The cleaning process includes the removal of parasites from the animal's body (both externally and internally), and can be performed by various creatures (including cleaner shrimp and numerous species of cleaner fish, especially wrasses and gobies (Elacatinus spp.)).
When the animal approaches a cleaning station, it will open its mouth wide or position its body in such a way as to signal that it needs cleaning. The cleaner fish will then remove and eat the parasites from the skin, even swimming into the mouth and gills of any fish being cleaned. This is a form of cleaning symbiosis.
Cleaning stations may be associated with coral reefs, located either on top of a coral head or in a slot between two outcroppings. Other cleaning stations may be located under large clumps of floating seaweed or at an accepted point in a river or lagoon.
Stenopus hispidus banded cleaner shrimp on a Xestospongia muta barrel sponge: The shrimp wait to remove external parasites and dead skin from visiting fish clients.
A needlefish being cleaned by L. phthirophagus
A Hawaiian cleaner wrasse inside the gill of a pufferfish
An orangespine unicornfish being cleaned by a Hawaiian cleaner wrasse
A rockmover wrasse gets cleaned by a Hawaiian cleaner wrasse while an orangespine unicornfish waits its turn
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