June 1962 Alcatraz escape attempt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Clarence Anglin)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Coordinates: 37°49′36″N 122°25′24″W / 37.82667°N 122.42333°W / 37.82667; -122.42333

June 1962 Alcatraz escape attempt
Alcatraz & Angel Island (2875307468).jpg
Alcatraz, with Angel Island (the fugitives' intended destination) in background
Date June 11, 1962
(56 years ago)
 (1962-06-11)
Time Approximately 10:00 PM (UTC-7)[1]
Location Alcatraz Island
San Francisco, California, United States, North America

The June 1962 Alcatraz escape attempt was one of two escape attempts from Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary in which neither the escapees, nor their bodies, were found. Late on the night of June 11 or early morning of June 12, inmates Clarence Anglin, John Anglin, and Frank Morris tucked heads made out of soap wax resembling their own likenesses into their beds, broke out of the main prison building via an unused utility corridor, and departed Alcatraz Island aboard an improvised inflatable raft to an uncertain fate.[2]

Hundreds of leads and theories have been pursued by the FBI and local law enforcement officials in the ensuing years, but no conclusive evidence has ever surfaced favoring the success or failure of the attempt.[2] In 1979 the F.B.I. officially concluded, on the basis of circumstantial evidence and a preponderance of expert opinion, that the men drowned in the frigid waters of San Francisco Bay before reaching the mainland.[3] The U.S. Marshals Service case file remains open and active, however, Morris and the Anglin brothers remain on its wanted list.[4][5]

Recent experimental and computer-simulated evidence has suggested that the ultimate outcome of the attempt may have depended on the exact time of the men's departure aboard the raft. A 2015 documentary presented circumstantial evidence in support of a longstanding rumor that two of the men – the Anglin brothers – had survived and fled to Brazil; a government expert concluded that the one piece of physical evidence, a 1975 photograph, did support that conclusion.[citation needed] In 2013, a letter allegedly written by one of the escapees, John Anglin, was sent to the San Francisco police department. When analyzed for a link to Anglin, it was deemed inconclusive.[2]

Previous attempts[edit]

Of the 36 inmates who staged 14 escape attempts over the 29 years that Alcatraz served as a federal penitentiary,[6] 23 were recaptured, six were shot and killed, two drowned, and five (including Morris and the Anglins) are listed as missing and presumed drowned.[5]

One inmate, John Paul Scott, successfully swam a distance of 2.7 nautical miles (5.0 km; 3.1 mi) from the island to Fort Point, at the southern end of the Golden Gate Bridge, on December 16, 1962. Some teenagers who were on the beach at the time found him and called the police because they thought he was dead. When the police saw him, he was immediately identified as the escapee they had been looking for. He was recaptured the same day and sent back to Alcatraz,[7] exhausted and hypothermic.[8] Today, multitudes of athletes swim the same Alcatraz–Fort Point route as part of one of two annual triathlon events.[9][10]

Inmates[edit]

Frank Morris[edit]

Frank Morris

Frank Lee Morris (September 1, 1926 – disappeared June 11, 1962) was born in Washington, D.C.. He was orphaned at age 11, and spent most of his formative years in foster homes. He was convicted of his first crime at age 13, and by his late teens had been arrested for crimes ranging from narcotics possession to armed robbery.[11][12] Morris reportedly ranked in the top 2% of the general population in intelligence, as measured by IQ testing, displaying an IQ of 133. He served time in Florida and Georgia, then escaped from the Louisiana State Penitentiary while serving 10 years for bank robbery. He was recaptured a year later while committing a burglary, and sent to Alcatraz in 1960 as inmate number AZ1441.

John and Clarence Anglin[edit]

John Anglin
Clarence Anglin

The Anglin brothers, John William (May 2, 1930 – disappeared June 11, 1962) and Clarence (May 11, 1931 – disappeared June 11, 1962) were born into a family of thirteen children in Donalsonville, Georgia. Their parents, George Robert Anglin and Rachael Van Miller Anglin, were seasonal farm workers; in the early 1940s, they moved the family to Ruskin, Florida, 20 miles south of Tampa, where the truck farms and tomato fields provided a more reliable source of income. Each June they would migrate north as far as Michigan to pick cherries. Clarence and John were reportedly inseparable as youngsters; they became skilled swimmers, and amazed their siblings by swimming in the frigid waters of Lake Michigan as ice still floated on its surface.

They began robbing banks and other establishments as a team in the early 1950s, usually targets that were closed, to ensure that no one got injured. They claimed that they used a weapon only once, during a bank heist – a toy gun.[13] They were arrested in 1956. Both received 15- to 20-year sentences, which they served at Florida State Prison, Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary, and then Atlanta Penitentiary.[citation needed] After repeated failed attempts to escape from the Atlanta facility, the brothers were transferred to Alcatraz.[14] John arrived on October 21, 1960, as inmate AZ1476, and Clarence on January 10, 1961, as inmate AZ1485.[citation needed]

Allen West[edit]

Allen Clayton West (March 25, 1929 – December 21, 1978)[15] was imprisoned for car theft in 1955, first at Atlanta Penitentiary, then at Florida State Prison. After an unsuccessful escape attempt from the Florida facility, he was transferred to Alcatraz in 1957 and became inmate AZ1335.[citation needed] When West was transferred to Alcatraz, he was 31 years old, and had the education of an eighth grader. West was arrested over 20 times throughout his lifetime.[16]

West was the only conspirator who did not participate in the actual escape; he was left behind when a stuck ventilator grill initially prevented him from leaving his cell. He cooperated fully with the escape investigation and was not charged for his role in the attempt.[17][18]

West was transferred to McNeil Island, Washington, when Alcatraz was deactivated in 1963, and later, back to Atlanta Penitentiary. After serving his sentence, followed by two additional sentences in Georgia and Florida, he was released in 1967, only to be arrested again in Florida the following year on charges of grand larceny. At Florida State Prison, he fatally stabbed another prisoner in October 1972, in what may have been a racially motivated incident. He was serving multiple sentences, including life imprisonment on the murder conviction, when he died of acute peritonitis in 1978.[15]

Escape[edit]

Escapee's prison cell, with widened vent opening beneath the sink.

The four inmates began formulating an escape strategy, under the leadership of Morris, the orchestral member of the operation,[19] after they were assigned adjacent cells in December 1961.[6] (The men may have known one another previously, at the federal penitentiary in Atlanta as well.[19]) Working at night over the subsequent six months, they gradually widened ventilation duct openings in their cells' walls, using saw blades they found discarded on the prison grounds, spoons stolen from the commissary, and a drill improvised from the motor of a broken vacuum cleaner.[5] They concealed the holes with cardboard and paint, and their work noise with Morris's accordion playing.[19][6]

The widened holes opened into an unguarded utility corridor behind the cell tier. From the corridor they climbed to the roof of their cell block, inside the building, where they set up a small workshop. There, they assembled a variety of stolen and donated materials, including more than 50 raincoats that they crafted into makeshift life preservers, based on a design they saw in Popular Mechanics,[20] and a 6-by-14-foot (1.8 by 4.3 m) rubber raft, the seams carefully stitched together and sealed with heat from nearby steam pipes. They stole a small accordion-like concertina from another inmate to serve as a bellows to inflate the raft, and built makeshift paddles from scrap wood and stolen screws. Finally, they climbed a ventilation shaft leading to a large fan and grille on the roof and cut away the rivets holding both in place.[19][6]

Dummy head found in Morris' cell.

The men concealed their absences while working outside their cells—and after the escape itself—by sculpting dummy heads from a home-made papier-mâché-like mixture of soap, toothpaste, concrete dust, and toilet paper, and giving them a realistic appearance with paint from the maintenance shop and hair from the barbershop floor. With towels and clothing piled under the blankets in their bunks and the dummy heads positioned on the pillows, they appeared to be sleeping peacefully.[21]

On the night of June 11, 1962, with all preparations completed, the men initiated their escape.[6] West had used cement to shore up crumbling concrete around his vent opening, and it had hardened, narrowing the hole and fixing the grill in place. By the time he was able to remove the grill and re-widen the hole sufficiently, the others had left without him; he exited to the roof, then returned to his cell around sunrise and went to sleep.[22] West later cooperated fully with investigators, giving them a detailed description of the escape plan, and as a result was not punished for his role in it.[19]

Unguarded utility corridor behind the escapees' cells.

From the service corridor, Morris and the Anglins climbed the ventilation shaft to the roof. Guards heard a loud crash as they broke out of the shaft, but since nothing further was heard, the source of the noise was not investigated. Hauling their gear with them, they descended 50 feet (15 m) to the ground by sliding down a kitchen vent pipe, then climbed two 12-foot (3.7 m) barbed-wire perimeter fences. At the northeast shoreline, near the power plant—a blind spot in the prison's network of searchlights and gun towers—they inflated their raft with the concertina. At some time after 10 o'clock, investigators estimated, they departed in the dense fog toward their objective, Angel Island, two miles to the north.[19][6]

Investigation[edit]

FBI wanted poster of John Anglin.

The escape was not discovered until the morning of June 12, 1962, due to the successful dummy head ruse.[23] An extensive air, sea, and land search involving multiple military and law enforcement agencies was conducted over the next 10 days. On June 14, a Coast Guard cutter picked up a paddle floating about 200 yards (180 m) off the southern shore of Angel Island. On the same day in the same general location, workers on another boat found a wallet wrapped in plastic containing names, addresses, and photos of the Anglins' friends and relatives.[5] On June 21, shreds of raincoat material, believed to be remnants of the raft, were found on an Angel Island beach. The following day, a prison boat picked up a deflated life jacket made from the same material 50 yards (46 m) off of Alcatraz Island. No human remains or any other physical evidence of the men's fate was ever found.[24][19]

FBI investigators concluded that while it was theoretically possible for one or more of the inmates to have reached Angel Island, the frigid water temperature and strong currents within the bay made it unlikely.[6] According to West, the men had planned to steal clothes and a car once they reached land, but according to the final FBI report, no auto or clothing thefts were reported in that area following the escape, despite the high-profile nature of the case.[6][19] The FBI closed its file on December 31, 1979, after a 17-year investigation.[5] Their official finding was that the prisoners most likely drowned in the cold waters of the bay while attempting to reach Angel Island.[6]

The U.S. Marshals Service investigation remains open, however. As Deputy U.S. Marshal Michael Dyke told NPR in 2009: "There's an active warrant, and the Marshals Service doesn't give up looking for people." He said that he still received leads on a regular basis.[25]

Aftermath[edit]

In 1993, a former Alcatraz inmate named Thomas Kent told the television program America's Most Wanted that he had helped plan the escape, and claimed to have provided "significant new leads" to investigators.[26] He said that Clarence Anglin's girlfriend had agreed to meet the men on shore and drive them to Mexico. He declined to participate in the actual escape, he said, because he could not swim. Officials were skeptical of Kent's account, because he had been paid US$2,000 for the interview.[19]

A 2003 MythBusters episode[27] on the Discovery Channel tested the feasibility of an escape from the island aboard a raft constructed with the same materials and tools available to the inmates, and determined that it was possible.[19] A 2011 program on the National Geographic Channel asserted that footprints were found on the Angel Island beach where the raft wreckage was recovered, and that contrary to the official FBI report, a car had been stolen in the vicinity on the night of the escape.[19]

In 2011, an 89-year-old man named Bud Morris, who said he was a cousin of Frank Morris, claimed that on "eight or nine" occasions prior to the escape he delivered envelopes of money to Alcatraz guards, presumably as bribes. He further claimed to have met his cousin face to face in a San Diego park shortly after the escape. His daughter, who was "eight or nine" years old at the time, said she was present at the meeting with "Dad's friend, Frank", but "had no idea [about the escape]".[28]

In 2012, the 50th anniversary of the escape attempt, the Anglins' two sisters and two of their nephews made public their belief that Clarence and John—who would both be well into their eighties—were still alive. Marie Anglin Winder claimed that shortly after the escape in 1962, she received a phone call from San Francisco; the caller said, "This is John Anglin." The family also produced a Christmas card, purportedly received in the family mailbox in 1962, saying, "To Mother, from John. Merry Christmas."[29] Michael Dyke, the Deputy U.S. Marshal, conceded that there is a "possibility that they survived", but noted that a Norwegian freighter reported seeing a body floating in the ocean 15 nautical miles (28 km; 17 mi) from the Golden Gate Bridge, about one month after the escape. "He had on prison clothes—a navy pea coat and a light pair of trousers—similar to what [Alcatraz] prisoners wore. There were no other missing people during that time period."[30]

In 2014, researchers at Delft University, using a computer model, concluded that if the men set off approximately at midnight, when the currents might have worked in their favor, they could have made landfall; but if they left during the hours before or after, the currents would have been too strong to overcome and they very likely died.[31]

A 2015 History Channel documentary presented further circumstantial evidence gathered over the years by the Anglin family.[citation needed] Christmas cards containing the Anglins' handwriting, and allegedly received by family members for three years after the escape, were displayed. While the handwriting was verified as the Anglins', none of the envelopes contained a postmarked stamp, so experts could not determine when they had been delivered.[32] The family cited a story from family friend Fred Brizzi, who grew up with the brothers and claimed to have recognized them in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1975. They produced photographs taken, they said, by Brizzi (who died in 1993), including one showing two men resembling John and Clarence Anglin and the farm near Rio where they were purportedly living.[33] Forensic experts hired by the History Channel confirmed that the photos were taken in 1975, and asserted that the two men were "more than likely" the Anglins.[34][35] Other evidence included the deathbed confession of another of the Anglins' 11 siblings, Robert, who told family members in 2010 that he had been in contact with John and Clarence from 1963 until approximately 1987.[36] The film also presented an alternate escape theory, involving the use of an electrical cord—which had been reported missing from the prison's dock on the night of the escape—as a tow line, attached to a passenger ferry that departed the island shortly after midnight.[37]

Art Roderick, a retired Deputy U.S. Marshal working with the Anglin family, called Brizzi's photograph of the two men "absolutely the best actionable lead we've had," but added, "it could still all be a nice story which isn't true"; or the photograph could be a misdirection, aimed at steering the investigation away from the Anglins' actual whereabouts.[36] Michael Dyke, the Deputy Marshal assigned to the case, said Brizzi was "a drug smuggler and a conman", and was suspicious of his account. An expert working for the U.S. Marshals Service compared measurements of the photo subjects' physical features to those of the Anglin brothers' arrest photos, believed it most likely is a picture of John and Clarence Anglin; although the age and condition of the photo, and the fact that both men were wearing sunglasses, hindered efforts to make a definitive determination.[38]

Surviving family members, who said they have heard nothing since Robert lost contact with the brothers in 1987, announced plans to travel to Brazil to conduct a personal search; but Roderick cautioned that they could be arrested by Brazilian authorities, because the Alcatraz escape remains an open Interpol case.[32] According to information obtained by a British newspaper, the FBI was aware of rumors that the Anglins were in Brazil as early as 1965. Agents dispatched to Rio at that time reportedly found no credible evidence that the fugitives were there.[36]

In 2018, the FBI confirmed that the existence of a letter, allegedly written by escapee John Anglin, had forced them to reopen the investigation into the case. The FBI examined the letter for fingerprints and DNA, and the handwriting, which produced inconclusive results. The letter, received by the San Francisco Police Department in 2013, opens with:

My name is John Anglin. I escaped from Alcatraz in June 1962 with my brother Clarence and Frank Morris. I'm 83 years old and in bad shape. I have cancer. Yes we all made it that night but barely!

The author of the letter goes on to say Frank Morris died in 2008, and Clarence Anglin died three years later in 2011.[39]

In popular culture[edit]

J. Campbell Bruce's 1963 book Escape from Alcatraz documents the 1962 escape, along with other escape attempts over the 29 years that Alcatraz Island served as a prison.[40]

The film Escape from Alcatraz (1979) stars Clint Eastwood, Fred Ward, and Jack Thibeau as Morris, John Anglin, and Clarence Anglin, respectively. West (fictionalized as a character named Charley Butts) was played by Larry Hankin.[41] The film implied that the escape had been successful.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ FBI Investigation File 76-26295, pp. 32
  2. ^ a b c Wang, Amy (24 January 2018). "A man claims three Alcatraz prisoners 'barely' survived a 1962 escape — and that he's one of them". Retrieved 1 February 2018. 
  3. ^ "Alcatraz Escape". FBI Records: The Vault. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "After 50 Years, the U.S. Marshals Remain Diligent in Hunt for Renowned Alcatraz Escapees". www.usmarshals.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-07. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Case 68: Escape from Alcatraz - Casefile: True Crime Podcast". Casefile: True Crime Podcast. 2017-11-25. Retrieved 2018-05-07. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "A Byte out of History: Escape from Alcatraz". Federal Bureau of Investigation. June 8, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  7. ^ Company, Ocean View Publishing. "Alcatraz Prison Escapes - Page 1". www.alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  8. ^ "Alcatraz Escape Attempts". Alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  9. ^ Escape From Alcatraz Triathlon, retrieved November 9, 2015.
  10. ^ San Francisco Triathlon at Alcatraz, retrieved November 9, 2015.
  11. ^ "Frank Morris Escaped From Alcatraz and Was a D.C. Native - Ghosts of DC". ghostsofdc.org. Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  12. ^ "The Great Escape From Alcatraz". Alcatrazhistory.com. Ocean View Publishing Company. p. 1. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  14. ^ "Alcatraz Escape – June 11, 1962". Alcatraz History. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  15. ^ a b Babyak, J (2001). Breaking the Rock: The Great Escape from Alcatraz. ISBN 0-9618752-3-2. 
  16. ^ Jolene., Babyak, (2001). Breaking the rock : the great escape from Alcatraz. Berkeley, Calif.: Ariel Vamp Press. ISBN 0961875232. OCLC 47183259. 
  17. ^ "Alcatraz: Living Hell". video.nationalgeographic.co.in. National Geographic Channel. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  18. ^ http://The Archived 2013-07-11 at the Wayback Machine. Great Escape from Alcatraz. [www.alcatrazhistory.com/alcesc2.htm AlcatrazHistory.com].
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McFadden, Robert D. (June 9, 2012), "Tale of 3 Inmates Who Vanished From Alcatraz Maintains Intrigue 50 Years Later", The New York Times, New York, NY, retrieved June 9, 2012 
  20. ^ History Channel (2000), Breakout from Alcatraz Documentary, retrieved 2018-05-07 
  21. ^ "Valued exposure: Escape". BBC News. June 15, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2010. 
  22. ^ Full text of Alcatraz Escape FBI Files. Archive.org, retrieved November 2, 2015.
  23. ^ Marzilli, Alan (2003). Famous Crimes of the 20th Century. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. pp. 73–75. ISBN 9780791067888. 
  24. ^ Kerr, J. (October 17, 1993). Flight from Alcatraz. SunSentinel.com, retrieved June 7, 2016.
  25. ^ "Escape From Alcatraz And A 47-Year Manhunt". National Public Radio. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  26. ^ Higbee, A. (November 13, 1993). American Topics : Alcatraz Escapees May Still Be Alive. New York Times archive, retrieved December 10, 2015.
  27. ^ MythBusters, season 1, episode 11
  28. ^ "Rome man claims he had role in escape from Alcatraz (2011)". WXIA-TV Atlanta. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 
  29. ^ Nolte, C. (March 18, 2013). Alcatraz escapees' family convinced brothers alive. sfgate.com.
  30. ^ Leithead, A. (June 12, 2012). Alcatraz escape still surprises, 50 years on. BBC.com.
  31. ^ Morelle, R. (December 15, 2014). Alcatraz 1962 escapees had small chance of success. BBC.com. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-30349106.
  32. ^ a b Notorious Alcatraz escapees may still be on the lam (October 19, 2015). CBC.ca, retrieved November 2, 2015.
  33. ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 
  34. ^ Graff, A. (October 12, 2015). "New claim: Alcatraz escapees might have survived. could still be alive". SF Gate. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  35. ^ "50 years later, new evidence suggests 3 Alcatraz escapees may still be alive". WPIX-11. October 12, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  36. ^ a b c Boyle, L. (October 15, 2015). Alcatraz escapees 'had wives and children in Brazil', their family claims - and they want their sentences commuted so they can 'come home' after 53 years. The Daily Mail, retrieved November 30, 2015.
  37. ^ Staff Writer (October 12, 2015). "The picture that 'proves' two inmates DID escape from Alcatraz: Notorious escapees didn't drown, body-surfed behind a passenger ferry to freedom and started a farm in Brazil, claims family". Detroit Newstime. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  38. ^ Noyes, D. (May 15, 2016). New leads in manhunt for Alcatraz escapees. ABCnews.com, retrieved June 15, 2016.
  39. ^ "Alcatraz inmates survived infamous 1962 escape, letter suggests". cbsnews.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 
  40. ^ Bruce, Campbell J. (1963). Escape from Alcatraz. ISBN 1-58008-678-0. 
  41. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (1999). Clint: The Life and Legend. Harper Collins (2002), p. 307. ISBN 0-00-638354-8.

Bibliography[edit]