior), who was executed at Carlisle on 18 Oct 1746 for high treason for his role in the Jacobite uprising, as being the chief of the family Buchanan. Jesse (1846) , Fillan (1849)  ,The Scottish Antiquary (1890)  and a history of Clan MacNab (1899)  cites Francis Buchanan of Arnprior as being the Chief of Clan Buchanan. Francis Buchanan of Arnprior was the grandson of the John Buchanan of Arnprior  who was the manager of the estate of John Buchanan of Buchanan (the last recognised Clan Chief who died c1681). Prior to the Chief’s second marriage (1677), he had arranged for Elizabeth, the only child of his first marriage, to wed Robert Buchanan, son of John Buchanan of Arnprior, and in due course inherit the Buchanan estate and chiefship – a bond of Tailzie. This marriage did not take place and the arrangement was cancelled. Francis Buchanan of Arnprior married Elizabeth Buchanan, who was the daughter of Janet Buchanan, who was the second daughter of John Buchanan of Buchanan, ie Elizabeth was the granddaughter of John Buchanan of Buchanan (the only child of the Chief's second marriage). The Clan historian, William Buchanan of Auchmar, a contemporary of Francis Buchanan of Arnprior, notes that Francis Buchanan owned part of the old Buchanan lands but makes no reference to the supposed chiefship and, if anything, alludes to treachery to John Buchanan of Buchanan by John Buchanan of Arnprior (Francis Buchanan's grandfather). William Buchanan of Auchmar also makes no mention of Francis Buchanan having married the last chief's granddaughter. It is possible that Scott, a historical novelist, simply embellished the facts for literary purposes. Nevertheless, assuming that Scott, et al are right and the chiefship had passed to Francis Buchanan (possibly via marriage to the heir of the last chief), then Buchanan of Auchmar may have misrepresented the Buchanans of Arnprior to bolster his own claim to the chiefship.
Buchanan of Auchmar claim
Alexander Nisbet in A System of Heraldry Vol 1, 1722, states that 'Buchannan of Lenie' is now the representor of 'Buchannan of that Ilk.' William Buchanan of Auchmar in his history of the clan, published in 1723, details a case that all cadet lines, except one, from George 15th of Buchanan to John Buchanan 19th of Buchanan had expired and on the death of the latter, the chiefship devolved to the cadet line most recently separated from the chiefly line, Buchanan of Auchmar, thus he, William Buchanan of Auchmar, is the chief of Clan Buchanan and that Nisbet is wrong in asserting that Buchanan of Leny is representer of the chiefly line. In Nisbet's (posthumously published) A System of Heraldry Vol 2, 1742, he recognises Buchanan of Auchmar as the successor of the chiefly line. In the 1826 claim for the chiefship by Dr Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, the extinction of both the main chiefly line and the Auchmar line are identified as preconditions to the claim. The later Clan historian, John Guthrie Smith, omits any reference to Buchanan of Auchmar’s claim when he details the Buchanans of Auchmar.
William Buchanan. William Buchanan of Auchmar married in 1696 Jean Buchanan and by her three son (John and Bernard who died before their father, and Alexander his successor) and three daughters (Janet, Katherine and Helen) who survived infancy. William died in 1747.
Alexander Buchanan. Alexander Buchanan of Auchmar married Christine Campbell and by her two sons (William his successor and James who succeeded his brother).
William Buchanan. William Buchanan of Auchmar sold his estate, reserving a right for redemption, he married in 1796 Sarah Bartlet. He died at sea off America the following year.
With the expiration of the Auchmar cadet line and in the absence of other contenders, it is claimed that in 1828 that Dr. Francis Buchanan-Hamilton of Spittal, Bardowie, and Leny established his claim as Chief of Clan Buchanan. Francis was the son of Thomas Buchanan of Spittal and Leny (the Leny estate and title were inherited from Thomas’ first wife), and Elizabeth Hamilton of Bardowie. In 1815 Francis inherited his mother’s estate and adopted the additional surname of Hamilton. His claim to Clan Buchanan chiefship comes through the Buchanan of Spittal cadet line from the fourth son of Walter 14th of Buchanan. Similar to the Buchanan of Auchmar claim, this implies that any cadet lines from Walter 14th of Buchanan through to John 19th of Buchanan are extinguished. Adams cites the successor to Buchanan of Auchmar as being Buchanan of Leny; however, the term Leny here should be read as a territorial designation and not an indication of the cadet line.
Dr. Francis Buchanan-Hamilton. Dr. Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (1762–1829) married Anne Brock and by her a son (John).
John Buchanan-Hamilton. John Buchanan-Hamilton (1822–1903) married (1845) Margaret Seton and had three sons (Francis (1853–1893) who died unmarried and without heir, George (1856–1886) who died unmarried and without heir, and John his successor) and three daughter (Margaret, Ann and Katherine).
John Hamilton Buchanan. John Hamilton Buchanan (1861–1919) married in 1884 Phoebe Elizabeth Brock but appears to have left no heir. This line is now recognised as extinguished. It is noteworthy that John was named John Hamilton Buchanan, thus the Hamilton name adopted by his grandfather became John’s middle name. This brought his name in line with the subsequent Lord Lyon ruling on compound names.
External evidence of historic claims
Edinburgh and London Gazettes. An on-line search of the historic Edinburgh Gazette and London Gazette for notices pertaining to ‘laird of buchanan’, ‘buchanan of that ilk’ or ‘buchanan of buchanan’ and the alternate spelling of ‘Buchanan’ reveal no supporting evidence for either the Buchanan of Auchmar or Buchanan-Hamilton claims.
The Buchanan Society. The Buchanan Society maintains and publishes a list of all past and current members by year of joining and membership number, and if provided, the relationship between its members, i.e. daughter of, great-grandson of, etc. The Buchanan Society Handbook 2004 lists
- Francis Buchanan of Arnprior as joining (1727, #63). Estate is cited but no special status in the Clan.
- William Buchanan of Auchmar as joining twice (1726, #48 and 1730, #123), and his grandson William Buchanan of Auchmar joining once (1794, #256). Both cited their estate but neither cited any special status in the Clan.
- Francis Hamilton-Buchanan of Spittal, Bardowie and Leny (1771, #213); his son, John Buchanan-Hamilton of Spittal, Leny and Bardowie (1852, #410); and his grandson, John Hamilton Buchanan (Leny) Chartered Accountant (1882, #480) are likewise members of the Buchanan Society. Again estate and or occupation is listed but nothing to indicate any special status in the Clan.
Public Register of the Lyon Court. The last record in the Public Register of the Lyon Court for undifferenced Arms of Buchanan (i.e., the Chief’s Arms) was recorded in 1675. Arms are meant to be rematriculated within a year and a day of succession; however, it is common practice that Arms be borne on apparency, that is without matriculating the Arms, for two or three generations, beyond this it may be difficult or impossible to demonstrate heirship. So while there may have been discussions and determinations within the Clan hierarchy regarding the Clan Chief, the claims of neither Buchanan of Auchmar (1723–1816) nor Buchanan-Hamilton (1828–1919) appear to have been ratified in a legal sense.
Despite a lack of evidence in the form of legal notices or recognition by the Lyon Court of either the Buchanan of Auchmar and Buchanan-Hamilton claims, both are known and accepted by contemporary or near contemporary authorities and authors. Noting that part of the Buchanan-Hamilton claim is that the cadet branch of Buchanan of Auchmar is extinct, Buchanan-Hamilton’s wider cadet branch of Buchanan of Spittal would be a plausible starting point for search a hereditary claim on the chiefship of Clan Buchanan. However, in the event that a future hereditary claim is made, it is unlikely that the claim can build off either of the two earlier claims (because neither were recognised by the Lyon Court); consequently, it will be necessary to detail the claim back to 1675 and probably much earlier.
Recent claims to the chiefship
John Michael Baillie-Hamilton Buchanan claim
On 24 Apr 2017, the Lyon Court ordered advertisement in The Buchanan Society website and Clan Buchanan Society International website of the petition by John Michael Baillie-Hamilton Buchanan (formerly John Michael Buchanan-Baillie-Hamilton of Arnprior) for the chiefship of Clan Buchanan. Any people claiming interest in the petition were to lodge it with the Lyon Clerk within 42 days of the advertisement.  The advertisement was first made public on the CBSI website on 3 Jun 2017. 
The question, "Who is the Clan Buchanan chief?" is frequently raised by clanfolk at Clan information tents at Scottish Gatherings (especially in the United States, Australia, Canada and New Zealand) and in on-line forums. When advised of the demise of the Chief and the chiefly line in the 17th century, the next two most common questions are, "Why don’t we get another one?" and "How do we get another one?" For over 330 years without our Clan Chief the clanfolk have dispersed around the world and survived (many prospered as evidenced by the number of famous Buchanans in all disciplines and vocations, and in peace and war). Nonetheless, some clanfolk would like to have their Clan Chief re-established. The process of re-establishing a chief is guided by the Court of the Lord Lyon. The reason a new chief has not been appointed is because no candidate has clearly demonstrated his or her hereditary right to claim the Chiefship or, in the absence of a hereditary claim, a Buchanan armiger has not been identified to become the new Chief. In 2011 a loose coalition of Clan armigers was established, called the Chief’s Council of Armigers. The Council, through engagement with:
- the Court of the Lord Lyon; and
- the two established clan organisations:
- the Buchanan Society (a purely charitable organisation); and
- Clan Buchanan Society International (a mutual interest organisation);
is seeking to identify the rightful heir of the Chiefly line, and in the absence of an heir, identify and elect a Commander.
The 21st-century clan chief
Unlike the pre-18th-century chiefs, a 21st-century chief is not going to lead their clan in war or demand rents and levies. The experience of other clans is that their 21st-century chief:
- adds to the clan’s sense of completeness;
- adds to the perceived prestige of the clan;
- performs and adds dignity to ceremonial duties;
- enables the clan to speak with one voice;
- helps to focus clan effort on matters of clan wide interest;
- represents clan interests in multi-clan forums;
- promotes the right use of chiefly arms and associated heraldry;
- promotes a general awareness and increased use of heraldry by the clanfolk;
- interacts with the clan society in a similar way to how a constitutional monarchy interacts with the elected governments of his or her subjects;
- appoints lieutenants to represent them when they cannot be present; and
- uses modern communications to achieve effective (sometimes synchronous) communication between him or herself, the lieutenants and the clanfolk.
Resurrecting the traditional chiefly line
A hereditary claimant would need to have the name 'Buchanan' (and recognised spelling variant but not a hyphenated name) and demonstrate that he or she is patrilineally descended from one of the Chiefs (there are some provisions for matrilineal descent when legally formalised, e.g. bond of tailzie). The strongest evidence is with primary sources like birth, marriage and other legal records, but sometimes other sources can be used. In the case of Clan Buchanan, it would be necessary to prove back to the 17th century and most likely earlier. In some cases, it would only be necessary to prove descent from an armiger recognised by the Lyon Court whose descent from a Clan chief is already recognised. Once the descent is proved, then it is necessary to demonstrate that more senior lines of descent are extinguished. If a more senior line is not identified, then it will be necessary to advertise the claim to the Chiefship in media and for a duration specified by the Lyon Court. The purpose of advertising the claim to the Chiefship is to give potential claimants from more senior branches, or from within the original claimant’s own branch, a chance to identify him or herself and claim the Chiefship, or for other interested parties to dispute the validity of the claim. If there are no counter-claims, or evidence which disproves the claim, the candidate may be recognised by the Lord Lyon. The ascending order of seniority of the primary branches off the chiefly line is Auchneven, Leny, Drummakill, Carbeth, Arnpryor (i.e. the first family of Arnpryor, not the second which descended Leny), Spital, and Auchmar. Clan Buchanan has a number of clanfolk who can prove that they are descended from the Buchanans of Drummakill (descended from Sir Walter Buchanan the 12th of Buchanan). At this point in time, the descendants of the Buchanans of Drummakill are the most senior known potential candidates for the Chiefship; however, descendants of Carbeth, Arnpryor, Spital and Auchmar, should they exist, are more senior than the descendants of Drummakill.
Establishing a new chiefly line
In the event that none of the known descendants choose to claim the Chiefship, a process overseen by the Lyon Court called a Family Convention or Derbhfine can be used to elect a Commander and, if after 10 years’ service there are no contraindications or counter-claims, then the Commander may be recognised as the Clan’s new hereditary Chief. The membership of the Family Convention are armigers of the name ‘Buchanan’ (including spelling variations and some hyphenated names) who are recognised by the Lyon Court, and other clanfolk with substantial Scottish land holding or of achievement as approved by the Lyon Court appointed overseeing officer. To ensure that the Family Convention is as representative of the Clan as possible, eligible clanfolk are encouraged to petition the Lyon Court to matriculate the arms of an ancestor or for a grant of new arms. Only armigers recognised by the Lyon Court of the name ‘Buchanan’ (and spelling variants but not hyphenated names) are eligible to become the Chief. It is preferable, but not essential, that the Commander or Chief has some type of hereditary link to a past Chief and lives in Scotland.
Name spelling variations
Early written renderings of the name include Balgquhannen, Balquhannan, Baquhanan, Bochannane, Bochannen, Boquehennan, Boquhannane, Boquhennane, Bowhanan, Bowhannan, Bucchanane, Buchanane, Buchanen, Buchannan, Buchannand, Buchannane, Buchanne, Buchannen, Buchannent, Buchquhannane, Buchquannan, Buchunnuch, Bucquanane, Buquhannan, Buquhannane, Buquhannanne, and Buquannane. More recent spellings include Buckanon, Buchannon, Bocanan, etc.
The historic seat of the Clan Buchanan is Buchanan Auld House in Stirlingshire. Buchanan Castle was built in the 19th century as a replacement for Buchanan Auld House, after the surrounding lands had passed to the Grahams in the late 17th century. Other castles and monuments of the Clan Buchanan have included: Craigend Castle, Dunglass Castle (Dunbartonshire), Northbar House, Francis Fort, Wolfshire Manor and the Buchanan Monument at Killearn.
The cadet branches is order of separation from the chiefly line: Auchneven, Leny, Drumikill, Carbeth, Arnprior, Spital, and Auchmar.
The Septs of Clan Buchanan derive from the first Auselan to use the surname Buchanan, Gilbert, whose father had obtained the Buchanan lands, and his brothers Colman and Methlan, grandson Maurice, and great-grandson Walter.
Calman, Colman*, Cormack*, Cousland*, Dewar*, Dove*, Dow*, Gibb*, Gibbon*, Gibson*, Gilbert, Gilbertson*, Harper*, Harperson*, Leavy*, Lennie*, Lenny*, MacAldonich*, MacAlman*, MacAslan*, MacAslin*, MacAuselan*, MacAuslan*, MacAusland*, MacAuslane*, MacAlman*, MacAlmont*, MacAmmond*, MacAsland*, MacChruiter*, MacCalman, MacColman*, MacCormack*, MacCubbin*, MacCubbing*, MacCubin*, MacGeorge*, MacGibbon*, MacGreuisich*, MacGubbin*, MacInally*, MacIndeor*, MacIndoe*, MacKinlay*, MacKinley*, MacMaster*, MacMaurice*, MacMurchie*, MacMurchy*, MacNeur*, MacNuir*, MacNuyer*, MacQuattie*, MacWattie*, MacWhirter*, Masters*, Masterson*, MacCaslin*, Morrice*, Morris*, Morrison*, Murchie*, Murchison*, Richardson*, Risk*, Rusk*, Ruskin*, Spittal*, Spittel*, Walter*, Walters*, Wason*, Waters*, Watson*, Watt*, Watters*, Weir*, Yuill*, Yool*, Yule*, Zuill*.
- Asterisked (*) sept names are sourced from Scots Kith & Kin. 1900. Edinburgh: Albyn Press, Ltd. for Clan House, Lindsay & Co. Ltd., s.d. (c1960, reprint of 1900 first edition). 94 pp. + fold-out map.
There are three contemporary organisations which represent the Clan Buchanan.
The Buchanan Society
The Buchanan Society is a purely charitable organisation established in 1725 in Glasgow, Scotland, for the needy of the Clan. The foundation of the Society featured the great trading houses of the Clan but from all corners of the globe contemporary clan folk and friends of the Clan of all professions and occupations support this charity. The Society is funded by an entry fee paid by each member of the Society, gifts and interest from investments. Its original charter specified charity to those of the name Buchanan and recognised septs by assisting boys to trades and those of promising genius at their studies to university. Except that girls are now eligible for assistance, the goals have remained largely unchanged. The Society has been given many Clan heirlooms. The books, records and other collections of the Society are held at the Mitchell Library, Glasgow, and Strathclyde University Library. The Society also owns the Buchanan Monument in Killearn, and the Loch Lomond island of Clairinch.
Clan Buchanan Society International
The Clan Buchanan Society International (CBSI) is a mutual interest society established in 1970 at the Grandfather Mountain Games in North Carolina to promote the celebration of being a Buchanan. Membership is by annual subscription and is greatest in the US, but as the organisation matures, new chapters are being established around the world, especially in the Oceania region.
The CBSI Black Lion Banner. CBSI uses the coat of arms granted by the Lyon Court in 2002 on its official correspondence; however, it uses a self-assumed coat of arms which predate the granted arms on its flag, which is called the Black Lion Banner. The Black Lion Banner has a field of gold/yellow charged with a black lion rampant with red claws and tongue shedding five silver tears all within a black double tressure flory-counter-flory. (This might be described in heraldic language as, "Or, a lion rampant Sable, armed and langued Gules charged with five goutte Argent all within a double tressure flory-counter-flory of the second.") The lion rampant on the field of gold within the double tressure flory-counter-flory alludes to the arms of the Clan chief and is the charge and tressure of most Buchanan arms. The silver tears refer to the sadness of the Clan at not having a chief. A variation of the Black Lion Banner is used on some CBSI apparel.
Chief’s Council of Armigers
The Chief’s Council of Armigers is an organisation comprising Clan armigers whose aim is to optimise the strategic leadership of the Clan in order to promote Clan interests globally with due regard for tradition, Scottish law, and contemporary needs and opportunities. One of the more pressing tasks of the Council is the identification of a Clan leader, either the hereditary Chief or an elected Commander. The Council subscribes to the view that the principal interest of the Clan is not power, influence, glory, history, heraldry nor even honour, per se; rather, it is the encouragement of the clan folk to learn, enjoy and celebrate their unique Buchanan, Highland, Scottish heritage. It is against this interest that the Council’s efforts are evaluated.
the sept masterson was Irish, the Scottish sept of Buchanan is spelt Masterton.
- Smibert, Thomas (1850). The clans of the Highlands of Scotland: an account of their annals, with delineations of their tartans, and family arms. Edinburgh: James Hogg. p. 44.
- The belt and buckle encompassing the crest shown, implies that is a clansmen or clanswomen crest, the chief's crest is encompassed by a circlet.
- The Scottish Clans and Their Tartans, p.11. (Retrieved on 24 April 2009). Edinburgh: W. & A.K. Johnston, 1900(?).
- Logan, James (1899). The clans of the Scottish Highland. Columbia University: Bryce. p. 113.
- Buchanan of Auchmar cites Dec 1682, Guthrie Smith cites before 6 Sep 1681, and National Archives of Scotland have a legal document prepared for John Buchanan's signature dated 28 Aug 1680 but it is unsigned, and a separated document of the same date is signed by George Buchanan of that Ilk. It would appear that John Buchanan died some close to and prior to 28 Aug 1680.
- Scots Kith & Kin. 1900. Edinburgh: Albyn Press, Ltd. for Clan House, Lindsay & Co. Ltd., s.d. (c1960, reprint of 1900 first edition). 94 pp. + fold-out map.
- "The Scottish Clans and Their Tartans". W. & A. K. Johnston Limited. Edinburgh and London. 1886. Page 3.
- Smibert, Thomas (1850). The clans of the Highlands of Scotland: an account of their annals, with delineations of their tartans, and family arms. Edinburgh: James Hogg. p. 35.
- Maclauchlan, Thomas (1857). Celtic Gleanings. Maclachlan and Stewart. p. 168.
- Keay, John (2000). Collins encyclopaedia of Scotland. Harper Collins. p. 114.
- Buchanan of Auchmar, William (1733). The Historical and Genealogical Essay Upon the Family and Surname of Buchanan. Glasgow. p 15f
- Robert Bain. 1938. The Clans and Tartans of Scotland. Glasgow and London: Fontana/Collins. p. 50.
- Buchanan, Watson W. (2002) 'History of Clan Buchanan and its Septs: a Millennial Update' Pro Familia Publishing, Toronto, Canada, p 7f
- Bain, loc. cit.
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p 16
- National Archive of Scotland, RH1/2/40
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p 20
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p 21
- Burke, John (1833) ‘A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, Volume 1’, 4th Ed, Published for Henry Colburn, London, p 318
- Buchanan of Auchmar, William (1733). The Historical and Genealogical Essay Upon the Family and Surname of Buchanan. Glasgow. p. 20f.
- Buchanan, W. Watson (2002). The History of Clan Buchanan and its Septs: a Millennial Update. Toronto: Pro Familia Publishing. p. 29f.
- Robertson’s Index for Charters of Sovereigns of Scotland, cited in Nimo, William (1817) History of Stirlingshire. Corrected and brought down to the present time by W.M. Stirling, 2nd. Editor William MacGregor Stirling, Oxford University, p 395f
- National Archive of Scotland, GD220/1/D/5/1/4
- Robertson’s Index for Charters of Sovereigns of Scotland, cited in Nimo, William. p 396.
- Guthrie Smith, John (1896). Strathendrick and its Inhabitants from Early Times (1st ed.). Glasgow: James Maclehose and Son. p. 285.
- Partially reproduced in Clouston, J. Storer, 'The Armorial of Berry' Proceedings of the Society of Antiquarians of Scotland, Vol. LXXII, 6th series, Vol XII (1938) pages 84-111
- "The Scots Roll". www.heraldry-scotland.co.uk. Retrieved 28 Sep 2016.
- Macdonald, William Rae (1904). Scottish Armorial Seals. Edinburgh: William Green and Son. p. 32.
- "The Highland Clans of Scotland" by George Eyre-Todd 1923.
- "Clan MacLaren History". www.electricscotland.com. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- "A History of the Clan Mackenzie" by Alexander MacKenzie.
- Scott, Sir Walter (1828). Tales of a Grandfather; being Stories taken from Scottish History (1st ed.). Zwickau: Brothers Schumann. pp. 204f.
- Anderson 1862, p. 461.
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 108. Missing or empty
- Dobson, David (1983). Directory of Scots Banished to the American Plantations: 1650–1775. Genealogical Publishing Com. p 18
- Dobson (1983). p 18
- Buchanan, Arthur William Patrick (1929) "Later Leaves of the Buchanan Book," p223, E. Garand
- Buchanan, Andrew Hamilton and Buchanan, Neal Harkness (1995) "Andrew Buchanan of Chingford 1807–1877," p223, Hazard Press Ltd, Christchurch
- Dobson (1983). p 17
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 31. Missing or empty
- Eyre-Todd, George (1923). The Highland clans of Scotland; their history and traditions (1st ed.). New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 13.
- "Prisoners of the '45.2.58," Muster Rolls of Prince Charles Edward Stuart's Army 1746.67, Public Records Office, London T1.328.
- Aikman, Christian and Betty, Stuart Hart (2010) "No Quarter Given: The Muster Roll of Prince Charles Edward Stuart's Army, 1745–46", p 66, Neil Wilson Publishing Ltd, Glasgow.
- McDonnell, Frances (2009) "Jacobites of Perthshire, 1745", p 4-5, Genealogical Publishing Com, Baltimore
- Aikman, p69
- McDonnell, p 4-5
- Aikman, p227
- Waugh, John and Mounsey, George Gill (1846) "Carlisle in 1745: authentic account of the occupation of Carlisle in 1745 by Prince Charles Edward Stewart", p257, Longman and Co, London.
- Waugh and Mounsey, p253.
- Aikman, p66
- Aikman, p14
- Aikman, p126
- Aikman, p57
- Youngson, A. J. (1985) "The Prince and the Pretender: A Study in the Writing of History," p80, Croom Helm Ltd., Beckenham
- McKerracher, Mairead (2012) "Jacobite Dictionary", Neil Wilson Publishing, Glasgow.
- Hill, James and Smith, John (1835) "Memorabilia of Glasgow: selected from the minute books of the burgh, MDLXXXVIII-MDCCL", p 505, Glasgow
- Cochrane, Andrew and Dennistoun, James (1836) "The Cochrane correspondence regarding the affairs of Glasgow, M.DCC.XLV-VI", p 107, Maitland Club, Glasgow
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Pittock, Murray G. H. "On-line Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", http://www.oxforddnb.com/templates/article.jsp?articleid=19654&back=#top, 20 Feb 13.
- Jesse, John Heneage (1846) "Memoirs of the pretenders and their adherents, Volume 2", p 266, J.W. Moore, Philadelphia
- Buchanan of Auchmar. pp. 31f. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith, John (1896). Strathendrick and its Inhabitants from Early Times (1st ed.). Glasgow: James Maclehose and Son.
- Adam, Frank (1970). The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands (8th edition, edited by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney ed.). Stirling: Johnson and Bacon. pp. 401f.
- Adams. p. 405. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 15. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 283. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 18. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 19. Missing or empty
- Smibert, Thomas (1850). The clans of the Highlands of Scotland: an account of their annals, with delineations of their tartans, and family arms. Edinburgh: James Hogg. p. 36.
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 20. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 21. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 284. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 23. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 24. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 285. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 309. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 25. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 286. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 27. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 287. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 288. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 28. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 29. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 289. Missing or empty
- Buchanan of Auchmar. pp. 30f. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 305. Missing or empty
- See Reports of cases decide in the Court of the Lord Lyon, Scots Law Times 1965
- Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. "Requirements for Recognition". Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Innes of Learney, Sir Thomas (1978). Scots Heraldry (3th[clarification needed] edition, revised by Malcolm Innes of Edingight ed.). London and Edinburgh: Johnson and Bacon. p. 67.
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 32. Missing or empty
- Scott, Sir Walter (1830) ‘‘Tales of a grandfather; being stories taken from Scottish history‘‘, 3rd Series, p 324, Cadell and Co., Edinburgh
- John Heneage Jesse, The Pretenders and Their Adherents: Memoirs of the Chevalier, Prince Charles Edward, and Their Adherents, Volume 2, 1864, p259, Richard Bentley, London
- A D. Fillan, Stories, traditionary and romantic, of the two rebellions in Scotland in 1715 and 1745, 1849, p265, Richard Bentley, London
- Hallen, A.W. Cornelius (Ed) (1890) ‘‘The Scottish Antiquary; or The Northern Notes and Queries‘‘ Vol V, June 1890, p 27.
- Frazer, Alexander (1899) ‘‘Last Laird of MacNab‘‘ , p 2, Imrie, Graham and Co.
- Buchanan of Auchmar p 79.
- Buchanan of Auchmar p 31.
- National Archives of Scotland GD220/1/E/3/36 Revocation of bond of tailzi.
- Buchanan of Auchmar p 79.
- Nisbet, Alexander (1722). A System of Heraldry Vol 1. Edinburgh: J. Mack Euen. p. 297.
- Buchanan of Auchmar. p. 39. Missing or empty
- Nisbet, Alexander (1742). Robert Fleming, ed. A System of Heraldry Vol 2. Edinburgh: J. MackEuen. p. Historical and Critical Remarks on Prynne's History of the Ragman Roll, p39.
- Buchanan-Hamilton, Francis (1826). Claim of Dr Francis Hamilton Buchanan of Spittal. Edinburgh: James Clarke & Co. p. 1.
- Guthrie Smith. pp. 373f. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 375. Missing or empty
- Guthrie Smith. p. 376. Missing or empty
- Adam, Frank (1970). The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands (8th edition, edited by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney ed.). Stirling: Johnson and Bacon. p. 203.
- Guthrie Smith. p. 371. Missing or empty
- History of the Scottish Highlands, Highland Clans and Highland Regiments," edited by John S. Keltie, FSA Scot and which is duplicated in part on Electric Scotland. "Buchanan History". Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Adam, Frank (1970). The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands (8th edition, edited by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney ed.). Stirling: Johnson and Bacon. p. 203.
- On the wedding record of John Hamilton Buchanan and Phoebe Elizabeth Brock, 1884, John’s father is recorded as being John Buchanan-Hamilton of Leny.
- Guthrie Smith. p. 372. Missing or empty
- Adam, Frank (1970). The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands (8th edition, edited by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney ed.). Stirling: Johnson and Bacon. p. 203.
- Edinburgh Gazette. "Advanced Search". Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- London Gazette. "Advanced Search". Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- The Buchanan Society (2004). The Buchanan Society Handbook 2004. Glasgow: Printworks Ltd.
- Innes of Learney. p. 65. Missing or empty
- Burke, John (1850). A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland vol III (1st ed.). London: HENRY COLBURN. pp. 44ff.
- Addison, William Innes (1898). A roll of the graduates of the University of Glasgow from 31st December, 1727 to 31st December, 1897 (1st ed.). Glasgow: J. MacLehose & sons. p. 74.
- In a series of articles (initiated by genealogist and author, Walter Malise Graham Easton, and extended by Alexander Wilson Gray-Buchanan) and public response (including from John Parkes-Buchanan) in The Genealogical Magazine vols 2, 3 and 4 (1899-1901), aspects of specific cadet lines of Clan Buchanan are discussed. Mr Buchanan-Hamilton is cited as being the chief of the whole house of Buchanan. Unlike numerous other points, this assertion of Buchanan-Hamilton’s chiefship is not challenged.
- Clan Buchanan Society International. "Notice Claim of Chief" (PDF). Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- Clan Buchanan Society International. "Website". Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- Clan Buchanan Oceania. "Clan Council Constitution". Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Court of the Lord Lyon. "Guidance as regards the holding of a Derbhfine or Family Convention". Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- The Buchanan Society. "About the Society". Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- The Buchanan Society. "Clan Country". Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Clan Buchanan Society International. "About CBSI". Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Clan Buchanan Society International - Oceania. "Welcome to Clan Buchanan". Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Emails from President CBSI, David Byrne, of 11 and 14 Sep 2012
- To be heraldically correct tears are represented by gottee Azure (blue) http://www.heraldryclipart.com/symbolism/d.html
- Clan Buchanan Society International - Oceania. "Clan Council Constitution". Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Anderson, William (1862). The Scottish Nation: Or, The Surnames, Families, Literature, Honours, and Biographical History of the People of. Fullarton. p. 461. ISBN 0-7884-0310-9.
- The Buchanan Society