Cleofé Elsa Calderón (October 26, 1929 – March 19, 2007) was an Argentine botanist.
In 1976, Calderón rediscovered Anomochloa in Bahia, Brazil, with the help of assistant Talmon Soares dos Santos. By identifying this tropical forest grass, Calderón provided specimens for detailed morphological and anatomical study that confirmed it as a grass.
In October 1971, Calderón performed field operations and collected living materials of a new genus of grasses; the genus was named after her: Calderonella.
Calderón, Cleofé E.; Soderstrom, Thomas R. (1967). "Las gramíneas tropicales afines a Olyra L." [Tropical gramineae related to Olyra L.]. In Len, Herman. Atas do Simpósio sôbre a Biota Amazônica [Proceedings of the Symposium on Amazon Biota] (in Spanish). 4 (Botânica). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: National Research Council (CNPq). pp. 67–76. OCLC758469250.