Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces. Purposes of cleaning agents include health, beauty, removing offensive odor, and avoiding the spread of dirt and contaminants to oneself and others. Some cleaning agents can kill bacteria (e.g. door handle bacteria, as well as bacteria on worktops and other metallic surfaces) and clean at the same time. Others, called degreasers, contain organic solvents to help dissolve oils and fats.
- 1 Acidic
- 2 Alkaline
- 3 Neutral
- 4 Degreasers
- 5 Types
- 6 Environmental impacts
- 7 Common cleaning agents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Acidic cleaning agents are mainly used for removal of inorganic deposits like scaling. The active ingredients are normally strong mineral acids and chelants. Often, surfactants and corrosion inhibitors are added to the acid.
Hydrochloric acid is a common mineral acid typically used for concrete. Vinegar can also be used to clean hard surfaces and remove calcium deposits. Sulphuric acid is used in acidic drain cleaners to unblock clogged pipes by dissolving greases, proteins, and even carbohydrate-containing substances such as toilet tissue.
Alkaline cleaning agents contain strong bases like sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Bleach (pH 12) and ammonia (pH 11) are common alkaline cleaning agents. Often, dispersants, to prevent redeposition of dissolved dirt, and chelants, to attack rust, are added to the alkaline agent.
Neutral washing agents are pH-neutral and based on non-ionic surfactants that disperse different types.
Cleaning agents specially made for removal of grease are called degreasers. These may be solvent-based or solvent-containing and metamorphic.
Traditional oven cleaners contain sodium hydroxide (lye), solvents, and other ingredients, and work best when used in a slightly-warm (not hot) oven. If used in a self-cleaning oven, the lye will cause permanent damage to the oven.
New-style oven cleaners are based on ingredients other than lye. These products must be used in a cold oven. Most new-style oven cleaners can be used in self-cleaning ovens.
Oven cleaners are some of the most toxic household cleaning products available on the market. When using any oven cleaner, it is important to carefully read and follow all directions. Correct use of an oven cleaner may be reasonably safe, but incorrect use can cause poisoning.
One popular oven cleaner brand in the US is "Easy-Off", sold by Reckitt Benckiser. Popular choices in the UK include "Zep Oven Brite" and "Mr Muscle Oven Cleaner".
All-purpose cleansers contain mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants, polymeric phosphates or other sequestering agents, solvents, hydrotropic substances, polymeric compounds, corrosion inhibitors, skin-protective agents, and sometimes perfumes and colorants.
Some cleaners contain water-soluble organic solvents like glycol ethers and fatty alcohols, which ease the removal of oil, fat and paint. Disinfectant additives include quaternary ammonium compounds, phenol derivatives, terpene alcohols (pine oil), aldehydes, and aldehyde-amine condensation products.
All-purpose cleansers are effective with most common kinds of dirt. Their dilute solutions are neutral or weakly alkaline, and are safe for use on most surfaces.
Manual dishwashing detergent
Automatic dishwashing detergents (ADDs)
Toilet cleaners / hygiene / deodorant products
Metal cleaners are used for cleaning stainless steel sinks, faucets, metal trim, silverware, etc. These products contain abrasives (e.g., siliceous chalk, diatomaceous earth, alumina) with a particle size < 20 μm. Fatty alcohol or alkylphenol polyglycol ethers with 7-12 ethylene oxide (EO) units are used as surfactants.
Common cleaning agents
- Water, the most common cleaning agent, which is a very powerful polar solvent
- Soap or detergent
- Ammonia solution
- Calcium hypochlorite (powdered bleach)
- Citric acid
- Sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach)
- Sodium hydroxide (lye)
- Acetic acid (vinegar)
- Various forms of alcohol - like isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol
- Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
- Tetrachloroethylene (dry cleaning)
- Carbon dioxide
- Chromic acid
- Trisodium phosphate
- Saltwater soap (a potassium based soap)
- Sodium percarbonate
- Sodium perborate
- Acetone (can damage plastics)
- Amyl nitrite and other nitrites
- Xylene (can damage plastics)
- Freon (e.g. dichlorodifluoromethane) (discontinued in 1995 due to damage to the ozone layer).
- Wisniewski, Karen (2007). "All-Purpose Cleaners and their Formulation". In Tsoler, Uri. Handbook of detergents, Part 2. Surfactant science series. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-57444-757-6.
- Justo, Patrick Di (19 May 2008). "What's Inside: Foamalicious, Vaporlicious Easy-Off Oven Cleaner". Wired. Condé Nast, Inc. ISSN 1059-1028.
- Howard, Wayne. "Easy-Off Ingredients". Hunker website. Leaf Group, Ltd.
- "Easy-Off Heavy Duty Oven Cleaner - Fresh Scent » Ingredients". Reckitt Benckiser LLC.
- Kelly, John (9 June 2012). "How Self-cleaning Ovens Work". HowStuffWorks website. InfoSpace Holdings LLC.
- Sheppard, Harlan Kanoa. "Re: If oven-cleaning chemicals are as dangerous as they seem, how is it that we can eat food from ovens cleaned with these chemicals?". Quora, Inc.
- Christian Nitsch; Hans-Joachim Heitland; Horst Marsen; Hans-Joachim Schlüssler (2007), "Cleansing Agents", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley