Clara Ellaline Hope Leighton
April 12, 1898
London, England, United Kingdom
|Died||November 4, 1989|
|Resting place||Waterbury, Connecticut, United States|
|Alma mater||Brighton College of Art, Slade School of Fine Art, Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design|
|Known for||Wood engravings|
Clara Ellaline Hope Leighton (sometimes Clare Veronica Hope Leighton) (12 April 1898 – 4 November 1989) was an English/American artist, writer and illustrator, best known for her wood engravings.
Early life and education
Clare Leighton was born in London on 12 April 1898, the daughter of Robert Leighton (1858–1934) and Marie Connor Leighton (1865–1941), both authors. Clare lived her early life in the shadow of her older brother, Roland - her mother's favorite; the family's rather callous nickname for Clare was "the bystander." Even so, her early efforts at painting were encouraged by her parents and her uncle Jack Leighton, an artist and illustrator. In 1915, Leighton began formal studies at the Brighton College of Art and later trained at the Slade School of Fine Art (1921–23) and the Central School of Arts and Crafts, where she studied wood engraving under Noel Rooke.
After completing her studies, Leighton took time to travel through Europe, stopping in Italy, France, and the Balkans. She sketched landscapes and lower-class workers, developing an affinity for portraying rural life.
During the late 1920s and 1930s, Leighton visited the United States on a number of lecture tours, emigrating to the US in 1939. She lived in Baltimore for a while and became friends with H. L. Mencken. Leighton became a naturalized citizen in 1945. From 1943 to 1945 she was a member of the Department of Art, Aesthetics, and Music at Duke University. In 1945 she was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member and became a full Academician in 1949.
Over the course of a long and prolific career, Leighton wrote and illustrated numerous books praising the virtues of the countryside and the people who worked the land. She was the first woman to produce a book on wood-engraving (Wood-Engraving and Woodcuts, 1932). This played an important part in popularizing the medium. During the 1920s and 1930s, as the world around her became increasingly technological, industrial, and urban, Leighton continued to paint rural working men and women. In the 1950s she created designs for Steuben Glass, Wedgwood plates, several stained glass windows for churches in New England, and for the transept windows of Worcester Cathedral, England.
The best known of her books are The Farmer's Year (1933; a calendar of English husbandry), Four Hedges - A Gardener's Chronicle (1935; the development of a garden from a meadow she had bought in the Chilterns) and Tempestuous Petticoat; The story of an Invincible Edwardian (1948; describing her childhood and her bohemian mother). Autobiographical text and illustrations are available in Clare Leighton: The growth and shaping of an artist-writer, published 2009.
Leighton had two brothers: the elder, Roland Leighton, was killed in action in December 1915, and is immortalized in Vera Brittain's memoir, Testament of Youth; the younger Evelyn, a Royal Navy officer, received the OBE in 1942.
Clare Leighton met the radical journalist H. N. Brailsford in 1928, and they lived together for several years. He was separated from Jane Esdon Brailsford who refused him a divorce. When Brailsford's wife died in 1937, leaving the way clear for the couple to marry, he suffered an emotional breakdown, destroying his relationship with Leighton who left for a new life in the US in 1939. She never married.
- Campbell, 2004
- "Clare Leighton [1898 – 1989]". The Bookroom Art Press. Retrieved 2014-09-23.
- Leighton, Cynthia, "Cynical Fantasy," Menckeniana Quarterly Review No. 35 (Fall 1970), at 1. Mencken's letters to Leighton are preserved at the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland.
- "Guide to the Clare Leighton Papers, 1940-1968". David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
- "Clare Leighton:From Pencil to Proof to Press". Virginia Museum of Fine Arts: 20. Winter 2013–2014.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
- F. M. Leventhal, ‘Brailsford , Jane Esdon (1874–1937)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 10 Nov 2017
- Colin Campbell, ‘Leighton, Clara Ellaline Hope (1898–1989)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
- NMWA biography