Clark Bar

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Clark Bar
Product typeCandy bar
CountryUnited States
Introduced1917; 102 years ago (1917)
Related brandsZagnut
MarketsNorth America
Previous owners

The Clark Bar is a candy bar consisting of a crispy peanut butter/spun taffy core, originally with a caramel center, and coated in milk chocolate. It was the first American 'combination' candy bar to achieve nationwide success, and is now similar to the Butterfinger and 5th Avenue bars. Introduced in 1917 by David L. Clark and popular during and after both World Wars, the Clark Bar was manufactured in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by the original family-owned business until 1955, then by corporate owners, until a series of sales and bankruptcies in the 1990s resulted in transfer of production to the Revere, Massachusetts-based New England Confectionery Company (Necco). Following Necco's 2018 bankruptcy, the Clark Bar is again to be produced in western Pennsylvania, by the Altoona-based Boyer Candy Company.


The original formula of the Clark Bar was pioneered by Irish immigrant David L. Clark in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1917. Its manufacture took advantage of a recently-developed approach that allowed a thin milk chocolate shell to surround a non-chocolate filling. In the case of the Clark bar, the interior consisted of a crispy confection that included ground peanuts around a caramel core. As such, the Clark Bar became the first successful 'combination' candy bar.[1] The bar was developed to be sent to troops during World War I,[2] individually wrapped for ease of delivery.[3] It began to be distributed nationally after the war's end, inspiring many manufacturers to produce their own combination bars.[4] The small size of its double-bars contributed to their popularity.[5] During World War II the company was sending daily 1.5 million bars to the armed forces, and when several labor strikes at its plant led to shortages among the troops, the federal government stepped in, calling production "essential" to the war effort.[6] Related products were also produced, such as the smaller-sized Clark Bar Miniatures, Clark Bar Bites and Clark Bar Juniors,[3] along with seasonal Clark Bar Easter Eggs,[7] and a dark chocolate variety.

The Clark Bar originally included a caramel 'center of attraction'.[8] In 1965, the recipe was changed to increase the peanut butter content and thus enhance flavor.[9] The caramel center would be removed from the recipe in the 1980s.[8] In 1995, an alternative recipe would briefly be used.[10]

In its most recent iteration, the Clark Bar was produced by a process taking about 90 minutes. The core ingredients were heated into a taffy-like consistency and flattened into a sheet, which was then coated with a layer of peanut butter, and rolled. After cutting into bar-sized lengths, it was enrobed in liquid chocolate, cooled to harden both core and coating, then packaged.[11]

Ownership and production facilities[edit]

From 1911, the Clark company operated out of a North Side production facility, and this was long where the Clark Bar was produced. The illuminated oversized roof-top Clark Bar sign that decorated the original North Side factory would become a Pittsburgh landmark,[12] while a restaurant that operates in the retasked building is named the Clark Bar & Grill in reflection of the treat once made there.[13]

The D. L. Clark Co. and its Clark Bar were acquired by Beatrice Foods in 1955, then sold to Leaf Candy Company in 1983. It was under Leaf that production was moved to a new facility in O'Hara Township (suburban Pittsburgh) in 1986. In late 1990, Leaf announced plans to close its O'Hara facility and move production of two other D. L. Clark candy bars, the Zagnut and P. B. Crunchers, to the Chicago area. They decided to cease production of the other Clark products, including the Clark Bar, for which their marketing efforts had failed to achieve a national profile.[14][15][16]

Pittsburgh-area entrepreneur Michael Carlow purchased D. L. Clark Co. and its remaining brands from Leaf, and combined it with another struggling but iconic local producer, the Pittsburgh Brewing Company and its Iron City beer, as well as a local bakery and a glass manufacturer, plus the Fort Wayne, Indiana-based producer of Bun Bars under the umbrella of the Pittsburgh Food & Beverage Company, continuing production of the Clark Bar in O'Hara.[17] However, amidst accusations of a check kiting scheme that would lead to Carlow's eventual imprisonment,[18][19] he was forced to relinquish control in 1995, and production ceased.[17][20] Leaf then foreclosed on a $3 million loan they were still owed, and commenced making Clark Bars at their Illinois facility with an altered recipe. Months later, Clark's assets were sold through bankruptcy court to the newly-formed Clark Bar America, Inc., which restarted production at the O'Hara facility using the prior recipe.[10] This was short-lived, and the company was shuttered in 1999.[6] The recipe and production equipment were bought at bankruptcy by Necco for $4.1 million, and they moved production to their facility in Revere, Massachusetts.[3]

Almost two decades later, Necco would in turn fail and in May 2018 was sold at bankruptcy court to Round Hill Investments LLC, who briefly operated the candy manufacturer under a Sweetheart Candy Co. subsidiary before selling the assets in July 2018 and abruptly closing Necco's Revere production facility.[21] The undisclosed buyer, later revealed to have been Spangler Candy Company,[22] would in turn sell the rights to the Clark Bar to the Boyer Candy Company, maker of the Mallo Cup.[23] Based in Altoona, Pennsylvania, they had originally bid on the Clark Bar in the 1990s.[24] At the time of purchase, Boyer planned to restart production of the Clark Bar in western Pennsylvania within six months,[23] but challenges reproducing the bar's consistency and shape pushed back their reintroduction. Boyer's first Clark-related product was the Clark Cup, a peanut butter cup that includes ground Clark Bar in the filling.[25]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tim Richardson, A History of Candy, (Bloomsbury, 2002), p. 230
  2. ^ Bruce Kraig, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2012), vol. 1, p. 292
  3. ^ a b c Lindeman, Teresa F (August 23, 2000). "They want, but can't find, a Clark Bar". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  4. ^ Andrew F. Smith, Food and Drink in American History: A "Full Course" Encyclopedia, (ABC-Cleo, 2013), vol. 1, pp. 141, 182
  5. ^ Tim Richardson, A History of Candy, (Bloomsbury, 2002), p. 327
  6. ^ a b Silver, Jonathan D (May 2, 1999). "Billions of candy bars later, Clark quietly closes". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  7. ^ "Product News For Shoppers". Trenton Evening Times. May 5, 1959. p. 13.
  8. ^ a b "Clark brother laments candy changes". The Indiana Gazette. December 8, 1990. p. 6.
  9. ^ "Clark Announces Flavor Increase". The Dallas Morning News. April 29, 1965. p. 22.
  10. ^ a b Cutter, Henry (June 16, 1995). "Candy Factory Celebrates Sweet Victory". AP.
  11. ^ Steve Almond, Candyfreak: A Journey Through the Chocolate Underbelly of America, (Algonquin Books, 2004), pp. 52-3
  12. ^ "D. L. Clark Company Papers and Photographs". Historic Pittsburgh.
  13. ^ Eric Heyl (April 10, 2018). "Could Clark Bars Be Doomed?". Pittsburgh Patch. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  14. ^ "Clark bar up for grabs". The Hour. September 8, 1990. p. 2.
  15. ^ "City push is on to keep Clark Candy here", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Pittsburgh, PA, p. 5, September 10, 1990
  16. ^ Ranii, David (September 11, 1990), "RIDC stuck with Clark plant loans", Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, p. 5
  17. ^ a b Smith, Lee; Eiben, Therese (July 10, 1995). "The Wrecking Crew Michael Carlow And His Dad Started Out Demolishing Old Factories -- Then Grew Rich Destroying Companies". Fortune Magazine.
  18. ^ "Clark Bar moving to Massachusetts". The Indiana Gazette. 12 May 1999. p. 24.
  19. ^ Reynolds, Dan (May 9, 2005). "Getting a second chance: After serving time for bank fraud, Michael Carlow finds consulting work". Pittsburgh Business Times.
  20. ^ Kurt Eichenwald (April 12, 1995). "A City's Savior? Not Quite; Did Michael Carlow Rescue Pittsburgh Companies Only to Loot Them?". New York Times.
  21. ^ Conti, Katheleen (July 24, 2018). "Necco candy factory shuts down abruptly after company is sold again". Boston Globe.
  22. ^ Morgan, Richard (25 September 2018). "'Mystery buyer' of Necco wafers and Sweethearts revealed". New York Post. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  23. ^ a b "Clark Bar saved from extinction, returning to Pennsylvania". WTAE. AP. September 7, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  24. ^ Edgar B. Herwick III (December 5, 2018). "A Splintered NECCO Forges A Future Around The World, Just Not In Revere". WGBH News.
  25. ^ Sabatini, Patricia (January 23, 2019). "Clark Bars aren't quite ready yet. Enter Clark Cups". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 26, 2019.