Classical Nahuatl language
|Era||split into modern dialects by the 15th century|
Classical Nahuatl (also known simply as Aztec or Nahuatl) is any of the variants of Nahuatl spoken in the Valley of Mexico — and central Mexico as a lingua franca — at the time of the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. During the subsequent centuries it was largely displaced by Spanish and evolved into some of the modern Nahuan languages in use today (other modern dialects descend more directly from other 16th-century variants.) Although classified as an extinct language, Classical Nahuatl has survived through a multitude of written sources transcribed by Nahua peoples and Spaniards in the Latin script.
Classical Nahuatl is one of the Nahuan languages within the Uto-Aztecan family. It is classified as a central dialect and is most closely related to the modern dialects of Nahuatl spoken in the valley of Mexico in colonial and modern times. It is probable that the Classical Nahuatl documented by 16th- and 17th-century written sources represents a particularly prestigious sociolect. That is to say, the variety of Nahuatl recorded in these documents is most likely to be more particularly representative of the speech of Aztec nobles (pīpiltin), while the commoners (mācēhualtin) spoke a somewhat different variety.
|Close||i, iː||o, oː|
Stress generally falls on the penultimate syllable. The one exception is the vocative suffix -e, used only by males, where stress falls on the final syllable, e.g. Cuāuhtliquetzqui (a name, meaning "eagle-warrior"), but Cuāuhtliquetzqué "Hey, Cuauhtliquetzqui!".
Maximally complex Nahuatl syllables are of the form CVC; that is, there can be at most one consonant at the beginning and end of every syllable. In contrast, English, for example, allows up to three consonants syllable-initially, and up to four consonants to occur at the end of syllables (e.g. strengths) (ngths = /ŋkθs/). For these purposes, tl /tɬ/, is treated as a single sound. Not all consonants can occur in both syllable-initial and -final position.
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: This needs to outline and explain the writing systems used in actual historical documents rather than the streamlined CN-inspired orthography used on the Nahuatl Wikipedia. (January 2016)|
At the time of the Spanish conquest, Aztec writing used mostly pictographs supplemented with a few ideograms. When needed it also used syllabic equivalences; Father Durán recorded how the tlacuilos could render a prayer in Latin using this system, but it was difficult to use. This writing system was adequate for keeping such records as genealogies, astronomical information, and tribute lists, but could not represent a full vocabulary of spoken language in the way that the writing systems of the Old World or the Maya civilization's script could.
The Spanish introduced the Roman script, which was then utilized to record a large body of Aztec prose and poetry, a fact which somewhat diminished the devastating loss caused by the burning of thousands of Aztec manuscripts by the Spanish authorities (see Nahuatl transcription).
On the Nahuatl edition of Wikipedia, the language is written in a Latin alphabet, including four letters with macrons or long vowels: ā, ē, ī, ō. Many other foreign letters such as b or k are used only in foreign names such as in "Francitlān" (France).
The orthography used there is outlined below:
- Letters above marked with an asterisk (*) have no capital forms, except in foreign names.
- Similar to Spanish, /k/ is written as ⟨c⟩, except before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩ in which case ⟨qu⟩ is used. Likewise, /s/ is written as ⟨z⟩, except before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩ in which case ⟨c⟩ is used. However, /ts/ is always written as ⟨tz⟩.
- The Classical Nahuatl /s/ was likely substantially different from the normal Spanish s of the time, a voiceless retracted apico-alveolar sibilant fricative /s̺/ (still the norm in modern northern Peninsular Spanish; the sound may be perceived by an English speaker as some sort of cross between their /s/ and their /ʃ/), and far more similar to the normal Spanish z of that time period: /s̻/, a voiceless laminal alveolar sibilant fricative, quite like the typical English /s/.
- ⟨x⟩ is used for the sh-sound /ʃ/, as in Early Modern Spanish.
- ⟨cu⟩ and ⟨hu⟩, which represent /kʷ/ and /w/ respectively, are inverted to ⟨uc⟩ and ⟨uh⟩ at the end of a syllable.
- The letter ⟨u⟩ is only used in digraphs, as the Nahuatl language lacks an /u/ as distinct from /o/.
- ⟨h⟩ represents a glottal stop, a sort of pause caused by constricting the throat as in uh-oh.
Nahuatl literature is extensive (probably the most extensive of all Indigenous languages of the Americas), including a relatively large corpus of poetry (see also Nezahualcoyotl); the Huei tlamahuiçoltica is an excellent early sample of literary Nahuatl.
A Spanish-Nahuatl, Nahuatl-Spanish dictionary, Vocabulario manual de las lenguas castellana, y mexicana is "the most important and most frequently reprinted Spanish work on Nahuatl," according to the World Digital Library.
|Nāhuatl edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Classical Nahuatl". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Ethnologue summary for Classical Nahuatl
- "Manual Vocabulary of the Spanish and Mexican Languages: In Which are Contained the Words, Questions, and Answers Commonly and Usually Found in the Treatment and Communication Between Spaniards and Indians". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- Arenas, Pedro de: Vocabulario manual de las lenguas castellana y mexicana.  Reprint: México 1982
- Carochi, Horacio: Arte de la lengua mexicana: con la declaración de los adverbios della.  Reprint: Porrúa México 1983
- Curl, John: Ancient American Poets. Tempe AZ: Bilingual Press, 2005. http://red-coral.net/Hungry.html
- Garibay, Angel Maria : Llave de Náhuatl. México 19??
- Garibay, Angel María, Historia de la literatura náhuatl. México 1953
- Garibay, Angel María, Poesía náhuatl. vol 1-3 México 1964
- Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1767-1835): Mexicanische Grammatik. Paderborn/München 1994
- Karttunen, Frances, An analytical dictionary of Nahuatl. Norman 1992
- Karttunen, Frances, Nahuatl in the Middle Years: Language Contact Phenomena in Texts of the Colonial Period. Los Angeles 1976
- Launey, Michel : Introduction à la langue et à la littérature aztèques. Paris 1980
- Launey, Michel : Introducción a la lengua y a la literatura Náhuatl. UNAM, México 1992
- León-Portilla, Ascensión H. de : Tepuztlahcuilolli, Impresos en Nahuatl: Historia y Bibliografia. Vol. 1-2. México 1988
- León-Portilla, Miguel : Literaturas Indígenas de México. Madrid 1992
- Lockhart, James (ed): We people here. Nahuatl Accounts of the conquest of Mexico. Los Angeles 1993
- Molina, Fray Alonso de: Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana .  Reprint: Porrúa México 1992
- Olmos, Fray Andrés de: Arte de la lengua mexicana concluído en el convento de San Andrés de Ueytlalpan, en la provincia de Totonacapan que es en la Nueva España.  Reprint: México 1993
- Rincón, Antonio del : Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio del Rincón.  Reprint: México 1885
- Sahagún, Fray Bernardino de (1499-1590): Florentine Codex. General History of the Things of New Spain (Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva España). Eds Charles Dibble/Arthr Anderson, vol I-XII Santa Fe 1950-71
- Siméon, Rémi: Dictionnaire de la Langue Nahuatl ou Mexicaine. [Paris 1885] Reprint: Graz 1963
- Siméon, Rémi: Diccionario dße la Lengua Nahuatl o Mexicana. [Paris 1885] Reprint: México 2001
- Sullivan, Thelma D. : Compendium of Nahuatl Grammar. Salt Lake City 1988
- The Nahua Newsletter: edited by the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies of the Indiana University (Chief Editor Alan Sandstrom)
- Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl: special interest-yearbook of the Instituto de Investigaciones Historicas (IIH) of the Universidad Autonoma de México (UNAM), Ed.: Miguel Leon Portilla