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Coordinates: Cleveland // or Lower Teesdale is low-lying land north of the North York Moors and around the River Tees, of England. The vale is a continuation of the Vale of Mowbray to the south west. The name Cleveland comes from a variant of "cliff-land", referring to the view to and from the Hills of Cleveland. These hills rises to nearly 1,500 ft (460 m) and are a part of the North York Moors.
The largest town in Cleveland was, for a long time, Guisborough, until the rise of Middlesbrough in the 19th century. Burgh, spelt as borough traditionally outside of the area and now in the area itself, is traditionally a term used for a place and its division of land, which was evident in the use of the former Langbaurgh Wapentake in the area.
Tees Valley and Teesside have gained a standing, in recent years, as terms for the conurbation and city region, respectfully, within the urban areas of Lower Teesdale. The use of Tees Valley and Teesside in this manner is somewhat misleading as it excludes the parts governed by County Durham, specifically Upper Teesdale) and Hambleton district.
Cleveland has centuries-long association with the area, with the Dukedom of Cleveland first created in the 17th Century.
The Cleveland Hills, in the southern part of the district, were key suppliers of the ironstone that was essential to the running of the blast furnaces alongside the River Tees. Cleveland’s rich ore has created a significant industrial heritage arising from its central role in the 19th century iron boom that led to Middlesbrough growing from a hamlet into a major industrial town in only a matter of decades. Teesport is one of the United Kingdom's main ports, initially due to the iron boom, with between Middlesbrough and Redcar having other heavy industrial plants.
Name‘s local cultural usage
- Parliamentary constituency, Cleveland was for many years also the name of a constituency for the House of Commons. The constituency was created following the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, by the division of the North Riding constituency, and was succeeded by the Cleveland and Whitby for the February 1974 general election.
- Cleveland continues to be unofficially used in subsequent boundary reviews, presented by the Boundary Commission for England, to describe the area.
- The official name of the ”CLEVELAND” (TS– code was formed from “TeeS“ or “Tees-Side”) postal county. It covers much of the former administrative county. Cleveland was adopted by the Royal Mail as a postal county in 1974.
- Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company, major structural engineering company.
- Cleveland Shopping Centre, Middlesbrough
The area is extremely varied geographically. The Tees estuary is highly industrialised and urbanised. Much of the remainder of the lowland parts of Cleveland is farmland. East Cleveland marks the northern end of the chain of cliffs that runs along the North Yorkshire Heritage Coast. South Cleveland is extremely hilly, forming the escarpment of the North York Moors. One of the best known symbols of Cleveland is the distinctive hill of Roseberry Topping, which overlooks Newton under Roseberry on the Great Ayton to Guisborough road. Its original roughly conical form was undercut by extensive mining, giving it a jagged appearance that many have thought reminiscent of the Matterhorn mountain.
Towns and villages
Cleveland is twinned with:
Unlike many towns and cities in North America, Cleveland in Ohio is not named after its English namesake.
Local services are ran for the geographical Cleveland area; these include the:
- Cleveland Police(north)
- North Yorkshire Police (south)
- Tees and Hartlepool Harbour Police (Teesport and Hartlepool port)
They are a number of NHS trust foundations and hospitals in the Cleveland area:
- North Tees and Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust
- South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys Foundation NHS Trust
- County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust
- Darlington Memorial Hospital – Darlington
- Humber NHS Foundation Trust
Independent hospitals include:
- Lord Lieutenant of Cleveland
- High Sheriff of Cleveland
- Duke of Cleveland
- Earl of Cleveland
- Cleveland Police and Crime Commissioner
- Archdeacon of Cleveland for the Church of England, in the Diocese of York. It covers a large area including Middlesbrough, Thirsk, Pickering and Whitby.
- Cleveland Bay
- Cleveland Way
- Langbaurgh Wapentake
- List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Cleveland