Clark International Airport
Clark International Airport
Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark
Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark
|Owner||Department of Transportation (operations of the airport)|
Bases Conversion and Development Authority (ownership of Clark International Airport Corporation)
|Operator||Luzon International Premier Airport Development (LIPAD) Corp. |
Philippine Air Force
|Serves||Central Luzon and Greater Manila Area|
|Location||Angeles City and Mabalacat, Clark Freeport Zone|
|Opened||June 16, 1996|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||148 m / 484 ft|
Clark International Airport (Kapampangan: Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark; Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark; IATA: CRK, ICAO: RPLC) is an international airport covering portions of the cities of Angeles and Mabalacat within the Clark Freeport Zone in the province of Pampanga, Philippines. It is located 43.2 NM (80.0 km; 49.7 mi) northwest of Manila. It is accessible through the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX).
The airport serves Central Luzon, Northern Luzon, and to an extent, Metro Manila. The name is derived from the former American Clark Air Base which was the largest overseas base of the United States Air Force until it was closed in 1991 and handed over to the Government of the Philippines.
The airport is managed and operated by Luzon International Premier Airport Development (LIPAD) Corp., a consortium of JG Summit Holdings, Filinvest Development Corporation, Philippine Airport Ground Support Solutions (PAGSS) Inc., and Changi Airports Philippines Pte. Ltd.; while the southern part of the facility is utilized by the Philippine Air Force as Clark Air Base.
The airport serves both international and domestic flights. A new passenger terminal building has been constructed by Filipino engineering and infrastructure firm Megawide Construction Corporation and the construction of the new terminal was completed in September 2020. It is expected to be inaugurated and opened within 2021. The airport has been nominated for the Prix Versailles awards, which recognizes the best architecture and design projects in the world, competing with the Berlin Brandenburg Airport in Germany, Athens International Airport in Greece, and more airports.
The United States Cavalry established Fort Stotsenberg in 1902 and later converted a portion of it into an air field, which was, in turn, renamed Clark Air Field in 1919—in honor of aviator Major Harold Melville Clark—and was used as one of the most important overseas bases during World War II.
In 1947, the RP-US Military Bases Agreement was signed, integrating Clark Air Field and Fort Stotsenberg into Clark Air Base but, after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 and the non-renewal of the military bases agreement, Clark Air Base was reverted to the Philippine government.
The Bases Conversion Development Act of 1992 accelerated the conversion of Clark Air Base into a Special Economic Zone, and in 2007, the Congress of the Philippines enacted Republic Act No. 9400, which renamed the base to Clark Freeport Philippines. It is now segregated in two separate entities: Clark Freeport Zone administered by the Clark Development Corporation, and the Clark Civil Aviation Complex administered by the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC).
In 1993, the former Clark Air Base was reopened as the Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) after the area was cleared from lahar debris from Mount Pinatubo explosion and a typhoon that followed. During the administration of President Fidel V. Ramos, it was designated to be the future primary international gateway of the Philippines and the major international airport of Metro Manila and its neighboring provinces when Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Metro Manila has reached full capacity and can no longer be expanded.
CIAC traces its origin from Republic Act No. 7227, otherwise known as the "Bases Conversion and Development Act of 1992", which authorized the conversion of several military reservations, including the former Clark Air Base, into sustainable economic zones. Jurisdiction over the corporation shifted from the Bases Conversion Development Authority (BCDA) and the Clark Development Corporation (CDC) since its formal incorporation with the SEC in 1995.
In 2003, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo renamed the airport to Diosdado Macapagal International Airport (DMIA), in memory of her father, former President Diosdado Macapagal, and ordered the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC) in February 2007 to fund the US$1.7 billion (₱76.5 billion) expansion of DMIA and the approval of a US$2 million (₱90 million) study plan financed by the Korean International Cooperation Agency. The first stage of Clark Airport's expansion program, a ₱130 million terminal expansion, was completed in January 2008 to accommodate more than 2 million passengers annually.
In 2011, CIAC was transferred from the Bases Conversion and Development Authority and became an attached agency of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) by virtue of Executive Order No. 64 issued by President Benigno Aquino III.
The airport's name was reverted to Clark International Airport in February 2012, but the passenger terminal continued to bear Macapagal's name.
On February 28, 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte issued Executive Order No. 14, reverting CIAC as a subsidiary of the BCDA, but with the Department of Transportation (DOTr) maintaining supervision and operational control of the airport.
Four new terminals are expected to be completed and all will be fully operational by 2025. Upon completion, these four terminals will boost Clark's passenger capacity to more than 110 million annually. The airport is also being groomed to become one of the country's first "aerotropolis" or a community that features a world-class airport and surrounded by business clusters and residential developments. The project involves the operations and maintenance of the existing and the proposed new passenger terminal buildings on the airport with a 25-year concession period. The ₱12.55-billion project involves the construction of a new 82,600m² passenger terminal building with a design capacity of 8 million passengers per annum. Populous designed the interior of the terminal. The company also worked with Casas+Architects for the design of the terminal building. The new passenger terminal building was completed in September 2020 and is expected to open within 2021. The new terminal was inspected by President Rodrigo Duterte on July 17, 2021, and the green light from aviation regulators is yet to be given before opening the new terminal to passengers.
North Luzon Airport Consortium (NLAC), which is a consortium of JG Summit Holdings, Filinvest Development Corp., Philippine Airport Ground Support Solutions Inc. and Changi Airports Philippines Pte. Ltd. (which is a subsidiary of Changi Airports International Pte. Ltd, which is itself a subsidiary of Changi Airport Group, one of the operators of Singapore Changi Airport) won the open bid by the BCDA to take over the operations and maintenance of the airport. On January 25, 2019, NLAC signed the 25-year contract for the operations and maintenance for the airport. On August 16, 2019, Clark International Airport's operations and maintenance were officially handed over to the winning bid (now renamed as Luzon International Premier Airport Development (LIPAD) Corp.) in the ceremony held at the new terminal building with the unveiling of its new logo.
Once the new terminal has opened, the operator plans to use the old terminal as a COVID-19 vaccination center.
Clark International Airport is located within the Clark Freeport Zone in the island of Luzon, approximately 98 kilometers (61 mi) from Manila in the south and 163 kilometers (101 mi) from Baguio. The airport lies in between Mount Pinatubo to the west and Mount Arayat to the east.
The airport site is inside the Clark Freeport Zone's Civil Aviation Complex which occupies 2,367 hectares (5,850 acres) and directly linked to the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX) which is connected to the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) providing a direct link to Metro Manila.
Passenger terminal complex
The original terminal was expanded for $3 million (PH₱130 million) to accommodate 1 million passengers annually. The expansion project was inaugurated by President Arroyo in April 2008 to serve the growing passenger volume due to the entry of foreign and local budget carriers at the airport.
Phase I expansion, started in April 2010 for $12 million (PH₱550 million), saw a second story, arrival and departure lounges, and two aerobridges added to the terminal building. The expansion boosted Clark's capacity to 2.5 million annually.
In 2013, Phase II expansion, which costs $9.6 million (PH₱417 million), increased the capacity of the passenger terminal from 2.5 million to 4.2 million passengers per annum. The expansion increased the size of the passenger terminal building from 11,439m² to 19,799m². It added 21 new check-in counters, increasing the total number of counters from 13 to 34. Five arrival counters and 12 departures counters were also constructed. The expanded terminal has eight entry points and three customs stations. The modernized terminal started operations in May 2013.
Clark Airport used to have two 3,200-meter parallel runways. Since the runways are closely spaced, the secondary runway (02L/20R) has been decommissioned and is no longer in use. The new terminal will now occupy the end that was formerly Runway 20R, while a new maintenance hangar is currently being constructed on the stopway of Runway 02L.
- The primary runway (Runway 02R/20L) has a length of 3,200 meters and a width of 60 meters. It is equipped with various navigational aids and lighting facilities, and it has a Category 1 rating for precision approach.
Air traffic control tower
In 2020, the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC) announced plans to construct the tallest air traffic control tower in the Philippines which will stand around 54 meters (177 ft) in height. The tower is projected to be completed by December 2021.
Airlines and destinations
|FedEx Express||Guangzhou, Taipei–Taoyuan|
|Suparna Airlines Cargo||Xiamen|
|Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines||Hong Kong|
|UPS Airlines||Dubai–International, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita|
- Center for Asia Pacific Aviation
Low-Cost Airport of the Year (2006)
- Frost & Sullivan Asia Pacific Aerospace and Defense Awards
Airport of the Year (2008) (for airports under 15 million passengers category)
- Routes Airport Marketing Awards
Winner (2013) (for 'Under 20 Million' Category)
The Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEx) provides access through the airport, with two exits: Clark North and Clark South interchange, where the latter leads directly to Clark. Passengers with connecting flights at Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Metro Manila can take North Luzon Expressway which is linked via SCTEx, then passing through Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, Roxas Boulevard and finally onto NAIA Road.
Park and fly services are provided within the airport as well.
For short-distance routes, air-conditioned jeepneys connect Clark to nearby Dau Bus Terminal in Mabalacat and SM City Clark in Angeles City. From Dau, passengers can ride intercity buses leading to other cities and towns in Northern and Central Luzon as well as Metro Manila. Direct Premium Point-to-Point Bus Services (P2Ps) for long-distance routes are provided by four bus companies leading to TriNoma in Quezon City, Subic and neighboring Olongapo in Zambales, Dagupan in Pangasinan, and Vigan in Ilocos Sur.
The airport will also be served by the Clark International Airport station of the North–South Commuter Railway, connecting the airport to the New Clark City in Capas, Tarlac, as well as Tutuban in Manila and Calamba in Laguna. The connection is scheduled to be completed by 2023.
- "BCDA to build Clark International Airport under DOTC Leadership" (Press release). Bases Conversion and Development Authority. October 24, 2011. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
BCDA wrote Sec. Mar Roxas to map out its plans and strategies for major infrastructures under BCDA’s ownership and mandate such as the Clark International Airport.
- Amojelar, Darwin G. (22 October 2011). "BCDA to build Clark International Airport". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
Casanova emphasized that the BCDA owns the properties and assets of the Clark International Airport Corp. (CIAC) and Clark Development Corp. (CDC) which gives it legal authority to undertake the development of the airport.
- "Executive Order No. 14, s. 2017" (PDF). officialgazette.gov.ph. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- "Lipad Corporation takes over Clark airport operations". Rappler. August 18, 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- Orejas, Tonette (August 16, 2019). "Lipad consortium takes over Clark airport". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- "Clark Air Base". Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
Though the air facility principally handled civilian air traffic (it was planned to replace Ninoy Aquino International Airport as Metro Manila's primary airport), the Philippine Air Force maintained a presence there, and part of it was still known as Clark Air Base.
- "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). Clark International Airport Official Website. Clark International Airport Corporation. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
- "Remembering CRK's 1st flight 20 years ago, June 16, 1996". Facebook. Clark International Airport Corporation. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
- "Vital Information" (PDF). Clark International Airport Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 14, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
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- Rey, Aika (October 13, 2020). "Construction of new Clark airport terminal completed". Rappler. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
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- San Juan, Alexandria Dennise (August 19, 2021). "Wow! Clark International Airport gets Prix Versailles nomination". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved August 20, 2021.
- Navales, Reynaldo G. "Korean firm prepares $2M Clark airport master plan". SunStar Pampanga. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008.
- "Executive Order No. 64, s. 2011". Official Gazette. December 21, 2011.
- "Clark International Airport". Bases Conversion and Development Authority.
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- "Executive Order No. 14, s. 2017" (PDF). Official Gazette. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- "Central Luzon: The newest emerging business destination". SunStar. February 4, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
- Orejas, Tonette (October 16, 2020). "Design firm named for interior of new Clark airport terminal". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
- Morales, Aimee (July 29, 2021). "World-class passenger terminal building at Clark International Airport (CRK)". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
- Cabuenas, Jon Viktor D. (December 21, 2018). "Changi-led consortium to take over Clark airport ops, maintenance". GMA News.
- Rey, Aika (January 25, 2019). "Filinvest, JG Summit sign 25-year Clark airport operations deal". Rappler. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- "Clark Airport operator offers old terminal for mass COVID-19 vaccination facility". CNN Philippines. January 22, 2021. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- "Clark International Airport (CIA) Expansion, Pampanga". Airport-technology.com.
- "CLARK INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT OPERATION & MAINTENANCE CONCESSION" (PDF). Ppp.gov.ph. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
- "CIAC to build Philippines' tallest airport control tower". Sun Star Pampanga. July 20, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
- "Clark airport tower completed by Dec". Malaya Business Insight. March 1, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- "Flights". Clark International Airport. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- "GENERAL PASSENGER GUIDELINES". Clark International Airport. July 13, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- "DMIA bags Low-Cost Airport Award". Archived from the original on October 22, 2012.
- "DMIA awarded 'Airport of the Year' by global consulting group". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
- "Routes Asia 2013 :: Routes Airport Marketing Awards". Routesonline. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Clark International Airport Corporation. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- Pavia, Joey (January 13, 2013). "CIA eyes 2M passengers in 2013, launches Clark-TriNoma bus route". BusinessMirror. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "Project Details – Build". Build.gov.ph. June 1, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2020.[permanent dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clark International Airport.|
- Official website
- Current weather for RPLC at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for CRK at Aviation Safety Network