Claude Pepper

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Claude Pepper
Claude Denson Pepper.jpg
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida
In office
January 3, 1963 – May 30, 1989
Preceded byBob Sikes
Succeeded byIleana Ros-Lehtinen
Constituency3rd district (1963–1967)
11th district (1967–1973)
14th district (1973–1983)
18th district (1983–1989)
United States Senator
from Florida
In office
November 4, 1936 – January 3, 1951
Preceded byWilliam Luther Hill
Succeeded byGeorge Smathers
Member of the
Florida House of Representatives
In office
1929–1931
Personal details
Born
Claude Denson Pepper

September 8, 1900
Near Dudleyville, Chambers County, Alabama,
U.S.
DiedMay 30, 1989 (aged 88)
Washington, D.C.,
U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Mildred (Webster) Pepper (m. 1931-1979, her death)
Alma materUniversity of Alabama
Harvard Law School

Claude Denson Pepper (September 8, 1900 – May 30, 1989) was an American politician of the Democratic Party, and a spokesman for left-liberalism and the elderly. He represented Florida in the United States Senate from 1936 to 1951 and the Miami area in the United States House of Representatives from 1963 until 1989.[1][2]

Born in Chambers County, Alabama, Pepper established a legal practice in Perry, Florida after graduating from Harvard Law School. After serving a single term in the Florida House of Representatives, Pepper won a 1936 special election to succeed Senator Duncan U. Fletcher. Pepper became one of the most prominent liberals in Congress, supporting legislation such as the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. After World War II, Pepper's conciliatory views towards the Soviet Union and opposition to President Harry Truman's 1948 re-nomination engendered opposition within the party. Pepper lost the 1950 Senate Democratic primary to Congressman George Smathers and returned to private legal practice the following year.

In 1962, Pepper won election to a newly-created district in the United States House of Representatives. He emerged as a staunch anti-Communist and strongly criticized Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Pepper served as Chairman of the House Committee on Aging and pursued reforms to Social Security and Medicare. From 1983 to 1989, he served as Chairman of the powerful House Rules Committee. He died in office in 1989 and was honored with a state funeral. In 2000, the United States Postal Service issued a 33¢ Distinguished Americans series postage stamp honoring Pepper.

Background[edit]

Claude Denson Pepper was born on September 8, 1900, in Chambers County, Alabama, in a shack belonging to poverty-stricken sharecroppers. He was the son of Lena Corine (née Talbot) (June 15, 1877; Georgia – June 8, 1961; Tallahassee, Florida) and Joseph Wheeler Pepper (May 4, 1873; Clay County, Alabama – July 8, 1945; Tallahassee, Florida).[3] He had two brothers and three sisters. Pepper attended school in Camp Hill. He became a schoolteacher in Dothan. He then worked in an Ensley steel mill before beginning studies at the University of Alabama.

While in college he joined the Army for World War I and served in the Student Army Training Corps (precursor to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps). The war ended before he saw active service, and after the SATC was disbanded, Pepper joined the newly-organized Reserve Officers' Training Corps. While lifting ammunition crates during a training event, Pepper suffered a double hernia, which required surgery to correct. After graduating from the University of Alabama in 1921, Pepper was able to use his veterans' and disability benefits to attend Harvard Law School, receiving his degree in 1924.

Career[edit]

Pepper briefly taught law at the University of Arkansas and then moved to Perry, Florida, where he opened a law practice. He was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 1928 and served from 1929 to 1931. After being defeated for reelection in 1930 he moved his law practice to Tallahassee, the state capital. In 1931, he met Mildred Webster outside the governor's office. They began dating, and married in St. Petersburg on December 29, 1936. They remained married until her death in 1979, and had no children.

Florida government[edit]

Pepper served on the Florida Board of Public Welfare from 1931 to 1932, and was a member of the Florida Board of Bar Examiners in 1933.

U.S. Senate[edit]

Newsman covering U.S. Senator Claude Pepper's campaign in 1938.

In 1934, Pepper ran for the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate, challenging incumbent Park Trammell. Pepper lost to Trammell in the primary runoff 51%–49%.[4] But Pepper was unopposed in the 1936 special election following the death of Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, and succeeded William Luther Hill, who had been appointed pending the special election. In the Senate, Pepper became a leading New Dealer and close ally of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was unusually articulate and intellectual, and, collaborating with labor unions, he was often the leader of the liberal-left forces in the Senate. His reelection in a heavily fought primary in 1938 solidified his reputation as the most prominent liberal in Congress. His campaign based on a wages-hours bill, which soon became the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. He sponsored the Lend-Lease Act. He filibustered an anti-lynching bill in 1937.[5]

In 1943, a confidential analysis by Isaiah Berlin of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee for the British Foreign Office described Pepper as:

A loud-voiced and fiery New Deal politician. Before Pearl Harbor, he was a most ardent interventionist. He is equally Russophile and apt to be critical of British Imperial policy. He is an out and out internationalist and champion of labour and negro rights (Florida has no poll tax) and thus a passionate supporter of the Administration's more internationalist policies. He is occasionally used by the President for the purpose of sending up trial balloons in matters of foreign policy. With all these qualities, he is, in his methods, a thoroughly opportunist politician.[6]

Because of the power of the Conservative Coalition, he usually lost on domestic policy. He was, however, more successful in promoting an international foreign policy based on friendship with the Soviet Union. In 1946, Pepper appeared frequently in the national press and began to eye the 1948 presidential race. He considered running with his close friend and fellow liberal, former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, with whom he was active in the Southern Conference for Human Welfare.[7]

"Eisenhower Boom"[edit]

Pepper was re-elected in 1944.

By 1947, momentum was growing for the Draft Eisenhower movement. On September 10, 1947, US General Dwight D. Eisenhower disclaimed any association with the movement.[8] In mid-September 1947, US Representative W. Sterling Cole of New York voice opposition to the nomination of Eisenhower or any other military leader, including George C. Marshall and Douglas MacArthur.[9] In December 1947, an actor impersonating Eisenhower sang "Kiss Me Again" during a political dinner in Washington, DC, whose attendees including President Truman (Democratic incumbent) and numerous Republican potential candidates: the song's refrain ran "...but it's too soon. Some time next June, ask me, ask me again, ask me, ask me again."[10] On April 3, 1948, Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), led by members Adolf A. Berle Jr. and Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., declared its decision to support a ticket of Eisenhower and Supreme Court Judge William O. Douglas.[11] On April 5, 1948, Eisenhower stated his position remained unchanged: he would not accept a nomination.[12] In mid-April 1948, American labor unions had entered the debate, as William B. Green, president of the American Federation of Labor, criticized the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) for support the "Eisenhower Boom."[13]

On July 2, 1948, the White House sent George E. Allen, friend and adviser to both Truman and Eisenhower, to the general to persuade him to make yet another denial about his candidacy.[14] On July 3, 1948, Democratic state organizations in Georgia and Virginia openly backed Eisenhower, as did former Supreme Court Justice Jeremiah T. Mahoney.[15][16][17][18] The same day, Progressive presumptive candidate Wallace scorned the Eisenhower boom's southern supporters, saying, "They have reason to believe that Ike is reactionary because of his testimony on the draft and UMT [Universal Military Training]."[19] On July 4, 1948, rumors abounded, e.g., Eisenhower would accept an "honest draft"[20] or (from the Los Angeles Times) Eisenhower would accept the nomination if made by Truman himself.[21] On July 5, 1948, a New York Times survey completed the previous day revealed that support for Eisenhower as Democratic nominee for President was "increasing among delegates," fueled by an "Anti-Truman Group" led by James Roosevelt of California, Jacob Arvey of Illinois, and William O'Dwyer of New York.[22][23][24] US Senator John C. Stennis of Mississippi declared his support for Eisenhower.[25] At 10:30 PM that night, Eisenhower issued an internal memo at Columbia for release by the university's PR director that "I will not, at this time, identify myself with any political party, and could not accept nomination for public office or participate in a partisan political contest."[26] Support persisted nonetheless,[27] and on July 6, 1948, a local Philadelphia group seized on Eisenhower's phrases about "political party" and "partisan political contest" and declared their continued support for him.[28] The same day, Truman supporters expressed their satisfaction with the Eisenhower memo and confidence in the nomination.[29] By July 7, 1948, the week before the 1948 Democratic National Convention, the Draft Eisenhower movement drifted onwards, despite flat denials by Eisenhower[30] and despite public declarations of confidence by Truman [31] and Democratic Party national chairman J. Howard McGrath.[32] Nevertheless, 5,000 admirers gathered in front of Eisenhower's Columbia residence to ask him to run.[33]

In 1948, Pepper supported not his friend Henry A. Wallace but Eisenhower.[1] In fact, on July 7, 1948, Pepper went further than any other supporter with an extraordinary proposal:

Senator Claude Pepper of Florida called on the Democratic party today to transform itself temporarily into a national movement, draft Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower as a "national" and hence "nonpartisan" Presidential candidate and promise him substantial control of the party's national convention opening in Philadelphia next week.
It would be necessary, Mr. Pepper suggested, for the convention to invite General Eisenhower to write his own platform and to pick the Vice~Presidential nominee.
Moreover, the Senator said, the general should be assured that the Democrats would never make partisan claims on him, and he should be presented not as a "Democratic" candidate but the candidate of a convention "speaking not as Democrats but simply as Americans."[34]

Pepper managed to gain support from ADA.[35] The Draft Ike movement gained support from the CIO, the Liberal Party of New York State, Democratic local leaders (Jacob Arvey of Chicago, Frank Hague of New Jersey, Mayor William O'Dwyer of New York City, and Mayor Hubert Humphrey of Minneapolis), as well as ADA leaders Leon Henderson and James Roosevelt II.[36] Eisenhower made repeated statements that he would not accept the Democratic Party's nomination well into July, just ahead of the 1948 Democratic National Convention.[37] When Eisenhower, who accepted to become president of Columbia University in January 1948) made three statements refusing the nomination during July 1948, Pepper and others gave up and provided lukewarm support to Harry S. Truman.[citation needed] His third and last denial, sent by telegram to Pepper, ended the "Eisenhower Boom," and delegates began to reconsider Truman.[38] (Pepper also made a bid for presidential candidacy but withdrew it.[39]) On the evening of July 9, 1948, Roosevelt conceded at "Eisenhower-for-President headquarters" that the general would not accept a nomination.[40] During the convention (July 12-14, 1948) and after, concern persisted that the Eisenhower Boom had weakened Truman's hopes in the November 1948 elections.[41][42]

In 1950, Pepper lost his bid for a third full term in 1950 by a margin of over 60,000 votes. Ed Ball, a power in state politics who had broken with Pepper, financed his opponent, U.S. Representative George A. Smathers. A former supporter of Pepper, Smathers repeatedly attacked "Red Pepper" for having far-left sympathies, condemning both his support for universal health care and his alleged support for the Soviet Union. Pepper had traveled to the Soviet Union in 1945 and, after meeting Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, declared he was "a man Americans could trust."[43] Because of his left-of-center sympathies with people like Wallace and actor-activist Paul Robeson and because of his bright red hair, he became widely nicknamed "Red Pepper."[1]

At a speech made on November 11, 1946, before a pro-Soviet group known as Ambijan, which supported the creation of a Soviet Jewish republic in the far east of the USSR, Pepper told his listeners that "Probably nowhere in the world are minorities given more freedom, recognition and respect than in the Soviet Union [and] nowhere in the world is there so little friction, between minority and majority groups, or among minorities." Democracy was "growing" in that country, he added, and he asserted that the Soviets were making such contributions to democracy "that many who decry it might well imitate and emulate rather than despair."

Two years later, on November 21, 1948, speaking to the same group, he again lauded the Soviet Union, calling it a nation which has recognized the dignity of all people, a nation wherein discrimination against anybody on account of race is a crime, and which was in fundamental sympathy with the progress of mankind.[44]

Communist allegations[edit]

Regarding the 1950 Florida Senate election, President Harry Truman called George Smathers into a meeting at the White House and reportedly said, "I want you to do me a favor. I want you to beat that son-of-a-bitch Claude Pepper."[43] Pepper had been part of an unsuccessful 1948 campaign to "dump Truman" as the Democratic presidential nominee. Smathers ran against him in the Democratic primary (which at the time in Florida was tantamount to election, the Republican Party still being in infancy there). The contest was extremely heated, and revolved around policy issues, especially charges that Pepper represented the far left and was too supportive of Stalin. Pepper's opponents circulated widely a 49-page booklet titled The Red Record of Senator Claude Pepper.[45] Pepper was defeated in the primary by Smathers.

Law practice[edit]

Pepper returned to law practice in Miami and Washington, failing in a comeback bid to regain a Senate seat in the 1958 Democratic primary in which he challenged his former colleague, Spessard Holland.[46] However, Pepper did carry eleven counties, including populous Dade County,[47] where he later staged a remarkable comeback.

U.S. House[edit]

Portrait of Pepper in the Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives

In 1962 Pepper was elected to the United States House of Representatives from a newly created liberal district around Miami and Miami Beach established due to population growth in the area, becoming one of very few former United States Senators in modern times (the only other examples being James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. from New York, Alton Lennon from North Carolina, and Garrett Withers from Kentucky) to be elected to the House after their Senate careers.[citation needed] (Matthew M. Neely from West Virginia was also elected to the House after his Senate career, but he had been elected to the House before his Senate career as well.) He remained there until his death in 1989, rising to chair of the powerful Rules Committee in 1983. Despite a reputation as a leftist in his youth, Pepper turned staunchly anti-communist in the last third of his life, opposing Cuban leader Fidel Castro and supporting aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.

In the early 1970s, Pepper chaired the Joint House–Senate Committee on Crime; then, in 1977, he became chair of the new House Select Committee on Aging, which became his base as he emerged as the nation's foremost spokesman for the elderly, especially regarding Social Security programs. He succeeded in strengthening Medicare.[citation needed] In 1980 the committee under Pepper's leadership initiated what became a four-year investigation into health care scams that preyed on older people; the report, published in 1984 and commonly called "The Pepper Report", was entitled "Quackery, a $10 Billion Scandal".[48]

In the 1980s he worked with Alan Greenspan in a major reform of the Social Security system that maintained its solvency by slowly raising the retirement age, thus cutting benefits for workers retiring in their mid-60s, and in 1986 he obtained the passage of a federal law that abolished most mandatory retirement ages.[citation needed] In his later years, Pepper, who customarily began each day by eating a bowl of tomato soup with crackers, sported a replaced hip and hearing aids in both ears, but continued to remain an important and often lionized figure in the House.[citation needed]

Pepper became known as the "grand old man of Florida politics." He was featured on the cover of Time Magazine in 1938 and 1983. During this time, Republicans often joked that he and House Speaker Tip O'Neill were the only Democrats who really drove President Ronald Reagan crazy.

Personal life and death[edit]

On May 26, 1989, Pepper was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George H. W. Bush. Four days later, Pepper died in his sleep from stomach cancer. He was 88 years old. His body lay in state for two days in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol;[49] he was the 26th American so honored and was the last person to lie in state in the Capitol rotunda with an open casket. Pepper was buried at Oakland Cemetery in Tallahassee.[50] A special election was held in August 1989 to fill his seat, won by Republican Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, who served until retiring at the conclusion of the 115th Congress.

Legacy[edit]

Statue of Claude Pepper in Miami

A number of places in Florida are named for Pepper, including the Claude Pepper Center[51] at Florida State University (housing a think tank devoted to intercultural dialogue in conjunction with the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations and an institute on aging)[52] and the Claude Pepper Federal Building in Miami, as well as several public schools. Large sections of US 27 in Florida are named Claude Pepper Memorial Highway. Since 2002, the Democratic Executive Committee (DEC) of Lake County has held an annual "Claude Pepper Dinner" to honor Pepper's tireless support for senior citizens.[3] He also has the Claude Pepper Building No. 31 [4] named for him at the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland. Pepper's wife Mildred was well known and respected for her humanitarian work as well. She was also honored with a number of places named in Florida.[53][54][55]

After Pepper's death, Bradenton, Florida actor Kelly Reynolds portrayed Pepper in several performances held at area schools, libraries and nursing homes.[56]

Awards[edit]

In 1982, Pepper received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[57]

In 1985 he received the Freedom medal.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Eyewitness to a Century with Hays Gorey (1987) – an autobiography

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Thomas, Reginald (31 May 1989). "Claude Pepper, Fiery Fighter For Elderly Rights, Dies at 88". New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  2. ^ "Courtly Champion of America's Elderly". New York Times. 29 November 1981. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Joseph Wheeler Pepper (1873–1945) – Find A Grave Memorial".
  4. ^ "FL US Senate – D Runoff Race – Jun 26, 1934".
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-13. Retrieved 2013-11-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Hachey, Thomas E. (Winter 1973–1974). "American Profiles on Capitol Hill: A Confidential Study for the British Foreign Office in 1943". Wisconsin Magazine of History. 57 (2): 141–153. JSTOR 4634869.
  7. ^ "Claude D. Pepper – Encyclopedia of Alabama".
  8. ^ "Eisenhower Boom is Deplored by Him: Eisenhower Decries Boom for Him As Landon Offers Kansas Backing". New York Times. 10 September 1947. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  9. ^ "Cole of House Hits Eisenhower Boom". New York Times. 14 September 1947. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  10. ^ "Eisenhower Boom a Gridiron Morsel". New York Times. 14 December 1947. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  11. ^ "Democrats Urged to Run Eisenhower". New York Times. 4 April 1948. p. 45. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Eisenhower Says Position Is 'Absolutely Unchanged'". New York Times. 6 April 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  13. ^ "Green Hits CIO Talk of Eisenhower Boom". New York Times. 14 April 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  14. ^ "Eisenhower Query Laid to President: Newspaper Says George Allen Will Ask Clear Declination". New York Times. 3 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  15. ^ "Georgia, Virginia Back Eisenhower, Denounce Truman". New York Times. 3 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  16. ^ "Virginia Raises Eisenhower Boom". New York Times. 3 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  17. ^ "Georgia Champion Boom for Eisenhower". New York Times. 3 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  18. ^ "Eisenhower Draft Urged by Mahoney: 'Strongest' Candidate, Ex-Justice Says". New York Times. 3 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  19. ^ "Eisenhower Draft Urged by Mahoney: 'Strongest' Candidate, Ex-Justice Says". New York Times. 3 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  20. ^ "Quoting Eisenhower as Receptive Denied". New York Times. 5 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  21. ^ "Report Says Eisenhower Asks Choice by Truman". New York Times. 5 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  22. ^ "Eisenhower Boom Gaining Headway in Fight on Truman: Survey of 48 States Reveals Battle Faced by President in Swings of Delegates". New York Times. 5 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  23. ^ "50 Top Democrats Back Rights Plank: They Meet in Minneapolis and Issue Statement". New York Times. 5 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  24. ^ "Illinois May Nominate: Arvey Predicts Convention Stampede for Eisenhower". New York Times. 5 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  25. ^ "Stennis for Eisenhower". New York Times. 6 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  26. ^ "Eisenhower Says He Couldn't Accept Nomination for Any Public Office". New York Times. 6 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  27. ^ Moscow, Warren (7 July 1948). "Eisenhower Boom Rolls on into Party Despite His Stand". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  28. ^ "Committee Presses Eisenhower Draft". New York Times. 6 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Eisenhower Stand Buoys Truman Men". New York Times. 6 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  30. ^ "Eisenhower Draft Wanes Amid Split: Eisenhower Draft Recedes As New York Leaders Split". New York Times. 8 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Truman's Confidence Grows: Aides See Opposition Halted". New York Times. 7 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  32. ^ "Eisenhower's No 'Final' to M'Grath: Democratic Chairman Holds Truman Nomination Assured". New York Times. 8 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  33. ^ "5,000 Admirers Call at Eisenhower Home". New York Times. 8 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Pepper Proposes New Party Policy; Advocates Dropping Partisanship and Drafting Eisenhower as a Crisis President". New York Times. 7 July 1948. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  35. ^ "A.D.A. is Target of Republicans: Humphrey Linked to Group Described as Subversive". New York Times. 11 October 1964. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  36. ^ "In the Nation: Ike and Teddy". New York Times. 26 June 1979. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  37. ^ Moscow, Warren (7 July 1948). "Eisenhower Boom Rolls on into Party Despite His Stand". New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  38. ^ "Eisenhower Draft Recedes As New York Leaders Split". New York Times. 8 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  39. ^ Lawrence, W.H. (14 July 1948). "Barkley to Be Truman Running Mate: Floor Fight Looming on Civil Rights". New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  40. ^ "James Roosevelt Bows to General: Prime Mover in Eisenhower Boom Accepts 'No'". New York Times. 10 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  41. ^ Krock, Arthur (11 July 1948). "Anti-Truman Campaign a Boomerang to Party". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  42. ^ "Liberals Seen Set to Back President: Former Eisenhower Groups Begin Task of Retracing Steps to Truman's Side". New York Times. 22 July 1948. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  43. ^ a b Fund, John. Political Journal: George Smathers, RIP, January 24, 2007.
  44. ^ Claude Pepper, "Keep up Your Great Fight—Continue Your Great Work," Ambijan Bulletin 7, 7 (December 1948), pp. 6–7.
  45. ^ Pepper & Gorey (1987), p. 205.
  46. ^ "Pepper Loses In Florida Primary". September 10, 1958.
  47. ^ [1][dead link]
  48. ^ "Quackery, a $10 Billion Scandal: A Report of the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care, Select Committee on Aging, US House of Representatives" (PDF). US Government Printing Office. 1984. Lay summary: Bellamy, Jann (October 30, 2014). ""Quackery: A $10 Billion Scandal" « Science-Based Medicine". Science-Based Medicine.
  49. ^ ""Lying in State or in Honor"". US Architect of the Capitol (AOC). Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  50. ^ Claude Pepper at Find a Grave
  51. ^ "Claude Pepper Center – Pepper Legacy Today".
  52. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2001-11-19. Retrieved 2008-08-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  53. ^ City of Sweetwater, Elderly Program: Mildred & Claude Pepper Senior Center, retrieved April 22, 2014
  54. ^ Elderly Housing Development & Operations Corp., Claude and Mildred Pepper Towers, April 19, 2012
  55. ^ Florida State University, Mildred and Claude Pepper Library Archived July 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, 2010
  56. ^ "Claude Pepper comes to life in play", Sarasota Herald Tribune, Dec. 6, 1993, p. 1B [2]
  57. ^ "National – Jefferson Awards Foundation".

Further reading[edit]

  • Clark, James C., "Claude Pepper and the Seeds of His 1950 Defeat, 1944–1948," Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. 74, no. 1 (Summer 1995), pp. 1–22. in JSTOR
  • Clark, James C. Red Pepper and Gorgeous George: Claude Pepper's Epic Defeat in the 1950 Democratic Primary (2011)
  • Crispell, Brian Lewis, Testing the Limits: George Armistead Smathers and Cold War America (1999)
  • Danese, Tracy E. Claude Pepper and Ed Ball: Politics, Purpose, and Power (2000)
  • Denman, Joan E. "Senator Claude D. Pepper: Advocate of Aid to the Allies, 1939–1941," Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. 83, no. 2 (Fall 2004), pp. 121–148. in JSTOR
  • Finley, Keith M. Delaying the Dream: Southern Senators and the Fight Against Civil Rights, 1938–1965 (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2008).
  • Swint, Kerwin C., Mudslingers: The Twenty-five Dirtiest Political Campaigns of All Time. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2006.

External links[edit]

U.S. Senate
Preceded by
William Luther Hill
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Florida
November 4, 1936 – January 3, 1951
Served alongside: Charles O. Andrews, Spessard Holland
Succeeded by
George Smathers
Preceded by
Elmer Austin Benson
Most Senior Living U.S. Senator
(sitting or former)

March 13, 1985 – May 30, 1989
Succeeded by
John Danaher
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Robert L. F. Sikes
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 3rd congressional district

January 3, 1963 – January 3, 1967
Succeeded by
Charles E. Bennett
Preceded by
Edward J. Gurney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 11th congressional district

January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1973
Succeeded by
Paul G. Rogers
New district Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 14th congressional district

January 3, 1973 – January 3, 1983
Succeeded by
Daniel A. Mica
Preceded by
William J. Randall
Chairman of House Aging Committee
1977 – 1983
Succeeded by
Edward R. Roybal
New district Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 18th congressional district

January 3, 1983 – May 30, 1989
Succeeded by
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
Preceded by
Richard Bolling
Chairman of House Rules Committee
1983 – 1989
Succeeded by
Joe Moakley
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Unknown Soldier of the Vietnam Era
(Michael Blassie)
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

June 1–2, 1989
Succeeded by
John Gibson and Jacob Chestnut