||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2011)|
Cover, issue 10 (Robinson Crusoe), published 1947
|Publisher||Elliot Publishing Co. (1941–1942)
Gilberton Company, Inc. (1942–1967)
Frawley Corporation (Twin Circle), (1967–1971)
|Publication date||1941 – 1971|
|Number of issues||169|
|Creator(s)||Albert Lewis Kanter|
Classics Illustrated is a comic book series featuring adaptations of literary classics such as Moby Dick, Hamlet, and The Iliad. Created by Albert Kanter, the series began publication in 1941 and finished its first run in 1971, producing 169 issues. Following the series' demise, various companies reprinted its titles. This series is different from the Great Illustrated Classics, which is an adaptation of the classics for young readers that includes illustrations, but is not in the comic book form.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Artists
- 3 Classics Illustrated Junior
- 4 International editions
- 5 Subsequent developments
- 6 References in popular culture
- 7 Complete list of Classics Illustrated comic books (original US run)
- 8 List of Classics Illustrated comic books (UK series from 2008)
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Russian-born publisher Albert Lewis Kanter (1897–1973) created Classic Comics for Elliot Publishing Company in 1941 with its debut issues being The Three Musketeers, followed by Ivanhoe and The Count of Monte Cristo. In addition to the literary adaptations, books featured author profiles, educational fillers, and an ad for the coming title. In later editions, a catalog of titles and a subscription order form appeared on back covers. Recognizing the appeal of early comic books, Albert Lewis Kanter  believed he could use the new medium to introduce young and reluctant readers to "great literature".
The first five titles were published irregularly under the banner "Classic Comics Presents" while issues six and seven were published under the banner "Classic Comics Library" with a ten-cent cover price. Arabian Nights (issue 8), illustrated by Lillian Chestney, is the first issue to use the "Classics Comics" banner.
With the fourth issue, The Last of the Mohicans, in 1942, Kanter moved the operation to different offices and the corporate identity was changed to the Gilberton Company, Inc.. Reprints of previous titles began in 1943. Wartime paper shortages forced Kanter to reduce the 64-page format to 56 pages.
Classic Comics is marked by varying quality in art and is celebrated today for its often garish but highly collectible line-drawn covers. Artists include Lillian Chestney (Arabian Nights, issue 8, and Gulliver's Travels, issue 16), Webb and Brewster (Frankenstein, issue 26), Matt Baker (Lorna Doone, issue 32), and Henry Carl Kiefer (second cover for The Prince and the Pauper, issue 29, cover for The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, issue 33, and the first Classics Illustrated issue The Last Days of Pompeii, issue 35). Oliver Twist (issue 23) was the first title produced by the Eisner & Iger shop.
Some titles were packaged in gift boxes of threes or fours during the period with specific themes such as adventure or mystery. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (issue 13) and Uncle Tom's Cabin (issue 15) were both cited in Dr. Fredric Wertham's infamous 1954 condemnation of comic books Seduction of the Innocent. Original edition Classic Comics in Near Mint condition command prices in the thousands of dollars.
The Count of Monte Cristo
The Last of the Mohicans
A Tale of Two Cities
Rip Van Winkle
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Uncle Tom's Cabin
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
The Corsican Brothers
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
Two Years Before the Mast
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus
The Adventures of Marco Polo
The Prince and the Pauper
The Black Arrow
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
The Call of the Wild
The Invisible Man
The series name-changed in March 1947 to Classics Illustrated with issue 35 The Last Days of Pompeii. In 1948, rising paper costs reduced books to 48 pages. In 1951, line-drawn covers were replaced with painted covers (issue 81), and the price was raised from 10 cents to 15 cents, (and, at a later date, to 25 cents). In addition to Classics Illustrated, Kanter presided over its spin-offs Classics Illustrated Junior (1953), Specials, and The World Around Us. Between 1941 and 1962, sales totaled 200 million.
The publication of new titles ceased in 1962 for various reasons. The company lost its 2nd-class mailing permit and cheap paperbacks, Cliff's Notes, and television drew readers away from the series. Kanter's last new title was issue 167 Faust (August 1962) though other titles had been planned. These titles appeared in the company's foreign editions. In 1967, Kanter sold his company to Catholic publication Twin Circle and its publisher Patrick Frawley, whose Frawley Corporation brought out two more titles but mainly concentrated on foreign sales and reprinting older titles. After four years, Twin Circle discontinued the line because of poor distribution. Since the series' demise, various companies have reprinted its titles. By the early 1970s, Classics Illustrated and Junior had been discontinued, although the Classics Illustrated branding would be used on a series of telemovies produced by Schick Sunn Classics: 1977's Last of the Mohicans; 1978's Donner Pass: The Road to Survival, The Time Machine and The Deerslayer; 1980's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, 1981's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Adventures of Nellie Bly (source: http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/series/41527 and other sources for Sleepy Hollow) and 1982's The Fall of the House of Usher.
Artists who contributed to Classics Illustrated included Jack Abel, Stephen Addeo, Matt Baker, Dik Browne, Lou Cameron, Sid Check, L.B. Cole, Reed Crandall, George Evans, Denis Gifford, Graham Ingels, Henry C. Kiefer, Alex Blum, Everett Raymond Kinstler, Jack Kirby, Roy Krenkel, Gray Morrow, Joe Orlando, Norman Nodel, Rudolph Palais, Norman Saunders, John Severin, Joe Sinnott, Angelo Torres, Al Williamson and George Woodbridge.
Classics Illustrated Junior
In 1953, Classics Illustrated Junior debuted with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The line eventually numbered 77 fairy and folk tale, myth and legend titles, ending publication in 1971. Issues included miscellanea such as an Aesop fable and a full-page illustration to color with crayons. Artists included John Costanza and Kurt Schaffenberger.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (January 2011)|
Of the 162 British titles, 13 never appeared in America. Additionally, there were some variations in cover art. UK issues never published in the United States include Aeneid, The Argonauts, The Gorilla Hunters and Sail with the Devil. The British Classics Illustrated adaptation of Dr. No was never published under the U.S. Classics Illustrated line, but instead was sold to DC Comics which published it as part of their superhero anthology series, Showcase. The comic followed the plot of the film with images of the film's actors rather than Ian Fleming's original novel.
In Greece the series is named Κλασσικά Εικονογραφημένα (Klassiká Eikonografiména, meaning Classics Illustrated) and is being published continuously since 1951 by Εκδόσεις Πεχλιβανίδη (Ekdóseis Pechlivanídi, Pechlivanídis Publications). It is based on the American series, with the difference that well-known Greek illustrators and novelists work to adapt stories of particular Greek interest. In addition to the titles that were translated from the US Classics Illustrated more than 70 Titles were published with themes from Greek mythology and Greek history. Κλασσικά Εικονογραφημένα are read by thousands of young Greeks, and the first issues are of interest to collectors.
The publishing house of Κλασσικά Εικονογραφημένα, Εκδόσεις Πεχλιβανίδη (Pechlivanídis Publications), was founded by three brothers of the Πεχλιβανίδης (Pechlivanídis) family from the Greek-speaking parts of Asia Minor: Μιχάλης, Michális, Michael; Κώστας, Kóstas; and Γιώργος, Giórgos, George), collectively known as αδελφοί Πεχλιβανίδη (Pechlivanídis brothers). They had extensive experience in publishing from the 1920s, mainly in advertising — but also in children's books after 1936, when Κώστας Πεχλιβανίδης (Kóstas Pechlivanídis) finished his studies in the –then modern– printing techniques in Leipzig .
The Pechlivanídis brothers had inherited the printing press of Bavarian lithographer Grundman — and his experience as well. Having worked for years with offset printing, the Pechlivanídis brothers, already well known in the publications field, founded after the war[clarification needed] the Εκδόσεις Ατλαντίς (Atlantis Publications) house in order to restart publishing children's books. They had read Classics Illustrated while traveling in the US, and arranged to publish them in Greece as well.
The first issue of Κλασσικά Εικονογραφημένα was made available on 1 March 1951. It was an adaptation of Victor Hugo's Les Misérables, and attracted extensive critique in Greece, both positive and negative. It was the first "American" kind of comic in Greece and also the first four-color or tetrachromous offset (with 336 multicoloured illustrations as the front page advertised). Its cost at the time was 4,000 Drachmas, and the first edition (90,000 copies) went out of print quickly and was reprinted twice in the following days. (According to Ατλαντίδα/Atlantídha/Atlantis, it sold about a million copies).
In 1990, First Comics partnered with Berkley Publishing to acquire the rights and Classics Illustrated returned with new adaptations and a line-up of artists that included Kyle Baker, Dean Motter, Mike Ploog, P. Craig Russell, Bill Sienkiewicz, Joe Staton, Rick Geary and Gahan Wilson. However, the line lasted only a little over a year.
In 1997–1998, Acclaim Books, the successor to Valiant Comics, published a series of recolored reprints in a digest size format with accompanying study notes by literary scholars. The Acclaim line included Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, with art by Frank Giacoia, and The Three Musketeers, illustrated by George Evans. The series favored Mark Twain with reprints of Pudd'nhead Wilson, The Prince and the Pauper and Tom Sawyer. Other reprints in this series were Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, Herman Melville's Moby-Dick and Nathaniel Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Gables.
In 2003, Toronto's Jack Lake Productions Inc. revived Classics Illustrated Junior, also reprinting from the original editions. In 2005, Jack Lake Productions published a Classics Illustrated 50th anniversary edition of The War of the Worlds in both hard and softcover versions. In November 2007, Jack Lake Productions Inc., published for the first time in North America #170 The Aeneid (originally published in the UK) along with #1 The Three Musketeers, #4 The Last of the Mohicans and #5 Moby Dick.
In 2007, it was announced that Papercutz acquired the license and would begin publishing graphic novels starting with The Wind in the Willows. They will be combining reprints of some of the original titles with new modern adaptations, largely produced in France, the first of which will be The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, with art by Severine Lefebvre.
In September 2008, Classic Comic Store Ltd., based in the U.K., began publishing both the original Gilberton Classics Illustrated regular and Junior lines for distribution in the U.K., Republic of Ireland, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. The issue number sequence is different from the original runs, although the Junior series was in the same sequence as the original, but with numbering starting at 1 instead of 501. The covers were digitally 'cleaned up' and enhanced, based on the original US covers. In September 2009, Classic Comic Store Ltd announced that although they would continue to publish the Classics Illustrated titles, they were no longer publishing the Junior series after issue 12, but rather importing the issues from Canada. This meant that the numbers used would be as per the Canadian issues (i.e. the first one imported would be issue 513). In October 2012 (when issue 44 had been despatched), Classic Comic Store Ltd no longer continued with a subscription service in the UK, because of the costs involved. The company told subscribers that they were planning on producing 4 issues at a time, but not on a specified time scale. The first of these batches (issues 45-48) was produced in October 2013.
In 2011, Marblehead, MA based Trajectory, Inc. issued the first digital editions of Gilberton Classics Illustrated regular and Junior lines. In 2014, Trajectory, Inc. was granted the exclusive worldwide rights to produce, distribute and license the brand.
New publications for Classic Comic Store editions
- July 2011: Nicholas Nickleby (issue 32) became the first new title in the 48-page series since the 1969 publication of No. 169 (Negro Americans: The Early Years). The artwork came from the November 1950 Stories by Famous Authors Illustrated edition of Nicholas Nickleby and retained the original Gustav Schrotter interior art.
- October 2012: The 39 Steps (issue 44) became the second brand new title to the Classics Illustrated canon
- September 2013: The Argonauts (issue 48) was published - one of 13 which were never issued in the US collection, but only in the UK.
References in popular culture
- In the film Major League, Jake Taylor (Tom Berenger) reads the Classics Illustrated edition of Moby Dick in an effort to impress his former girlfriend, Lynn (Rene Russo) in the hopes that he might win her back (which he eventually does). Later on in the movie, other teammates like Rick Vaughn (Charlie Sheen), Willie Mays Hayes (Wesley Snipes), and Roger Dorn (Corbin Bernsen) start reading other Classics Illustrated titles, such as The Song of Hiawatha, The Deerslayer, and Crime and Punishment.
- A copy of the Classics Illustrated version of David Copperfield figures in the film Heaven Help Us. At one point, the character Caesar (Malcolm Danare) is baffled by why a book report written by his friend Rooney (Kevin Dillon) contains continued references to W.C. Fields instead of Wilkins Micawber. Rooney responds by displaying the cover of the comic book, which depicts Fields as Mr. Micawber, based on his role in the 1935 film.
- Classics Illustrated #108, Knights of the Round Table (June 1953, Gilberton) is mentioned in the Warner Bros./CW show Supernatural, season 8, episode 21: "The Great Escapist" (written by Ben Edlund, original air date May 1, 2013). Hero Sam Winchester, ill and delirious, recalls to his brother Dean the memory of Dean reading the story to him when they were both small children. Sam laments that as he thought of the knights' purity, it made him realize that, even though he was a child, he was impure — and that he always knew deep down he was impure.
- In Arundhati Roy's book "The God of Small Things" (1997), "Rahel wasn't sure what she suffered from, but occasionally she practised sad faces, and sighing in the mirror.//'It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done,' she would say to herself sadly. That was Rahel being Sydney Carton being Charles Darnay, as he stood on the steps, waiting to be guillotined, in the Classics Illustrated comic's version of A Tale of Two Cities."
Complete list of Classics Illustrated comic books (original US run)
List of Classics Illustrated comic books (UK series from 2008)
The titles and publication dates are obtained from a personal collection.
|Issue||Publication Date||Title||Author||US Issue|
|1||October 2008||The War of the Worlds||H. G. Wells||124|
|2||November 2008||Oliver Twist||Charles Dickens||23|
|3||December 2008||Robin Hood||(Uncredited; based in part on Merry Adventures of Robin Hood by Howard Pyle)||7|
|4||January 2009||The Man in the Iron Mask||Alexandre Dumas||54|
|5||February 2009||Romeo and Juliet||William Shakespeare||134|
|6||March 2009||Journey to the Center of the Earth||Jules Verne||138|
|7||April 2009||Les Misérables||Victor Hugo||9|
|8||May 2009||The Jungle Book||Rudyard Kipling||83|
|9||June 2009||Mutiny on the Bounty||Charles Nordhoff & James Norman Hall||100|
|10||July 2009||Wuthering Heights||Emily Brontë||59|
|11||August 2009||Knights of the round table||(Uncredited; based in part on The Story of King Arthur and his Knights by Howard Pyle)||108|
|12||September 2009||Jane Eyre||Charlotte Brontë||39|
|13||October 2009||Frankenstein||Mary W. Shelley||26|
|14||November 2009||The Time Machine||H. G. Wells||133|
|15||December 2009||Christmas Carol||Charles Dickens||53|
|16||January 2010||Moby Dick||Herman Melville||5|
|17||February 2010||Macbeth||William Shakespeare||128|
|18||March 2010||The Invisible Man||H. G. Wells||153|
|19||April 2010||Huckleberry Finn||Mark Twain||19|
|20||May 2010||Great Expectations||Charles Dickens||43|
|21||June 2010||Treasure Island||Robert Louis Stevenson||64|
|22||July 2010||Alice in Wonderland||Lewis Carroll||49|
|23||August 2010||Black Beauty||Anna Sewell||60|
|24||September 2010||Kidnapped||Robert Louis Stevenson||46|
|25||October 2010||The Three Musketeers||Alexandre Dumas||1|
|26||November 2010||Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea||Jules Verne||47|
|27||December 2010||Ben Hur||Lew Wallace||147|
|28||January 2011||The Last Days of Pompeii||Edward Bulwer-Lytton||35|
|29||February 2011||Ivanhoe||Sir Walter Scott||2|
|30||March 2011||Julius Caesar||William Shakespeare||68|
|31||May 2011||Around the World in 80 Days||Jules Verne||69|
|32||June 2011||Nicholas Nickleby||Charles Dickens||New title|
|33||August 2011||Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde||Robert Louis Stevenson||13|
|34||October 2011||The Last of the Mohicans||James Fenimore Cooper||4|
|35||November 2011||Tale of Two Cities||Charles Dickens||6|
|36||December 2011||The Hunchback of Notre Dame||Victor Hugo||18|
|37||January 2012||A Study in Scarlet (also contains The Speckled Band)||Arthur Conan Doyle||110|
|38||February 2012||The Count of Monte Cristo||Alexandre Dumas||3|
|39||April 2012||Hamlet||William Shakespeare||99|
|40||May 2012||David Copperfield||Charles Dickens||58|
|41||June 2012||First Men in the Moon||H. G. Wells||144|
|42||July 2012||The Ox-Bow Incident||Walter Van Tilburg Clark||125|
|43||September 2012||Robinson Crusoe||Daniel Defoe||10|
|44||October 2012||The 39 Steps||John Buchan||New title|
|45||September 2013||Cleopatra||H. Rider Haggard||161|
|46||September 2013||The Gold Bug and Other Stories (consists of The Gold-Bug, The Tell-Tale Heart and The Cask of Amontillado)||Edgar Allan Poe||84|
|47||September 2013||Off on a Comet||Jules Verne||149|
|48||September 2013||The Argonauts||Apollonius of Rhodes||Not issued in the US|
|49||To be decided||A Midsummer Night's Dream||William Shakespeare||87|
|50||To be decided||The Downfall||Émile Zola||126|
|51||To be decided||The Iliad||Homer||77|
|52||To be decided||The Hound of the Baskervilles||Arthur Conan Doyle||33|
|53||To be decided||The Odyssey||Homer||81|
|54||To be decided||Tom Sawyer||Mark Twain||50|
|55||To be decided||The Prisoner of Zenda||Anthony Hope||76|
|56||To be decided||All Quiet on the Western Front||Erich Maria Remarque||95|
Other companies producing comic adaptations of literature:
- Sawyer, Michael. "Albert Lewis Kanter and the Classics: The Man Behind the Gilberton Company," The Journal of Popular Culture, Spring 1987, Vol. 20, p1-18.
- "First Comics Revives Classics Illustrated," The Comics Journal #120 (March 1988), p. 12.
- "First Comics Revives Classics Illustrated in January," The Comics Journal #132 (November 1989), p. 23.
- From the issue's introduction: "Classic Comic Store has now added the [November 1950 Famous Authors Illustrated] edition of Nicholas Nickleby to the Classics Illustrated series as issue No. 32, the first title in the 48 page series since the 1969 publication of No. 169, Negro Americans:The Early Years. Nicholas Nickleby retains the 1950 [Gustav] Schrotter interior art." ("Introduction". Classics Illustrated (UK) (Classic Comic Store Ltd) (32): 48. June 2011.)
- "Reading Room Index to the Comic Art Collection: Classics Illustrated (1-100)". Special Collections Division: Michigan State University Libraries. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
- "Reading Room Index to the Comic Art Collection: Classics Illustrated (101-169)". Special Collections Division: Michigan State University Libraries. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
- "Artist directory for Special Issues and World Around Us". Classics Central. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- For published issues, the titles and publication dates are obtained from the personal collection of Wikipedia editor "Phantomsteve". Future issue details are from the "in the coming months" list on the back of the most recently published issue (and/or from subscriber letters detailing future issues).
- Because of a printing error, first run prints of this Classics Illustrated wrongly attributed the story to Jules Verne instead of Rudyard Kipling in the copyright details in the inside cover
- From the subscriber's letter: "Collectors among you may notice that number 44, John Buchan's The 39 Steps, is our second brand new title to the Classics Illustratedcanon, after introducing Charles Dickens' Nicholas Nickleby as number 32"
- This is a title (one of 13) which were never issued in the US collection, but only in the UK.("Classics Illustrated History". Classic Comic Store. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
In the UK, thirteen titles were produced that were never published in America including The Aeneid, The Argonauts...) This is the first such title to be published in the new UK collection.
- Issue 33 in the US series consisted of The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, A Study in Scarlet and The Hound of the Baskervilles - this UK issue only mentions The Hound - issue 37 of the UK series contains A Study in Scarlet
- Goulart, Ron. Great American Comic Books. Publications International, Ltd., 2001.
- Malan, Dan. The Complete Guide to Classics Illustrated. Classics Central.Com, 2006.
- Overstreet, Robert M.. Official Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide. House of Collectibles, 2004.
- William B. Jones Jr., Classics Illustrated: A Cultural History, with Illustrations (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2002). Second edition, 2011. ISBN 978-0-7864-8840-7
- 'Classic Comics' at the Grand Comics Database
- Classics Illustrated (1941) at the Comic Book DB
- Classics Illustrated Junior (1953) at the Comic Book DB
- Classics Illustrated (1990) at the Comic Book DB
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Classic Comics.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Classics Illustrated.|
- Complete list of Classics Illustrated and Classics Illustrated Junior
- Classics Illustrated by Trajectory with sample images, descriptions of each title and links on where to purchase each title.
- Classics Illustrated by Papercutz
- Classics Central
- Review of War Of The Worlds Classics Illustrated
- Review of Great Expectations, Comics Bulletin
- In Praise of Classic Comics - slideshow by Life magazine
- Classic Comic Store Ltd - Modern UK Reprints