|City of Cleveland|
|Nickname(s): The Forest City|
|Motto: Progress & Prosperity|
Location in Cuyahoga County
|• Mayor||Frank G. Jackson (D)|
|• City||82.47 sq mi (213.60 km2)|
|• Land||77.70 sq mi (201.24 km2)|
|• Water||4.77 sq mi (12.35 km2)|
|Elevation||653 ft (199 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||390,113|
|• Rank||US: 48th|
|• Density||5,107.0/sq mi (1,971.8/km2)|
|• Urban||1,780,673 (US: 25th)|
|• Metro||2,064,725 (US: 29th)|
|• CSA||3,501,538 (US: 15th)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1066654|
|Website||City of Cleveland|
Cleveland // is a city in the state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of the Pennsylvania border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and became a manufacturing center owing to its location on the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy has diversified sectors that include manufacturing, financial services, healthcare, and biomedical. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Cleveland Clinic.
As of the 2013 Census Estimate, the city proper had a total population of 390,113, making Cleveland the 48th largest city in the United States, and the second largest city in Ohio after Columbus. Greater Cleveland, the Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, ranked 29th largest in the United States with 2,064,725 people in 2013. Cleveland is part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area, which in 2013 had a population of 3,501,538, and ranked as the country's 15th largest CSA.
Residents of Cleveland are called "Clevelanders". Nicknames for the city include "The Forest City", "Metropolis of the Western Reserve", "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World", "C-Town", and the more historical "Sixth City". Due to its proximity to Lake Erie, the Cleveland area is often referred to locally as "The North Coast".
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Sports
- 7 Parks and gardens
- 8 Law and government
- 9 Education
- 10 Media
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Consulate General and sister cities
- 14 See also
- 15 Footnotes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Cleveland obtained its name on July 22, 1796 when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city they named "Cleaveland" after their leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage. The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and later via the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836.
In 1836, the city, then located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854.
The city's prime geographic location as transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination point for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland, and moved its headquarters to New York City in 1885. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th Century as an important American manufacturing center, which included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan, Chandler, and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth largest city. The city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders. Many prominent Clevelanders from this era are buried in the historic Lake View Cemetery, including President James A. Garfield, and John D. Rockefeller.
In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize a city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others. Following World War II, the city experienced a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series and the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, and residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of urban flight and suburban growth.
In the 1950s and 1960s, social and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland, resulting in the Hough Riots from July 18, 1966 to July 23, 1966 and the Glenville Shootout from July 23, 1968, to July 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes (who served from 1968 to 1971).
Suburbanization changed the city in the late 1960s and 1970s, when financial difficulties and a notorious 1969 fire on the Cuyahoga River challenged the city. This, along with the city's struggling professional sports teams, drew negative national press. As a result, Cleveland was often derided as "The Mistake on the Lake".
In December 1978, Cleveland became the first major American city to enter into a financial default on federal loans since the Great Depression. By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in international free trade policies, inflation and the Savings and Loans Crisis contributed to the recession that impacted cities like Cleveland. While unemployment during the period peaked in 1983, Cleveland's rate of 13.8% was higher than the national average due to the closure of several production centers.
The metropolitan area began a gradual economic recovery under mayors George Voinovich and Michael R. White. Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the Gateway complex—consisting of Progressive Field and Quicken Loans Arena, and near North Coast Harbor—including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Cleveland Browns Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center. Cleveland has been hailed by local media as the "Comeback City", while economic development of the inner-city neighborhoods and improvement of the school systems are municipal priorities. In 1999, Cleveland was identified as an emerging global city.
In the 21st century, the city has improved infrastructure, is more diversified, and has invested in the arts. Cleveland is generally considered an example of revitalization. The city's goals include additional neighborhood revitalization and increased funding for public education. In 2009, it was announced that Cleveland was chosen to host the 2014 Gay Games, the fourth city in the United States to host this international event. On July 8, 2014, it was announced that Cleveland was chosen to be the host city of the 2016 Republican National Convention.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 82.47 square miles (213.60 km2), of which 77.70 square miles (201.24 km2) is land and 4.77 square miles (12.35 km2) is water. The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly perpendicular to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The land rises quickly from the lakeshore. Public Square, less than one mile (2 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 791 feet (241 m).
Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around an open mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan, and constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States. The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tallest in the city until 1991. It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the 200 Public Square, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel. Cleveland's landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland and the onion domed St. Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont, along with myriad ethnically inspired Roman Catholic churches. Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance. In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described it as "the most beautiful street in the world". Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such internationally known names as Rockefeller, Hanna, and Hay.
Downtown Cleveland is centered on Public Square and includes a wide range of diversified districts. Downtown Cleveland is home to the traditional Financial District and Civic Center, as well as the distinct Cleveland Theater District, which is home to Playhouse Square Center. Mixed-use neighborhoods such as the Flats and the Warehouse District are occupied by industrial and office buildings as well as restaurants and bars. The number of downtown housing units in the form of condominiums, lofts, and apartments has been on the increase since 2000. Recent developments include the revival of the Flats, the Euclid Corridor Project, and the developments along East 4th Street. Cleveland residents geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the Cuyahoga River. The east side includes the neighborhoods of Buckeye-Shaker, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Payne/Goodrich-Kirtland Park, Hough, Kinsman, Lee Harvard/Seville-Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University Circle, Little Italy, and Woodland Hills. The west side includes the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Centre, Clark-Fulton, Detroit-Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Ohio City, Tremont, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Puritas-Longmead, and Riverside. Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley/Duck Island, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont.
Several inner-city neighborhoods have begun to gentrify in recent years. Areas on both the west side (Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit-Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the east side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy) have been successful in attracting increasing numbers of creative class members, which in turn is spurring new residential development. Furthermore, a live-work zoning overlay for the city's near east side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists.
Cleveland's older, inner-ring suburbs include Bedford, Bedford Heights, Brook Park, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview Park, Garfield Heights, Lakewood, Linndale, Maple Heights, Newburgh Heights, Parma, Parma Heights, Shaker Heights, Solon, South Euclid, University Heights, and Warrensville Heights. Many are members of the Northeast Ohio First Suburbs Consortium.
Typical of the Great Lakes region, Cleveland exhibits a continental climate with four distinct seasons, which lies in the humid continental (Köppen Dfa) zone. Summers are hot and humid while winters are cold and snowy. The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east-west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is typical in Cleveland (especially on the city's East Side) from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect also causes a relative differential in geographical snowfall totals across the city: while Hopkins Airport, on the city's far West Side, has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a season three times since record-keeping for snow began in 1893, seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches (254 cm) are not uncommon as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the 'Snow Belt' begins. Extending from the city's East Side and its suburbs, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo.
The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994. On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C), is the coldest. Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1981 to 2010 is 39.1 inches (990 mm). The least precipitation occurs on the western side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburbs. Parts of Geauga County to the east receive over 44 inches (1,100 mm) of liquid precipitation annually. Frequent Thunderstorms are also common in Cleveland especially during spring and early summer.
|Climate data for Cleveland (Cleveland Airport), 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1871−present[a]|
|Record high °F (°C)||73
|Average high °F (°C)||34.4
|Average low °F (°C)||21.7
|Record low °F (°C)||−20
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.72
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||18.7
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||17.1||13.9||14.2||14.4||13.2||11.1||10.3||9.8||10.0||11.4||13.5||16.0||154.9|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||13.5||10.1||7.5||2.3||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||3.3||10.0||46.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||73.3||73.0||70.4||66.1||67.3||69.0||69.8||73.1||73.7||70.8||71.9||74.1||71.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||101.0||122.3||167.0||216.0||263.6||294.6||307.2||262.2||219.0||169.5||89.8||67.8||2,280|
|Percent possible sunshine||34||41||45||54||59||65||67||61||59||49||30||24||51|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)|
|Black or African American||53.3%||46.6%||16.2%||1.6%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||10.0%||4.6%||n/a||n/a|
As of the census of 2010, there were 396,815 people, 167,490 households, and 89,821 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,107.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,971.8/km2). There were 207,536 housing units at an average density of 2,671.0 per square mile (1,031.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 53.3% African American, 37.3% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 4.4% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.0% of the population.
There were 167,490 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.4% were non-families. 39.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.11.
The median age in the city was 35.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,166.5 people per square mile (2,380.9/km²). There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 2,782.4 per square mile (1,074.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 51.0% African American, 41.5% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 3.6% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latinos of any race were 7.3% of the population. Ethnic groups include Germans (9.2%), Irish (8.2%), Poles (4.8%), Italians (4.6%), and English (2.8%). Out of the total population, 4.5% were foreign born; of which 41.2% were born in Europe, 29.1% Asia, 22.4% Latin American, 5.0% Africa, and 1.9% Northern America.
There are also substantial communities of Slovaks, Hungarians, French, Slovenes, Czechs, Ukrainians, Arabs, Dutch, Scottish, Russian, Scotch Irish, Croats, Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Romanians, Lithuanians, and Greeks. The presence of Hungarians within Cleveland proper was, at one time, so great that the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Between 1920 and 1960, the black population of Cleveland increased from 35,000 to 251,000.
Out of 190,638 households, 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
As of 2010, 88.4% (337,658) of Cleveland residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.1% (27,262) spoke Spanish, 0.6% (2,200) Arabic, and 0.5% (1,960) Chinese. In addition 0.9% (3,364) spoke a Slavic language (1,279 - Polish, 679 Serbo-Croatian, and 485 Russian). In total, 11.6% (44,148) of Cleveland's population age 5 and older spoke another language other than English.
Cleveland's geographic location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its growth. The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped establish the city as an important business center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries.
The city diversified its economy in addition to its manufacturing sector. Cleveland is home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as Applied Industrial Technologies, Cliffs Natural Resources, Forest City Enterprises, NACCO Industries, Sherwin-Williams Company and KeyCorp. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the U.S, began in Cleveland. Cleveland and its surrounding suburbs are also home to several private equity firms including The Riverside Company, Kirtland Capital Partners, Resilience Capital Partners and Primus Capital.
The Cleveland Clinic is the city's largest private employer with a workforce of over 37,000 as of 2008. It carries the distinction as being among America's best hospitals with top ratings published in U.S. News & World Report. Cleveland's healthcare sector also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a renowned center for cancer treatment, MetroHealth medical center, and the insurance company Medical Mutual of Ohio. Cleveland is also noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. Cleveland is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research. Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mt. Sinai Medical Center, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.
City leaders promoted growth of the technology sector in the first decade of the 21st century. Mayor Jane L. Campbell appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the Euclid Avenue area. Cleveland State University hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area, and appointed a vice president for economic development. Case Western Reserve University participated in technology initiatives such as the OneCommunity project, a high-speed fiber optic network linking the area's research centers intended to stimulate growth. In mid-2005, Cleveland was named an Intel "Worldwide Digital Community" along with Corpus Christi, Texas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Taipei. This added about $12 million for marketing to expand regional technology partnerships, created a city-wide Wi-Fi network, and developed a tech economy. In addition to this Intel initiative, in January 2006 a New York-based think tank, the Intelligent Community Forum, selected Cleveland as the sole American city among its seven finalists for the "Intelligent Community of the Year" award. The group announced that it nominated the city for its OneCommunity network with potential broadband applications. OneCommunity collaborated with Cisco Systems to deploy a wireless network starting in September 2006.
Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square Center, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's Lincoln Center. Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District. Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include Cleveland Play House, Cleveland State University Department of Theatre and Dance, and Great Lakes Theater Festival. The center hosts various Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year.
One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was originally used as the broadcast studios of WJW (AM), where disc jockey Alan Freed first popularized the term "rock and roll". Located between Playhouse Square and University Circle is Karamu House, a well-known African American performing and fine arts center, founded in the 1920s.
Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the finest orchestras in the world, and often referred to as the finest in the United States. It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer. The city is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra.
There are two main art museums in Cleveland. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions.
The Gordon Square Arts District on Detroit Ave., in the Detroit-Shoreway neighborhood, features a movie theater called the Capitol Theatre and an Off-Off-Broadway playhouse, the Cleveland Public Theatre.
Film and television
Cleveland has served as the setting for several major studio and independent films. Players from the 1948 Cleveland Indians, winners of the World Series, appear in The Kid from Cleveland (1949). Cleveland Municipal Stadium features prominently in both that film and The Fortune Cookie (1966); written and directed by Billy Wilder, the picture marked Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon's first on-screen collaboration and features gameday footage of the 1965 Cleveland Browns. Director Jules Dassin's first American film in nearly twenty years, Up Tight! (1968) is set in Cleveland immediately following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Set in 1930s Cleveland, Sylvester Stallone leads a local labor union in F.I.S.T. (1978). Paul Simon chose Cleveland as the opening for his only venture into filmmaking, One-Trick Pony (1980); Simon spent six weeks filming concert scenes at the Cleveland Agora. The boxing-match-turned-riot near the start of Raging Bull (1980) takes place at the Cleveland Arena in 1941. Clevelander Jim Jarmusch's critically acclaimed and independently produced Stranger Than Paradise (1984)—a deadpan comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by way of Cleveland—was a favorite of the Cannes Film Festival, winning the Caméra d'Or. The cult-classic mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap (1984) includes a memorable scene where the parody band gets lost backstage just before performing at a Cleveland rock concert (origin of the phrase "Hello, Cleveland!"). Howard the Duck (1986), George Lucas' heavily criticized adaptation of the Marvel comic of the same name, begins with the title character crashing into Cleveland after drifting in outer space. Michael J. Fox and Joan Jett play the sibling leads of a Cleveland rock group in Light of Day (1987); directed by Paul Schrader, much of the film was shot in the city. Both Major League (1989) and Major League II (1994) reflected the actual perennial struggles of the Cleveland Indians during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. Kevin Bacon stars in Telling Lies in America (1997), the semi-autobiographical tale of Clevelander Joe Eszterhas, a former reporter for The Plain Dealer. Cleveland serves as the setting for fictitious insurance giant Great Benefit in The Rainmaker (1997); in the film, Key Tower doubles as the firm's main headquarters. A group of Cleveland teenagers try to scam their way into a Kiss concert in Detroit Rock City (1999), and several key scenes from director Cameron Crowe's Almost Famous (2000) are set in Cleveland. Antwone Fisher (2002) recounts the real-life story of the Cleveland native. Brothers Joe and Anthony Russo—native Clevelanders and Case Western Reserve University alumni—filmed their comedy Welcome to Collinwood (2002) entirely on location in the city. American Splendor (2003)—the biographical film of Harvey Pekar, author of the autobiographical comic of the same name—was also filmed on location throughout Cleveland, as was The Oh in Ohio (2006). Much of The Rocker (2008) is set in the city, and Cleveland native Nathaniel Ayers' life story is told in The Soloist (2009). Kill the Irishman (2011) follows the real-life turf war in 1970s Cleveland between Irish mobster Danny Greene and the Cleveland crime family. More recently, the teenage comedy Fun Size (2012) takes place in and around Cleveland on Halloween night, and the film Draft Day (2014) followed Kevin Costner as general manager for the Cleveland Browns.
Cleveland has often doubled for other locations in film. The wedding and reception scenes in The Deer Hunter (1978), while set in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Clairton, were actually shot in the Cleveland neighborhood of Tremont; U.S. Steel also permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland mills. Francis Ford Coppola produced The Escape Artist (1982), much of which was shot in Downtown Cleveland near City Hall and the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, as well as the Flats. A Christmas Story (1983) was set in Indiana, but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker family home—from Cleveland. Much of Double Dragon (1994) and Happy Gilmore (1996) were also shot in Cleveland, and the opening shots of Air Force One (1997) were filmed in and above Severance Hall. A complex chase scene in Spider-Man 3 (2007), though set in New York City, was actually filmed along Cleveland's Euclid Avenue. Downtown's East 9th Street also doubled for New York in the climax of The Avengers (2012); in addition, the production shot on Cleveland's Public Square as a fill-in for Stuttgart, Germany. More recently, Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa (2013) and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) each filmed in Cleveland. Future productions in the Cleveland area are the responsibility of the Greater Cleveland Film Commission.
In television, the city is well known as the setting for the popular network sitcom The Drew Carey Show, starring Cleveland native Drew Carey. Real-life crime series Cops, Crime 360, and The First 48 regularly film in Cleveland and other U.S. cities. Hot in Cleveland, a comedy airing on TV Land, premiered on June 16, 2010.
The American modernist poet Hart Crane was born in nearby Garrettsville, Ohio in 1899. His adolescence was divided between Cleveland and Akron before moving to New York City, finally in 1916. Aside from factory work during the first world war, he served as reporter to The Plain Dealer for a short period, before achieving recognition in the Modernist literary scene. A diminutive memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. In University Circle, a historical marker sits at the location of his Cleveland childhood house on E. 115 near the Euclid Ave intersection. On Case Western Reserve University campus, a statue of him stands immediately behind the Kelvin Smith Library.
Langston Hughes, preeminent poet of the Harlem Renaissance and child of an itinerant couple, lived in Cleveland as a teenager and attended Central High School in Cleveland in the 1910s. He wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland. The African-American avant garde poet Russell Atkins also lived in Cleveland.
Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic book character Superman in 1932. Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel". D. A. Levy wrote: "Cleveland: The Rectal Eye Visions". Mystery author Richard Montanari's first three novels, Deviant Way, The Violet Hour, and Kiss of Evil are set in Cleveland. Mystery writer, Les Roberts's Milan Jacovich series is also set in Cleveland. Author and Ohio resident, James Renner set his debut novel, The Man from Primrose Lane in present-day Cleveland.
Harlan Ellison, noted author of speculative fiction, was born in Cleveland in 1934; his family subsequently moved to the nearby suburb of Painesville, though Ellison moved back to Cleveland in 1949. As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the Cleveland News; he also performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland Play House.
The Cleveland State University Poetry Center serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community, with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues.
Cleveland is the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, established by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf in 1935, which recognizes books that have made important contributions to understanding of racism and human diversity. Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only American book prize focusing on works that address racism and diversity.
Cleveland's melting pot of immigrant groups and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Slavic Village, and Tremont.
Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as kielbasa, stuffed cabbage and pierogies. Cleveland also has plenty of corned beef, with nationally renowned Slyman's, on the near East Side, a perennial winner of various accolades from Esquire Magazine, including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008. Other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland original, Polish Boy, a local favorite found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants. With its blue-collar roots well intact, and plenty of Lake Erie perch available, the tradition of Friday night fish fries remains alive and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent. The award-winning Great Lakes Brewing Company, located across the street from the historic West Side Market, offers several locally styled beers and ales.
Cleveland is noted in the world of haute cuisine. Famous local figures include chef Michael Symon and food writer Michael Ruhlman, both of whom achieved local and national attentions for their contributions in the culinary world. On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the spotlight when he was named "The Next Iron Chef" on the Food Network. In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with Anthony Bourdain, to do an entire episode of his Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene.
The national food press—including publications Gourmet, Food & Wine, Esquire and Playboy—has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including 'best new restaurant', 'best steakhouse', 'best farm-to-table programs' and 'great new neighborhood eateries'. In early 2008, the Chicago Tribune ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city".
Five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 550-acre (2.2 km2) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including the Cleveland Botanical Garden, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Cleveland 17th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities. Cleveland is home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine. Cleveland has an attraction for visitors and fans of A Christmas Story: A Christmas Story House and Museum to see props, costumes, rooms, photos and other materials related to the Jean Shepherd film. Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year. Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy neighborhood, the Harvest Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood, and the more recent Cleveland Asian Festival in the Asia Town neighborhood are popular events. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many different ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of downtown.
Fashion Week Cleveland, the city's annual fashion event, is one of the few internationally recognized fashion industry happenings in North America. The show is considered by many to be the best in the Midwest—perhaps second only to New York for fashion weeks in the US. In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland hosted the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which featured national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts, but the festival was discontinued in 2007 due to financial and manpower costs to the Rock Hall. The annual Ingenuity Fest, Notacon and TEDxCLE conference focus on the combination of art and technology. The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 66,476 people in March 2009. Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.
Cleveland also has the Horseshoe Casino Cleveland. Phase I opened on May 14, 2012, on Public Square, in the historic former Higbee's Building at Tower City Center. Phase II will open along the bend of the Cuyahoga River behind Tower City Center.
Cleveland's major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena and the Wolstein Center.
The Indians last reached the World Series in 1997, losing to the Florida Marlins, and have not won the series since 1948. Between 1995 and 2001, Progressive Field (then known as Jacobs Field) sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008.
The Cavaliers won the Eastern Conference in 2007, but were defeated in the NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs. Although the Browns are historically among the winningest franchises in the NFL, the team has not won a championship since 1964. Cleveland facilities have hosted the Major League Baseball All-Star Game five times, and the NBA All-Star Game twice.
The city's failure to win a trophy in any major professional sport since 1964 has earned it a reputation of being a cursed sports city, which ESPN validated by proclaiming Cleveland as its "most tortured sports city" in 2004. In addition, changes in the Cleveland sports landscape have led to further heartbreak and resentment among local fans, the most notable instances being Art Modell's relocation of the Browns to Baltimore after the 1995 season (that franchise became the Ravens). However, the current Browns team started play in Cleveland in 1999.
A notable Cleveland athlete is Jesse Owens, who grew up in the city after moving from Alabama when he was nine. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals.
The city is also host to the Lake Erie Monsters of the American Hockey League, the Cleveland Gladiators of the Arena Football League, and the Cleveland Fusion of the Women's Football Alliance. The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference (MAC) are located in Cleveland. The conference also stages both its men's and women's basketball tournaments at Quicken Loans Arena.
Several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. The second American Chess Congress, a predecessor the current U.S. Championship, was held in 1871, and won by George Henry Mackenzie. The 1921 and 1957 U.S. Open Chess Championship also took place in the city, and were won by Edward Lasker and Bobby Fischer, respectively. The Cleveland Open is currently held annually.
Parks and gardens
Cleveland is home to four of the parks in the countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, as well as the: Washington Park, Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. Known locally as the "Emerald Necklace", the Olmsted-inspired Metroparks encircle Cuyahoga county. Included in the system is the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Located in Big Creek valley, the zoo contains one of the largest collection of primates in North America. In addition to the Metroparks system, the Cleveland Lakefront State Park district provides public access to Lake Erie. This cooperative between the City of Cleveland and the State of Ohio contains six parks: Edgewater Park, located on the city's near west side between the Shoreway and the lake; East 55th Street Marina, Euclid Beach Park and Gordon Park. The Cleveland Public Parks District is the municipal body that oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Park, notable for its late-19th century historical landmark bridges and Cultural Gardens.
Law and government
Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats. At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland is split between two congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th District, represented by Marcy Kaptur. Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the 11th District, represented by Marcia Fudge. Both are Democrats. During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio by 2.1%, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County 66.6%–32.9%, his largest margin in any Ohio county. The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3%–15.8%. The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor-council (strong mayor) form of government. The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office is held in 2010 by Frank G. Jackson. Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I era War Secretary and founder of Baker Hostetler law firm Newton D. Baker, United States Supreme Court Justice Harold Hitz Burton, Republican Senator George V. Voinovich, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator, former United States Representative Dennis Kucinich of Ohio's 10th congressional district, Frank J. Lausche, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major American city. The state of Ohio lost two Congressional seats as a result of the 2010 Census, which affects Cleveland's districts in the northeast part of the state.
Based on the Morgan Quitno Press 2008 national crime rankings, Cleveland ranked as the 7th most dangerous city in the nation among US cities with a population of 100,000 to 500,000 and the 11th most dangerous overall. Violent crime from 2005 to 2006 was mostly unchanged nationwide, but increased more than 10% in Cleveland. The murder rate dropped 30% in Cleveland, but was still far above the national average. Property crime from 2005 to 2006 was virtually unchanged across the country and in Cleveland, with larceny-theft down by 7% but burglaries up almost 14%.
In October 2010, Cleveland had two neighborhoods appear on ABC News's list of 'America's 25 Most Dangerous Neighborhoods': both in sections just blocks apart in the city's Central neighborhood on the East Side. Ranked 21st was in the vicinity of Quincy Avenue and E.40th Streets, while an area near E. 55th and Scovill Avenue ranked 2nd in the nation, just behind a section of the East Garfield Park neighborhood in Chicago, which ranked 1st.
A study in 1971–72 found that although Cleveland's crime rate was significantly lower than other large urban areas, most Cleveland residents feared crime. In the 1980s, gang activity was on the rise, associated with crack cocaine. A task force was formed and was partially successful at reducing gang activity by a combination of removing gang-related graffiti and educating news sources to not name gangs in news reporting.
The distribution of crime in Cleveland is highly heterogeneous. Relatively few crimes take place in downtown Cleveland's business district, but the perception of crime in the downtown has been pointed to by the Greater Cleveland Growth Association as damaging to the city's economy. More affluent areas of Cleveland and its suburbs have lower rates of violent crime than areas of lower socioeconomic status. Statistically speaking, higher incidences of violent crimes have been noted in some parts of Cleveland with higher populations of African Americans, although the causes of these crimes are complex and ambiguous. A study of the relationship between employment access and crime in Cleveland found a strong inverse relationship, with the highest crime rates in areas of the city that had the lowest access to jobs. Furthermore, this relationship was found to be strongest with respect to economic crimes. A study of public housing in Cleveland found that criminals tend to live in areas of higher affluence and move into areas of lower affluence to commit crimes.
In 2012, Cleveland's crime rate were 84 murders, 3,252 robberies, and 9,740 burglaries. In 2014, the United States Department of Justice published a report that investigated the use of force by the Cleveland Police Department from 2010-2013. The Justice Department found a pattern of excessive force including the use of firearms, tasers, fists, and chemical spray that unnecessarily escalated nonviolent situations, including against the mentally ill and people who were already restrained. As a result of the Justice Department report, the city of Cleveland has agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force.
|Cleveland Division of Fire (CFD)|
|Established||April 9, 1863|
|Fire chief||Patrick Kelly|
|EMS level||First Responder BLS|
|Facilities and equipment|
Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire. The fire department operates out of 24 active fire stations, located throughout the city in six Battalions. Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief.
The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty three engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Patrick Kelly.
Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own department; however, a merger between the fire and EMS departments is in progress. Cleveland EMS units are now based out of most of the city's fire stations as of 2013. City officials are currently negotiating with Cleveland Fire and EMS to form a new union contract that will merge the two systems entirely. No set projection for a full merger has been established. Neither the Fire nor EMS unions have been able to come to an agreement with city officials on fair terms of merger as of yet.
The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the largest K–12 district in the state of Ohio, with 127 schools and an enrollment of 55,567 students during the 2006–2007 academic year. It is the only district in Ohio that is under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board.
Approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km2) of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square neighborhood, is part of the Shaker Heights City School District. The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections.
- Benedictine High School
- Birchwood School
- Cleveland Central Catholic High School
- Eleanor Gerson School
- Montessori High School at University Circle
- St. Ignatius High School
- St. Joseph Academy
- Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School
- Urban Community School
- Saint Martin de Porres
- The Bridge Avenue School
Colleges and universities
Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution located in University Circle. A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 37th in the nation in 2012 by U.S. News & World Report. University Circle also contains Cleveland Institute of Art and the Cleveland Institute of Music. Cleveland State University (CSU), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution. Ohio Technical College is also based in Cleveland.
Cleveland's sole remaining daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer. Defunct major newspapers include the Cleveland Press, an afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982; and the Cleveland News, which ceased publication in 1960. Additional newspaper coverage includes the Thursdays-only Sun Post-Herald and Parma Sun Post, which serve a few neighborhoods on the city's west side. In addition to these, the suburban daily newspaper "The News-Herald" serves the majority of the eastern suburbs, as well as the city of Cleveland. The city is also served by Cleveland Magazine, a regional culture magazine published monthly; Crain's Cleveland Business, a weekly business newspaper; Cleveland Jewish News, a weekly Jewish newspaper; and Cleveland Scene, a free alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the Cleveland Free Times, in 2008. In addition, nationally distributed Rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland in 1985, and the publication's headquarters remain based in the city.
Combined with nearby Akron and Canton, Cleveland is ranked as the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research (as of 2013–14). The market is served by 10 stations affiliated with major American networks, including: WEWS-TV (ABC), WJW (Fox), WKYC (NBC), WOIO (CBS), WVIZ (PBS), WBNX-TV (The CW), WUAB (MyNetworkTV), WVPX-TV (ION), WQHS-DT (Univision), and WDLI-TV (TBN). The Mike Douglas Show, a nationally syndicated daytime talk show, began in Cleveland in 1961 on KYW-TV (now WKYC), while The Morning Exchange on WEWS-TV served as the model for Good Morning America. Tim Conway and Ernie Anderson first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV (now WJW). Anderson both created and performed as the immensely popular Cleveland horror host Ghoulardi on WJW-TV's Shock Theater, and was later succeeded by the long-running late night duo Big Chuck and Lil' John.
Cleveland is directly served by 31 AM and FM radio stations, 22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: WAKS (contemporary hit radio), WDOK (adult contemporary), WENZ (mainstream urban), WHLK (adult hits), WGAR-FM (country), WMJI (classic hits), WMMS (active rock/hot talk; Indians and Cavaliers FM flagship), WNCX (classic rock; Browns co-flagship), WQAL (hot adult contemporary), and WZAK (urban adult contemporary). WCPN public radio functions as the local NPR affiliate, and sister station WCLV airs a classical music format. College radio stations include WBWC (Baldwin Wallace University), WCSB (Cleveland State University), WJCU (John Carroll University), and WRUW-FM (Case Western Reserve University).
News/talk station WTAM serves as the AM flagship for both the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Indians. WKNR and WWGK cover sports via ESPN Radio, while WKRK-FM covers sports via CBS Sports Radio (WKNR and WKRK-FM are also co-flagship stations for the Cleveland Browns). As WJW (AM), WKNR was once the home of Alan Freed − the Cleveland disc jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe the music genre. News/talk station WHK was one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the United States and the first in Ohio; its former sister station, rock station WMMS, dominated Cleveland radio in the 1970s and 80s and was at that time one of the highest rated radio stations in the country. In 1972, WMMS program director Billy Bass coined the phrase "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World" to describe Cleveland. In 1987, Playboy named WMMS DJ Kid Leo (Lawrence Travagliante) "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country".
Cleveland is home to several major hospital systems, two of which are in University Circle. Most notable is the world renowned Cleveland Clinic, which is supplemented by University Hospitals and its Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital. Additionally MetroHealth System, which operates the level one trauma center for northeast Ohio, has various locations throughout greater Cleveland. Cleveland's Global Center for Health Innovation opened with 235,000 square feet (21,800 m2) of display space for healthcare companies across the world.
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that formerly served as a main hub for United Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Cleveland Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, United States Postal Service, and major commercial freight carriers. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport.
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Cleveland has also been identified as a hub for the proposed Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio. Cleveland hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals. There have been several proposals for commuter rail in Cleveland, including an ongoing (as of January 2011) study into a Sandusky–Cleveland line.
Cleveland has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA). The rail portion is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but local residents refer to it as The Rapid. It consists of two light rail lines, known as the Green and Blue Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. In 2008, RTA completed the HealthLine, a bus rapid transit line, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals. It runs along Euclid Avenue from downtown through University Circle, ending at the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. In 2007, the American Public Transportation Association named Cleveland's mass transit system the best in North America.
Inter-city bus lines
National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, located just behind the Playhouse Square theater district. Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown. Lakefront Trailways provides regional inter-city bus service to popular destinations from their terminal south of Cleveland in Brook Park. Akron Metro, Brunswick Transit Alternative, Laketran, Lorain County Transit, and Medina County Transit provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Geauga County Transit and Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) also offer connecting bus service in their neighboring areas.
Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north-south, and named avenues, which run roughly east-west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square. The numbered street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the west and east sides. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage. The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Superior Avenue becomes Detroit Avenue on the west side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. The bridges that make these connections are often called the Detroit–Superior Bridge and the Lorain–Carnegie Bridge.
Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east–west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio State Route 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown.
Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (State Route 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (State Route 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.
In 2011, Walk Score ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States. As of 2014, Walk Score increased Cleveland's rank to being the sixteenth most walkable US city, with a Walk Score of 57, a Transit Score of 47, and a Bike Score of 51. Cleveland's most walkable and transient areas can be found in the Downtown, Ohio City, Detroit-Shoreway, University Circle, and Buckeye-Shaker Square neighborhoods.
Consulate General and sister cities
- Official records for Cleveland kept at downtown from January 1871 to May 1941, and at Hopkins Airport since June 1941. For more information, see Threadex
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Geographic Names Information System Feature Detail Report". USGS. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Visitor Information". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Cleveland Clinic Information". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- "Population Trends". Connecting Cleveland: 2020 Citywide Plan. Cleveland City Planning Commission. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "Cleveland: A Bicentennial Timeline". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". Statistical Abstract of the United States. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- Marshall, Alli (January 24, 2007). "Of Cleveland, by Cleveland, for Cleveland (and the world)". MountainX: Asheville Arts and Entertainment. Mountain Xpress. Archived from the original on June 17, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
Nicknames include the 'Forest City,' 'Metropolis of the Western Reserve', and 'C-Town.'
- Neville, Anne (August 16, 2009). "Buffalo by any other name". The Buffalo News. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
Cleveland has been called by many titles, including The Forest City, The Metropolis of the Western Reserve and The Rock 'n' Roll Capital of the World. The city is also affectionately called... "C-Town"
- "Ohio: Sixth City". Time.com. October 11, 1937. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Cleveland Court Winner: Sixth City Gets Permanent Possession of Inter-Lake Trophy" (PDF). The New York Times. August 3, 1919. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
- "Rock 'n' Roll". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Ohio and Erie Canal". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- "Columbus Street Bridge". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- "Rockefellers Timeline". PBS. 1999–2000. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
1870 Rockefeller founds Standard Oil of Ohio with $1 million in capital, the largest corporation in the country. The new company controls 10% of U.S. petroleum refining. 1885 Standard Oil Standard Oil moves into new headquarters at 26 Broadway in New York.
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.178.
- Clymer, p.156.
- Find A Grave: Lake View Cemetery. Findagrave.com. Retrieved on May 9, 2007.
- "Great Lakes Exposition". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Porter, Philip (1976). "Chapter 6". Cleveland: Confused City on a Seesaw. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 0-8142-0264-0. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- Porter, Philip W. (1976). "Chapter Nine: Erieview, the Big Mistake: 1953–1962". Cleveland: Confused City on a Seesaw. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press. p. 180. ISBN 0-8142-0264-0. Retrieved July 22, 2009. Transcription at The Cleveland Memory Project website.
- Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. June 14, 1997. Retrieved on August 2, 2007.
- Larkin, Brent (July 12, 2009). "Cleveland: the best location bleeding population". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau.
- "AAC Winners by State and City". National Civic League. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- SUBURBS The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Keating, Dennis (September 10, 2007). "Cleveland: A Midwestern Rustbelt City Struggles to Sur(Re)vive". Cleveland, Ohio.
- "The Banking Crises of the 1980s and Early 1990s: Summary and Implications" (PDF). Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Economist's View: The Jobless Rate". Economistsview.typepad.com. May 14, 2008. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Republic Steel To Close Mill". The New York Times. August 7, 1982.
- Jon Fobes/The Plain Dealer (February 8, 2009). "Unemployment hits nearly every area in Ohio, analysis of new claims finds". Blog.cleveland.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History:FISHER BODY DIVISION OF GENERAL MOTORS CORP". Ech.case.edu. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Paynter, Bob; Pledger, Marcia (October 14, 2001). "Comeback City' fights old-shoe image". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Jackson, Frank, State of the City of Cleveland at the Wayback Machine (archived March 8, 2008). City of Cleveland, Ohio. March 1, 2007. Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- GaWC Research Bulletin 5, GaWC, Loughborough University, July 28, 1999
- "Request For Proposals: Finance, Design, Build, Manage, Operate, Maintain, Repair and Upgrade A Citywide Municipal Wireless Broadband Network Infrastructure" (PDF). City of Cleveland Municipal Wireless Network RFP. April 20, 2007. p. Page 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- "Gay Games: Cleveland To Host In 2014". The Huffington Post. September 29, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- "Cleveland gets 2016 GOP Convention". Cleveland Plain Dealer. July 8, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- "Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport". AirNav. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Lawrence, Michael (1980). Make No Little Plans. Cleveland, Ohio: Western Reserve Historical Society. pp. 20–25. ISBN 0-911704-24-8.
- Toman, James and Cook, Daniel (2005). "The Tower". Cleveland's Towering Treasure. Cleveleand, Ohio: Cleveland Landmarks Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-936760-20-6.
- "The Arcade: A Cleveland Classic". Retrieved September 17, 2007.
- "Cleveland Sacred Landmarks". Cleveland State University. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
- Upton, Harriet Taylor (1910). History of the Western Reserve. The Lewis Publishing Company. p. 507.
- Cigliano, Jan (1991). Showplace of America. Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-445-8.
- Litt, Steven (November 29, 2009). "RTA's Euclid Avenue HealthLine is faring well in ridership, innovation". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Michener, Charles (April 2011). "Cleveland’s Signs of Renewal". Smithsonian. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "Neighborhood Link". Cleveland State University. Retrieved October 14, 2005.
- Kennedy, Maureen and Leonard, Paul. Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices at the Wayback Machine (archived October 9, 2007). Brookings Institution (April 2001). Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- Gill, Michael. "Can the Creative Class Save Cleveland?" at the Wayback Machine (archived September 18, 2004). Free Times (October 29, 2003) Retrieved on 2007–08 -01
- "Northeast Region". Northeast Ohio First Suburbs Consortium. Archived from the original on April 2, 2002. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Kottek, Marcus; Greiser, Jürgen et al. (June 2006). "World Map of Köppen – Geiger Climate Classification". Meteorologische Zeitschrift 15 (3): 261. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
- Cleveland Snowfalle (sic) Statistics. National Weather Service. Retrieved on October 13, 2005.
- Johnson, Mark. Where is Northern Ohio's Snow Belt?, NewsNet5.com. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data. National Weather Service. Retrieved on April 5, 2006.
- "Precipitation: Annual Climatology (1971–2000)" [map]. PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
- "Station Name: OH CLEVELAND". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-30.
- "WMO Climate Normals for CLEVELAND/HOPKINS INTL AP, OH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Census Summary File 2". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Cleveland (city), Ohio". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau.
- American FactFinder - Results
- American FactFinder - Results
- "Cleveland History". Rudolph M. Susel. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- "DP-2. Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000". 2000 United States Census, SF3. American Factfinder. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- Baranick, Alana. "Cleveland's Hungarian story expands beyond Buckeye Rd. where immigrants paved the way for new arrivals", The Plain Dealer. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
- Cleveland: a metropolitan reader. William Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz (1995). Kent State University Press. p.127. ISBN 0-87338-492-X
- Cleveland, Ohio Fact Sheet. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 11, 2005.
- American FactFinder - Results
- Stapleton, Darwin H. (July 17, 1997). "Industry". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- Cho, Janet H. "A global venue; Cleveland's Jones Day law firm makes motions all over the world, but its culture is rooted in the town where it began", The Plain Dealer. June 19, 2006.
- "Cleveland, Anatomy of a Dealmaking Community", The Deal Magazine, October 2010. .
- Webber Sadovi, Maura (October 31, 2007). "Health-Care Industry Helps Revive Office Market in Cleveland". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
- Ohio is a leader in housing downturn, The Columbus Dispatch. November 14, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- Foreclosure Wave Sweeps America, BBC, November 5, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- "All Boarded Up" article by Alex Kotlowitz in The New York Times Magazine March 4, 2009
- "Ohio Major Employers" (PDF). Ohio Department of Development. March 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 31, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "U.S. News Best Hospitals: Cardiology & Heart Surgery". Health.usnews.com. July 14, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Best Hospitals 2006: Cancer. U.S. News & World Report. (July 13, 2006) Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- "Midwest Health Care Startups Raise Record $1.2 Billion in 2007" (PDF) (Press release). BioEnterprise. April 24, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- "Case Western Reserve University: West Quad". Case Western Reserve University: School of Medicine. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- Fiber Optic Network Connecting Cleveland and Northeast Ohio. OneCommunity project. Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- Gomez, Henry J. "Top U.S. Broadband town: Cleveland". The Plain Dealer. (2006-01-20).
- Vanac, Mary. "Ohio hot to invest in Wi-Fi technology", The Plain Dealer. October 5, 2006.
- "PSC Volunteer". Playhouse Square Center. Archived from the original on July 24, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2006.
- "Playhouse Square: The Theater District". Playhouse Square Center. Archived from the original on September 4, 2003. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
- Alan Freed. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
- Mansfield, Herbert. Theater. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. March 4, 1998. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
- Walsh, Michael. "The Finest Orchestra? (Surprise!) Cleveland". Time. (January 10, 1994) Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- A Brief History of the Cleveland Orchestra. Cleveland Orchestra. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- Cleveland Museum of Art. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. June 14, 1997. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- Who We Are. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland. Retrieved on August 16, 2007.
- "Movies Filmed in Cleveland". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 1997. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- Kass, Arielle; Singler, Dan (April 12, 2010). "The most memorable movies and TV shows set or filmed in Northeast Ohio in the last 30 years". Crain's Cleveland Business. Crain Communications Inc. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- "Movies filmed in Ohio". Dayton Daily News. Cox Ohio Publishing. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- Soeder, John (May 14, 2009). "Hello, Cleveland! For 'Spinal Tap' stars, amps don't go up to 11 on Unwigged & Unplugged Tour". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- O'Connor, Clint (October 21, 2012). " 'Fun Size': Cleveland gets its close-up in new comedy starring Victoria Justice". Cleveland.com (Cleveland Live LLC). Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- Sangiacomo, Michael (March 3, 2011). "Upcoming 'Avengers' movie will be filmed in Cleveland". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Stanley, Alessandra (June 15, 2010). "Stay. Eat. Make Yourself at Home. Maybe Find a Man.". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved July 7, 2010.
The Drew Carey Show' was set in Cleveland...
- "CRIME 360 - About - A&E TV". Aetv.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Rice, Lynette (June 17, 2010). "'Hot in Cleveland' attracts record ratings for TV Land". EW.com: Hollywood Insider. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- John Perkovic, "Cleveland home of literary great Langston Hughes on the market for $85,000", Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 24, 2013 (accessed November 25, 2014)
- K. Prufer (ed.), Russell Atkins: On the life and work of an American master. Warrensburg, Mo.: Pleiades Press (2013). ISBN 978-0964145443
- Superman. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. July 22, 1997. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
- Brad Ricca, Super Boys: The Amazing Adventures of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster--the Creators of Superman, Macmillan / St. Martin's Press (June 4, 2013) ISBN 978-0312643805
- Larry Smith, Mary E. Weems, and Nina Freedlander Gibans, editors, Cleveland Poetry Scenes, Bottom Dog Press (2008); ISBN 978-1933964171
- J. Burroughs (ed.), Songs in the Key of Cleveland: An Anthology of the 2013 Best Cleveland Poem Competition, Crisis Chronicles Press (2014) ISBN 978-1940996073
- A calendar of Cleveland area poetry events can be found at Clevelandpoetics (accessed November 25, 2014).
- Anisfield-Wolf Book Award home page (accessed November 25, 2014)
- Jacqueline Marino, "The Biggest Little-Known Book Award," Belt Magazine, September 9, 2013 (accessed November 25, 2014)
- Raab, Scott (July 1, 2002). "Eating Cleveland". Esquire. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
If you're not from Cleveland, you've never et a Polish Boy. Go to Freddie's Rib House at midnight and get a large, to go. A Polish Boy is a bunwich packed with a charred forearm of spiced kielbasa, french fries, and coleslaw, and the whole shebang is soaked in barbecue sauce. (You read right: The fries and slaw smother the eight-inch link.)
- "The Best Sandwiches in America". Esquire. February 16, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
Corned Beef Slyman's, Cleveland
- "Polish boy sandwich". RecipeHut.com. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
The Polish Boy is a sausage sandwich originating in Cleveland, Ohio
- "Cleveland Fish Fries". Cleveland Magazine.com. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- "Past Winners". Great American Beer Festival. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Eng, Monica (January 16, 2008). "Hot new dining city: Cleveland?!". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
By the time I hit Cleveland for the grand culinary tour, Ruhlman had the routine down. Earlier in the year, his chef/writer pal Anthony Bourdain had filmed a whole episode of his Travel Channel show "No Reservations" in Cleveland.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Travel Cleveland: Cleveland Attractions". Convention and Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland. Archived from the original on August 12, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
- "Cleveland's Irish Parade". clevelandirishparade.org. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- "Fashion Weeks by Country – Directory Fashion Weeks Europe, Russia, North America, Canada, Latin-/South America, Australia, Africa, Asia, Middle East". Cosmoworlds. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- Soeder, John. "CMJ/Rock Hall Music Fest cancelled after two-year run." The Plain Dealer, April 6, 2007.
- "Ingenuity Festival". Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- "TEDxCLE". Retrieved August 13, 2010.
Cleveland's first, official TEDx event, TEDxCLE, took place on Friday, February 26 at The Capitol Theatre in the Gordon Square Arts District.
- "Highlights from the 33rd Cleveland International Film Festival" (PDF). Cleveland International Film Festival. March 2009. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Winterfest". Cleveland.com. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
- Thomas Ondrey (May 19, 2012). "Underwater wonders among the newcomers in Northeast Ohio". The Plain Dealer. cleveland.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Burt, Bill (September 9, 2008). "Sellouts! Record 456 and counting for Sox". Eagle Tribune. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
- Darcy, Kieran (July 13, 2004). "Mistakes by the Lake". ESPN.com:. Archived from the original on October 13, 2004. Retrieved October 11, 2005.
- Walker, James (July 13, 2010). "Take your pick recap: LeBron vs. Modell". ESPN.com:. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
- "Cleveland Metroparks Zoo – Virtual Tour". Clemetzoo.com. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- T Walker. "Comments and Reviews". Stateparks.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Welcome to the History of the Cleveland Cultural Gardens". Cleveland Cultural Gardens. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- Huskins, David. "Ohio Voter and Election Maps". University of Akron Center for Policy Studies. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Leip, David. 2004 Presidential General Election Results. Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved on May 9, 2007.
- November 2, 2004 Canvass Report Cuyahoga County Board of Elections. Retrieved on December 2, 2009.
- Richardson, James F. Politics. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. May 13, 1998. Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- "Carl B. Stokes, 68, first Black Mayor of a major U.S. city, dies – Obituary". Jet, April 22, 1996. Available at findarticles.com. Retrieved on August 10, 2007.
- Helliker, Kevin. Population of Cleveland Plunges 17%, Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2011, page A2.
- "City Crime Rankings 2008". CQ Press. March 25, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- Ohio Department of Public Safety: Office of Criminal Justice Services-Crime in the U.S. 2006
- Page 2 of 2 (October 5, 2010). "Page 2: America's Most Dangerous Neighborhoods: Areas With Violent Crime - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Mayerowitz, Scott (October 5, 2010). "Page 4: America's Most Dangerous Neighborhoods: Areas With Violent Crime - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- US Dept of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, 'Reporting Criminal Victimization in Cleveland (OH), 1971–1972 – A Report', National Institute of Justice
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service M. L. Walker; L. M. Schmidt; C. Ronald Huff, ed., "Community Response to Gangs", 'Gangs in America', 2nd ed, pp. 263–269, (1996)
- now the Greater Cleveland Partnership
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service R.J. Zion, "Reducing Crime and Fear of Crime in Downtown Cleveland", Victimology, Vol. 3, No. 3/4, Special Issue pp. 341–344, (1978)
- John Wiley & Sons, Inc "Racial Differences in Exposure to Crime: The City and Suburbs of Cleveland in 1990", Criminology, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 251–276, (Mar. 2006)
- John Wiley & Sons, Inc Fahui Wang; W. William Minor, "Where the Jobs Are: Employment Access and Crime Patterns in Cleveland", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 435–450, (November 2004)
-  Tetsuro Motoyama et al., "Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Crime in Cleveland, Ohio and Spatial Dynamics of Crime (A Methodogical Review)", Link Between Crime and the Built Environment, Vol. 2, pp. C159–C175 (1980)
- FBI — Table 8 - Ohio
- Oppel Jr., Richard A. (December 4, 2014). Cleveland Police Cited for Abuse by Justice Department. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "Division of Fire". City of Cleveland. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Cleveland Fire Stations". City of Cleveland. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- Blackwell, Brandon (December 3, 2013). "Patrick Kelly sworn in as Cleveland's fire chief, pledges to restore confidence". Plain Dealer. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- Niedermier, Kevin. "Cleveland firefighters voting on work rules for merger with EMS". WKSU News. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- Master Plan Update 2 at the Wayback Machine (archived August 8, 2007) (MS Word doc). Cleveland Metropolitan School District Bond Accountability Commission. May 21, 2007. Retrieved on July 25, 2007.
- "Reform History". Catalyst Cleveland. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- "Shaker Heights City School District." The Plain Dealer. Sunday April 25, 2010. Retrieved on November 21, 2011. "All of the city of Shaker Heights plus about 1 square mile of Cleveland around Shaker Square. H. The Cleveland portion has been part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s. Its residents pay the same school taxes as Shaker Heights residents and are entitled to use the schools and to vote in school elections."
- "The Bridge Avenue School". Retrieved January 1, 2011.
- "Case Western Reserve University – Best College". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. September 10, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- Ohio Technical College – Automotive Training,Auto Body Training, Motorcycle Training, Diesel Training
- Latest News, Sports, Opinion, Business, Life. The News-Herald. Retrieved on July 24, 2013.
- "The new Sun News, Cleveland, Ohio, Home Page". Sunnews.com. August 1, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- David Dirck Van Tassel (1987). The Encyclopedia of Cleveland history. Indiana University Press.
- "The Summer Set: AP Tour 2010 Dates + Pre-sale Tickets (On Sale Today)". AltSounds.com News. Altsounds Ltd. January 4, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
Cleveland-based youth-culture magazine Alternative Press...
- "Warped Rumor: Will Cleveland Date Have Paramore?". CleveScene.com: C-Notes. Cleveland Scene. July 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
Cleveland-based rock mag Alternative Press...
- Rome, Alana (April 19, 2007). "Cute Is What We Aim For, Circa Survive, As Tall As Lions, Envy On The Coast". Redefine Magazine: Live Show Reviews. Redefine Media LLC. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- "Warped Rumor: Will Cleveland Date Have Paramore?". CleveScene.com: C-Notes. Cleveland Scene. July 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- "Cleveland/Akron TV market ranking" (PDF). Nielsen Media Research. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen Company. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Holley, Joe (August 12, 2006). "Entertainer Mike Douglas, 81; Hosted Daytime TV Talk Show". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Good Morning America: Free TV Show Tickets in New York City". NYtix.com. New York TV Show Tickets Inc. 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Feran, Tom; Heldenfels, R.D. (1997). Ghoulardi: Inside Cleveland TV's Wildest Ride. Cleveland, Ohio: Gray & Co.
- Cleveland OH, RadioStationWorld. Retrieved on August 2, 2007.
- "On the Air". Cleveland Browns official website. Cleveland Browns. 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Cavaliers Radio Network". Cleveland Cavaliers official website. NBA Media Ventures, LLC. 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Indians Radio Affiliates". Cleveland Indians official website. MLB Advanced Media, LP. 2001–2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Washington, Julie (August 25, 2007). "WTAM still No. 1 on the airwaves". The Plain Dealer (The Plain Dealer Publishing Co.). p. E1 – Arts & Life.
- "Ratings: #29 Cleveland". Radio-Online.com. Radio Online. 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Classical Pick: Radio Days". The New Yorker. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- Yarborough, Chuck (September 2, 2011). "WKRK FM/92.3 The Fan replaces rock with sports talk". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
- Grossi, Tony (March 28, 2013). "ESPN 850 WKNR is the new radio home of the Cleveland Browns". ESPNCleveland.com. ESPN Internet Ventures and Good Karma Broadcasting, Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Press Release (March 28, 2013). "Browns Enter Into Groundbreaking Radio Partnership With ESPN 850 WKNR And CBS Radio's 92.3 The Fan And 98.5 WNCX". Cleveland.CBSLocal.com. CBS Local Media, a division of CBS Radio Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Freed, Alan". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "WHK". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 2002. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "WMMS". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 1998. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Goldstein, Patrick (June 1, 1986). "Cleveland Is on a (Rock 'N') Roll". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). p. 64 – Calendar.
- Adams, Deanna R. (2002). Rock 'n' Roll and the Cleveland Connection. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 333.
- Tinsley, Jesse. "Burke to host air service again; Startup offers no-hassle hop to Detroit, more", The Plain Dealer. July 18, 2006.
- "Port of Cleveland". Port of Cleveland.
- The Ohio Hub. Ohio Rail Development Commission. Retrieved on November 4, 2006.
- "CSX Intermodal Terminal Information" (PDF). CSX. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- "Norfolk Southern". Norfolk Southern. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- "U.S. Ambassador to Haiti Kenneth Merten; passenger train from Cleveland to Sandusky: Whatever happened to ... ?". Cleveland Plain Dealer. January 16, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "Passenger rail service between Cleveland and Sandusky to be studied". Cleveland Plain Dealer. February 2, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "RTA HealthLine: Where It Goes". Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "Greater Cleveland: Best Location for Public Transportation in the Nation" (Press release). Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. October 1, 2007. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- "Amtrak rail service, Greyhound Bus and Megabus information". Positively Cleveland. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "Lakefront Lines". Trailways Transportation System.
- "Out-of-County Connections". Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority.
- "Street Names". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. March 4, 1998. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- Interstate 490 Cleveland. Interstate-Guide.com. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- Riverside Neighborhood Tour. Neighborhood Link, Cleveland State University. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- Grzegorek, Vince (July 20, 2011). "Cleveland Ranked 17th Most Walkable City | Scene and Heard: Scene's News Blog | Cleveland Scene". Clevescene.com. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Cleveland Apartments for Rent and Cleveland Rentals". Walk Score. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Sister Cities information obtained from Online Directory: Ohio, USA. at the Wayback Machine (archived January 26, 2008) Sister Cities International, Inc. Retrieved on July 11, 2007.
- "Bratislava City – Twin Towns". Bratislava-City.sk. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Roguski, Randy (August 10, 2008). "Cleveland hopes to gain from century-old link to Rouen, France". Plain Dealer. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- "Cleveland Jews support Israel generously". cleveland.com. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|