Cleveland, Tennessee

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Cleveland, Tennessee
Craigmiles Hall (on the right) in downtown Cleveland
Craigmiles Hall (on the right) in downtown Cleveland
Official seal of Cleveland, Tennessee
Seal
Nickname(s): 
The City with Spirit
Location of Cleveland in Bradley County, Tennessee.
Location of Cleveland in Bradley County, Tennessee.
Cleveland, Tennessee is located in Tennessee
Cleveland, Tennessee
Cleveland, Tennessee
Location in Tennessee in the United States
Cleveland, Tennessee is located in the United States
Cleveland, Tennessee
Cleveland, Tennessee
Cleveland, Tennessee (the United States)
Coordinates: 35°10′17″N 84°52′16″W / 35.17139°N 84.87111°W / 35.17139; -84.87111Coordinates: 35°10′17″N 84°52′16″W / 35.17139°N 84.87111°W / 35.17139; -84.87111
CountryUnited States
StateTennessee
CountyBradley
Founded1837[1]
Incorporated1842[2]
Named forBenjamin Cleveland
Government
 • TypeCity Council
 • MayorKevin Brooks[3]
 • City ManagerJoe Fivas[4]
 • Assistant City ManagerMelinda B. Carroll
Area
 • Total29.68 sq mi (76.87 km2)
 • Land29.68 sq mi (76.87 km2)
 • Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation
869 ft (265 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total41,285
 • Estimate 
(2018)[5]
44,974
 • Density1,535.3/sq mi (592.8/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
37311, 37312, 37320, 37323, 37364[6]
Area code(s)423
FIPS code47-15400[7]
GNIS feature ID1280705[8]
Websitewww.clevelandtn.gov

Cleveland is a city in Bradley County, Tennessee, United States. The population was 41,285 at the 2010 census.[9] It is the county seat and largest city in Bradley County,[10] and the principal city of the Cleveland, Tennessee metropolitan area (consisting of Bradley County and neighboring Polk County), which is included in the Chattanooga–Cleveland–Dalton, TN–GA–AL Combined Statistical Area. Cleveland is the fourteenth-largest city in Tennessee and the fifth-largest industrially, having thirteen Fortune 500 manufacturers.[11][12]

History[edit]

Statue of Col. Benjamin Cleveland, Cleveland's namesake, in downtown Cleveland.
Child workers from Cleveland's Hosiery Mills, 1910. Photo by Lewis Hine.

Long before the time of European encounter, this area was part of a large territory occupied by the Cherokee Nation, which extended into the South to present-day western North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. During and after the American Revolutionary War, European Americans came into increasing conflict with the Cherokee by migrating west of the Appalachian Mountains and encroaching on Cherokee territory. The Cherokee had tolerated traders but resisted settlers who tried to take over their territory.

In 1819, the Cherokee Agency— the official liaison between the U.S. government and the Cherokee Nation— was moved to the Hiwassee area, a few miles north of what is now Cleveland. The Indian agent was Colonel Return J. Meigs. By the 1830s, white settlers had begun to move rapidly into the area in anticipation of the Cherokee Removal, which began with the Treaty of New Echota in December 1835. Several sites in Bradley County, including Fort Cass in Charleston, Rattlesnake Springs, and Red Clay State Park, as well as Blythe Ferry, about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Cleveland in Meigs County, were important sites during the Cherokee Removal.[1]

The legislative act on February 10, 1836 that created Bradley County, which was named for Colonel Edward Bradley of Shelby County, Tennessee, authorized the establishment of a county seat, which was to be named "Cleveland" after Colonel Benjamin Cleveland, a commander at the Battle of Kings Mountain during the American Revolution.[1] The commissioners chose "Taylor's Place," the home of Andrew Taylor, as the location for the county seat, due largely to the site's excellent water sources. The city was formally established as the county seat on January 20, 1838, and that year was reported to have a population of 400, and was home to two churches (one Presbyterian, the other Methodist), and a school for boys, the Oak Grove Academy. The city was incorporated on February 4, 1842, and elections for mayor and aldermen were held shortly afterward on April 4 of that year.[13]

Cleveland grew rapidly following the arrival of the railroad in the 1850s. While bitterly divided over the issue of secession on the eve of the Civil War, Cleveland, like Bradley County and most of East Tennessee, voted against Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession in June 1861.[14] The railroad bridge over the Hiwassee River to the north was among those destroyed by the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy in November 1861. Cleveland was occupied by the Confederate Army from 1861 to 1863.[15] Most of the military action around Cleveland was brief skirmishes rather than large-scale battles, but the city was considered militarily important due to the railroads. On June 30, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln sent a telegram to General Henry W. Halleck, stating, "To take and hold the railroad at or east of Cleveland, Tennessee, I think is as fully important as the taking and holding of Richmond."[16]

During the 1870s, Cleveland had a growth spurt, and became one of the first cities in Tennessee to experience the effects of the Industrial Revolution in the United States. The city's iconic Craigmiles Hall was constructed in 1878 as an opera house and meeting hall.[17] Numerous factories were also established, including the Hardwick Stove Company in 1879, the Cleveland Woolen Mills in 1880, and the Cleveland Chair Company in 1884. By 1890, this industrialization helped the city support nine physicians, twelve attorneys, eleven general stores, fourteen grocery stores, three drug stores, three hardware stores, six butcher shops, two hatmakers, two hotels, a shoe store, and seven saloons.[13] A mule-drawn trolley system was established in 1886, and the city received telephone service in 1888.[18] In 1895 the city received electricity and public water.[19][20] During this period, Cleveland's population more than doubled from 1,812 in 1880 to 3,643 in 1900.[13]

Many of the buildings in today's downtown area, now considered the Cleveland Commercial Historic District, as well as the nearby Ocoee Street and Centenary Avenue Historic Districts, were constructed between 1880 and 1915. In 1918, the Church of God, a Christian denomination headquartered in Cleveland, established a Bible school that would develop as Lee University. Cleveland's Chamber of Commerce was established in 1925. The city had postwar growth when several major factories were constructed in the area following World War II.[13] As a result, the city has expanded much to the north, northeast, and northwest. The historic business district is now in the southern portion of the current town.[21][22]

Geography[edit]

Cleveland is located in southeast Tennessee in the center of Bradley County situated among a series of low hills and ridges roughly 15 miles (24 km) west of the Blue Ridge Mountains and 15 miles (24 km) east of the Chickamauga Lake impoundment of the Tennessee River. The Hiwassee River, which flows down out of the mountains and forms the northern boundary of Bradley County, empties into the Tennessee a few miles northwest of Cleveland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total land area of 26.9 square miles (69.7 km2) in 2010.[9]

The city's terrain is made up of parallel ridges, including Candies Creek Ridge (also called Clingan Ridge), Mouse Creek/Lead Mine Ridge, and Blue Springs Ridge, which are extensions of the Appalachian Mountains (specifically part of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians) that run approximately north-northeast through the city.[23][24] Several streams run in the valleys between the ridges including Candies Creek, located west of Clingan Ridge, and South Mouse Creek, between Mouse Creek and Lead Mine Ridge.[25][26] Mouse Creek and Blue Springs Ridge have significantly lower elevations within the city of Cleveland than elsewhere in Bradley County, which historically made the area easier to settle.[23][24]

Cleveland is unofficially referred to as consisting of five major regions: Downtown Cleveland, Northern Cleveland (also called North Cleveland), Western Cleveland, East Cleveland, and South Cleveland.[23][24] East and South Cleveland are census-designated places partly within the city limits. There are no official borders between the other divisions. Downtown Cleveland, which roughly coexists with the Cleveland Commercial Historic District, encompasses the business district and consists of private businesses and government office buildings including the Bradley County Courthouse and Courthouse Annex, Cleveland Municipal Building, Cleveland Police and Fire department headquarters, and various other government buildings, primarily the offices of city and county departments. The surrounding residential areas, including the Stuart Heights, Ocoee Street, Centenary Avenue, and Annadale neighborhoods, are sometimes considered part of downtown Cleveland.[22] Northern Cleveland has developed as the location for most of the city's retail shops and private interests.[21] In addition, it is a major residential division, made up of Burlington Heights, Fairview, and Sequoia Grove neighborhoods.[23] A large industrial area is also located in the northeastern part of the city.[23] Western Cleveland is entirely residential. Much of it is an extension of the city limits westward to encompass populous middle to upper class neighborhoods including Hopewell Estates and Rolling Hills.[22] East and South Cleveland consist of lower class residential and industrial areas.[23][24] People living in East Cleveland tend to be less privileged. South Cleveland is the most densely populated part of town.[21] People who live in these regions are sometimes referred to as being "isolated" from the rest of the city, as they work in that part of town and most of their economy is based around retail and businesses in the southern part of the city.

Neighborhoods[edit]

Several neighborhoods and communities are located within the city.[23][24] These include:

Climate[edit]

Since 1908, 28 tornadoes have been documented in the Cleveland area, seven of which struck on April 27, 2011.[27]

Climate data for Cleveland, Tennessee
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 50
(10)
54
(12)
63
(17)
73
(23)
80
(27)
86
(30)
90
(32)
89
(32)
83
(28)
72
(22)
62
(17)
52
(11)
71
(22)
Average low °F (°C) 28
(−2)
31
(−1)
38
(3)
46
(8)
56
(13)
65
(18)
69
(21)
67
(19)
60
(16)
48
(9)
38
(3)
30
(−1)
48
(9)
Average precipitation inches (cm) 5
(13)
4.8
(12)
5.1
(13)
4.3
(11)
4.4
(11)
4.5
(11)
4
(10)
3.5
(8.9)
4.1
(10)
3.3
(8.4)
5
(13)
5
(13)
53
(134.3)
Source #1: weather.com http://www.weather.com

[28]

Source #2: weatherbase.com

[29]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860806
18701,658105.7%
18801,87413.0%
18902,86352.8%
19003,85834.8%
19105,54943.8%
19206,52217.5%
19309,13640.1%
194011,35124.2%
195012,60511.0%
196016,19628.5%
197021,44632.4%
198026,41523.2%
199030,35414.9%
200037,19222.5%
201041,28511.0%
Est. 201844,974[5]8.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
Location of the Cleveland Metropolitan Statistical Area in Tennessee

Cleveland is the principal city of the Cleveland Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Bradley and Polk counties[30] and had a combined population of 115,788 at the 2010 census.[31]

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[7] of 2000, there were 37,192 people, 15,037 households, and 9,518 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,490.9 people per square mile (575.5/km2). There were 16,431 housing units at an average density of 658.7 per square mile (254.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 89.00% White, 7.01% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.29% from other races, and 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.87% of the population.

There were 15,037 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.7% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.90.

In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 15.4% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,098, and the median income for a family was $40,150. Males had a median income of $30,763 versus $21,480 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,316. About 11.3% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census of 2010,[32] there were 41,285 people, 16,107 households, and 10,063 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,535.3 people per square mile (575.5/km2). There were 17,841 housing units at an average density of 663.5 per square mile (254.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.90% White, 7.40% African American, 0.40% Native American, 1.50% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 4.30% from other races, and 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.50% of the population.

There were 16,107 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.5% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the city, the population was spread out with 6.5% under the age of 5, 6.2% aged 5 to 9, 5.7% aged 10 to 14, 7.9% aged 15 to 19, 10.7% aged 20 to 24, 7.1% aged 25 to 29, 6.1% aged 30 to 34, 6.0% aged 35 to 39, 6.0% aged 40 to 44, 6.3% aged 45 to 49, 6.1% aged 50 to 54, 5.5% aged 55 to 59, 5.0% aged 60 to 64, 4.2% aged 65 to 69, 3.3% aged 70 to 74, 2.8% aged 75 to 79, 2.3% aged 80 to 84, and 2.2% aged 85 and older. The median age was 34.8 years. The gender makeup was 52.4% female and 47.6% male. The median female age was 36.5 and the median male age was 32.9

The median income for a household in the city was $36,270, and the median income for a family was $47,104. The per capita income for the city was $21,576. About 15.0% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.5% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.

Religion[edit]

Broad Street United Methodist Church

Cleveland is located in a region of the Southern United States known as the Bible Belt.[33] Numerous Protestant Christian denominations are represented in the city, including several Pentecostal groups for which Cleveland serves as the international headquarters. Denominations based in Cleveland include:

There are approximately 200 Protestant churches and one Roman Catholic church in Bradley County. An estimated 39.6 percent of residents have no religious affiliation.[34] Several churches in Downtown Cleveland are of notable architecture, including the Romanesque Revival Broad Street United Methodist Church, the First Presbyterian Church on Ocoee Street, and St. Luke's Episcopal Church, which was built in the Gothic Revival style by architect Peter Williamson. All three are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The mysterious red stains that appear on the marble of the Craigmiles Mausoleum.

Cleveland is home to the famous Craigmiles Mausoleum, located at 320 Broad Street NW, behind St. Luke's Episcopal Church. The mausoleum contains the body of Nina Craigmiles, a seven-year-old who died on October 18, 1871, when a horse buggy in which she was riding was struck by a train. Her father, John Craigmiles, constructed the church and mausoleum in Nina's memory. He named the church St. Luke's because the girl died on St. Luke's Day.[35] Shortly after Nina's body was placed inside the mausoleum, red stains appeared on the marble. Over the years the stained marble has been replaced, but the stains inevitably reappear. Craigmiles commissioned a statue of Nina, which was to be shipped from Europe. It was being transported via the RMS Titanic and sank with the ship.[36]

Economy[edit]

Old Hardwick Woolen Mills factory building in Cleveland, Tennessee.

Much of the city's economy is based on manufacturing. Cleveland's industrial economy is the fifth largest in the state.[11] Cleveland is home to several manufacturers. Goods produced include household cooking equipment, foodstuff, textiles, furniture, storage batteries, pharmaceuticals, industrial cleaning products, photographic processing, industrial and domestic chemicals, and automotive parts.[37] Top employers include Whirlpool, Johnston Coca-Cola, Mars, Inc., Procter & Gamble, Duracell, Peyton's Southeastern, Arch Chemicals, Advanced Photographic Solutions, Cleveland Chair Company, Renfro Foods, Flowers Bakery, Olin Corporation, Georgia Pacific, Rubbermaid, Exel, Inc., Jackson Furniture, Cleveland Chair Company, Eaton Corporation, Olin Corporation, Bayer, Schering-Plough, Lonza, Wacker, Mueller Company, and Polartec.[34] In total, Cleveland contains more than 150 manufacturing firms and thirteen Fortune 500 Companies.[34] Tourism also plays a major part, with many nearby attractions and yearly events.

Cleveland is the location for the corporate headquarters of Life Care Centers of America, the largest privately held nursing facility company in the US, founded and owned by Forrest Preston. Check Into Cash Inc., the largest privately held payday loan company in the US, was founded in Cleveland in 1993 by businessman Allan Jones.[38] Hardwick Clothes, the oldest tailor-made clothing maker in America, was founded in 1880 and has been headquartered in Cleveland for its entire history.[39] In addition to corporate businesses, Cleveland has a thriving retail sector, located mostly in the northern part of the city. Bradley Square Mall is a shopping mall with more than 50 tenants.[40]

The liquor store referendum was passed on Nov. 6, with 58.4 percent of the votes cast in support of the referendum.[41] The first liquor store opened in Cleveland, TN on May 4, 2019, owned and operated by John Sheehan.[42] Aaron R. Brown was the first person to purchase liquor under the city's new ordinance.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is a major part of Cleveland's income. Visitors come from all over the country. The Cherokee National Forest in Polk County supports many recreational outdoor activities. The Ocoee and Hiwassee rivers both flow through the forest. Thousands of people raft these rivers annually. The Ocoee River was the site of the canoe slalom events for the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Red Clay State Park is a historical site just above the Georgia state line. The Cherokee held council here after being driven out of Georgia. The Museum Center at Five Points is a history museum and cultural center that features exhibits on the Ocoee Region and surrounding areas.[43] The Ocoee Regional Nature Center is a state-certified arboretum. It houses over 100 types of trees, plants, flowers, and shrubs.[citation needed]

Arts and culture[edit]

Events[edit]

Photo of Tall Betsy in Fort Hill Cemetery, 1993.

The MainStreet Cleveland Halloween Block Party draws more than 20,000 people to the city every year. The event began in 1988 as a candy handout at the Cleveland Police Department and Centenary Avenue, and has grown to one of the largest events in Cleveland. It features live music, food stands, and a costume contest.[44] In 2015 Cleveland's mayor, Tom Rowland, dubbed the city as the “Halloween capital of the world.”[45]

Cleveland is known for Tall Betsy, the official "Halloween goblin of Bradley County". For years, Tall Betsy's Halloween night appearance drew large crowds to Cleveland's Centenary Avenue. The growing crowds inspired MainStreet Cleveland to organize the Halloween Block Party around the event. Local businessman Allan Jones created the modern legend from tales of the Tall Betsy goblin that his grandmother told him as a child. The original legend dates to the 19th century, with print references in the Cleveland Daily Herald as early as 1892. In 1998, Tall Betsy retired after drawing a crowd of over 25,000 people. She returned in 2005 to celebrate her 25th anniversary.[46][47]

The Cleveland Apple Festival, begun in 2002, is an annual family event held on the third weekend of October.[48] This festival offers a juried art and craft show, live bluegrass music, food booths, pony and a hayride, entertainment, contests and children's activities. Unlike many festivals of its kind in the U.S., the Cleveland Apple Festival does not charge for children to participate in activities provided in the children's area. The festival is operated as a 501(c)(3) public charity.

The city song is "The Diplomat", composed by John Philip Sousa. It debuted as conducted by Sousa in a performance in 1906 at the Craigmiles Opera House.[49] In November 2017, the city celebrated its 175th anniversary.[50]

Nicknames[edit]

The city's official nickname is "The City with Spirit," adopted in 2012. In the 1970s and 1980s, 40 people in Bradley County were sent to prison for the crime of odometer fraud, and Cleveland was the subject of a 1983 60 Minutes documentary about this crime.[51][52] This led to the city becoming known as the "Odometer Rollback Capital of the World."[53] The city is sometimes sarcastically known as "Clevegas" because of the lack of entertainment industry.

Parks and recreation[edit]

Several public recreational parks are located within or near Cleveland.[54] They are all maintained by the Cleveland Parks and Recreation department. They allow a variety of activities, and some organized sports teams compete at them. The Cleveland/Bradley County Greenway is an approximately 4.4 mile long greenway path which follows South Mouse Creek from downtown to neighborhoods in the northern part of the city.[55] Other facilities include the Bradley County Park, Kenneth L. Tinsley Park, Greenway Park, Mosby Park, Deer Park, College Hill Recreation Center, Northeast Recreation Center, Johnston Park, Leonard Fletcher Park, Cleveland Family YMCA, and the South Cleveland Community Center.

Government and politics[edit]

The city of Cleveland operates under a council/manager form of government with an elected mayor and seven council members. Five are elected from single-member districts, and two are elected at-large, as is the mayor.[56] The city council chooses a fellow council member to serve as vice mayor.[56] The city council hires a professional city manager to carry out daily operations. The mayor is Kevin Brooks, who has held that position since September 2018, and the vice mayor is at-large councilman Avery Johnson.[3] The city manager is Joe Fivas, who has held that position since June 2016.[57] Elections are nonpartisan and take place in August of every even year, along with the state primary.

District[56] Councilman[56]
District 1 Charlie McKenzie
District 2 Bill Estes
District 3 Tom Cassada
District 4 David May, Jr.
District 5 Dale R. Hughes
At-large 1 Avery L. Johnson (vice mayor)
At-large 2 Richard L. Banks

Most of Cleveland is in the 4th congressional district of Tennessee for the U.S. House of Representatives, represented by Republican Scott DesJarlais.[58] A small amount of the city, including East Cleveland and northeast Cleveland, are in the 3rd congressional district, represented by Republican Chuck Fleischmann.[59] Most of Cleveland is part of District 24 of the Tennessee House of Representatives, represented by Mark Hall.[60] A small part of the city is in District 22, represented by Republican Dan Howell.[61] Most of Cleveland is part of District 9 for the Tennessee Senate, represented by Republican Mike Bell.[62] A small portion of the city is in District 10, represented by Republican Todd Gardenhire.[63]

Cleveland and Bradley County have historically been majority-Republican since the Civil War, as has most of East Tennessee. Through much of the 20th century, Middle and West Tennessee were majority Democrat, which Democrats were made up of conservative whites. As a whole, Tennessee was considered part of the Solid South. Both areas had been slave societies, and West Tennessee was dominated by large cotton plantations, whereas East Tennessee was based in yeoman farmers and little slaveholding. Since the Republican Party's founding, only two Democratic Presidential candidates have won Bradley County; Southerner Woodrow Wilson in 1912 and Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1936, during the Great Depression.[64]

Education[edit]

Cleveland High School, Bradley Central High School and Walker Valley High School are the three public high schools in Bradley County. Cleveland Middle, Ocoee Middle and Lake Forest are the three middle schools. Cleveland City Schools is a school system for students living within the city limits. Several elementary schools serve students within different sub-district divisions. Some schools maintained by Bradley County Schools are also in the city. Tennessee Christian Preparatory School is a Christian college preparatory school located in Cleveland.

The city is also home to Cleveland State Community College, a unit of the Tennessee Board of Regents, as well as Lee University, the second-largest private, four-year university in the state.

Public schools[edit]

High schools[edit]

Achievements
Jones Wrestling Center

Cleveland High School has one of the most successful football programs in Tennessee. It has the second-longest winning streak in Tennessee high school football history, with 54 consecutive wins between 1993 and 1996.[65] The Blue Raiders have also won state championships in 1968,[failed verification] 1993, 1994 and 1995.[66]

The Cleveland High School and Bradley Central wrestling teams traditionally dominate the state wrestling championships. Since 1994, the Bradley Central Bears have won 22 state championships in the Dual and Traditional categories.[67] The Cleveland Blue Raiders, based at the state-of-the-art Jones Wrestling Center, have won Traditional Championships in 2011, 2013, 2014 and 2015, and placed second in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2012.[68][69]

In 2013, the Cleveland City Council presented a resolution honoring the Cleveland High School wrestling team, and declared Feb 25 as “Blue Raider Wrestling Day.” The Blue Raiders were state champions for the second time in three years after winning the 2013 TSSAA Division I Traditional State Championships and the State Duals Finals. The team was runner-up in both the Duals and State Tournaments in 2012, after claiming the Traditional title in 2011.[70]

Private schools[edit]

  • Tennessee Christian Preparatory School
  • Cleveland Christian School
  • Candies Creek Academy
  • Bowman Hills Adventist School
  • Shenandoah Baptist Academy
  • United Christian Academy
  • Vanguard Christian Academy
  • La Petite Academy

Higher education[edit]

Media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

The Cleveland Daily Banner is the town's newspaper. The paper was first published in 1854.[71] Additionally, the Chattanooga Times Free Press, a paper based in Chattanooga, also serves as a primary source of news for Bradley County residents.

Radio[edit]

Several radio stations located within Chattanooga and neighboring cities serve Cleveland, along with others licensed to Cleveland, which are listed below:[72]

Call sign Frequency Format
W207C1 (WAYW) 89.3 FM WAY-FM, Contemporary Christian
WSAA 93.1 FM Air 1, Contemporary Christian
WOOP-LP 99.9 FM Bluegrass
WUSY 100.7 FM Country
W267BI 101.3 FM Talk
WCLE-FM 104.1 FM Adult contemporary
W290CA (WTSE) 105.9 FM Contemporary Christian
WBAC 1340 AM News/Talk
WCLE-AM 1570 AM Talk

Television[edit]

Cleveland is served by several TV stations licensed both in the city and neighboring cities. Stations licensed in Cleveland include:

Call sign[73] Channel Network
WPDP-CD 25 ABC, Fox, My Network TV
WTNB-CD 27 Heartland
WFLI-TV 42, 53 The CW, Me-TV

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Historic Southern Railway Depot.

Air[edit]

Hardwick Field, also known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, was the principal airport from 1955 to 2013.[74][75] Cleveland Regional Jetport, located approximately two miles east of Hardwick Field opened on January 25, 2013, replacing Hardwick Field.[76] It consists of a 6,200-by-100-foot (1,890 by 30 m) runway.[77]

Rail[edit]

Cleveland is served by the Norfolk Southern Railway, which forks in the city and provides logistics for industries.[78]

Roads[edit]

The center of Cleveland is at the intersection of U.S. Route 11 and U.S. Route 64. U.S. 11 connects the area with Chattanooga to the south and Athens to the north. The U.S. 11 Bypass (Keith Street) serves as a bypass route for US 11 around downtown, passing approximately 0.5 miles (0.80 km) west of the central business district. U.S. Route 64 connects Cleveland with Murphy, North Carolina, to the east and the Chattanooga area to the southwest. State Route 60 (25th Street) connects Cleveland with Dayton to the northwest and Dalton, Georgia, to the southeast, where the road becomes State Route 71. State Route 74 connects the city to Chatsworth, Georgia to the south. APD-40, made up of the U.S. 64 Bypass and a section of S.R. 60, is part of the Appalachian Development Highway System from where it takes its name, and serves as a beltway around the business district. Parts of this beltway are controlled access. Paul Huff Parkway serves as a major thoroughfare on the northern end of the city. Interstate 75 passes through western Cleveland, connecting the area with Knoxville to the north and Chattanooga to the south. I-75 has three exits in the city.[79]

Principal highways[edit]
Aerial view of the cloverleaf interchange with APD-40 (US 64 Byp./SR 60) and US 64 (Inman Street, Waterlevel Highway)
Paul Huff Parkway crossing Candies Creek Ridge.
Other major roadways[edit]
  • Mouse Creek Road
  • Stuart Road
  • Peerless Road
  • Georgetown Road
  • SR 312 (Harrison Pike)
  • Freewill Road
  • 20th Street NE
  • 17th Street NW
  • Michigan Avenue Road
  • Benton Pike
  • Blue Springs Road
  • McGrady Drive

Public transportation[edit]

The Cleveland Urban Area Transit System (CUATS) is a bus service operated by the Southeast Tennessee Human Resource Agency (SETHRA) that operates within the city limits of Cleveland and select parts of Bradley County.[80] The city operates on five fixed routes.[34] A Greyhound bus station is located on Paul Huff Parkway just off of I-75 exit 27.

Public safety[edit]

The Cleveland Fire Department is an all-paid professional department. It currently consists of more than 90 highly trained personnel and 5 stations, and serves an estimated 67,000 people. The current chief is Ron Harrison.[81] The Cleveland Police department currently has more than 90 Certified Police Officers, two Codes Enforcement Officers and 11 full-time civilian employees, along with one part-time civilian employee, 13 School Crossing Guards and eight Animal Control employees. They also maintain a Volunteer Program consisting of a 15-member Public Service Unit and a nine-member Chaplain Unit. The Chief of Police is Mark Gibson.[82]

Healthcare[edit]

Cleveland's two hospitals are Bradley Memorial Hospital and Cleveland Community Hospital.[83] Since 2015, both have been operated by Tennova Healthcare.[84] Bradley Healthcare & Rehabilitation Center is a nursing home that serves the county. Bradley County Emergency Medical Services is an emergency medical service (EMS) agency of the county government established in 1972 and consists of three stations, eleven ambulances, and six ancillary vehicles, along with more than 60 full-time employees and more than 25 part-time employees.[85]

Utilities[edit]

Cleveland Utilities is a corporate agency owned by the city which provides electric, water, and sewage services to residents of Cleveland and surrounding areas.[86] Cleveland Utilities receives water from the Hiwassee and Tennessee Rivers and a spring in Waterville just southeast of the city, and purchases electricity from the Tennessee Valley Authority, which is delivered via two subtransmission substations in the city.[87][88] Wastewater is pumped to a treatment facility on the Hiwassee River in northern Bradley County.[89] Natural gas is provided by Chattanooga Gas, a subsidiary of Southern Company.[90] Other local providers include the Hiwassee Utilities Commission, Ocoee Utility District, and Volunteer Electric Cooperative.[34]

Public works[edit]

The Public Works Department performs the most varied actions of all the city departments. It has approximately 51 employees. The department is responsible for the city's fleet operation, sign maintenance and design, and street markings. The current director is Tommy Myers.[91]

Notable people[edit]

Sister Cities[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c " Goodspeed's History of Bradley County, Tennessee," published in 1887. Transcribed for web content and maintained by TNGenWeb - Bradley County. Retrieved: December 30, 2007.
  2. ^ Tennessee Blue Book, 2005–2006, pp. 618-625.
  3. ^ a b Siniard, Tim (September 11, 2018). "Kevin Brooks Sworn in as New Cleveland Mayor". Cleveland Daily Banner.
  4. ^ "Cleveland, TN - Official Website - Office of the City Manager". www.clevelandtn.gov.
  5. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  6. ^ "Cleveland, Tennessee (TN) Zip Code Map - Locations, Demographics - list of zip codes". www.city-data.com.
  7. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  8. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  9. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Cleveland city, Tennessee". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  10. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  11. ^ a b "Welcome to Cleveland, Tennessee!". clevelandtn.gov. November 2, 2012. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
  12. ^ "Cleveland, Tennessee". citiesofpromise.com. September 21, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d William Snell, "Cleveland," An Encyclopedia of East Tennessee (Children's Museum of Oak Ridge, 1981), pp. 108-111.
  14. ^ Temple, Article Perry (1899). East Tennessee and the Civil War. R. Clarke Company. pp. 370–406.
  15. ^ "Tennessee Civil War Trails Program," June 9, 2011, pp. 1-2. Accessed: March 12, 2015.
  16. ^ Lilliard 1980, p. 318
  17. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Craigmiles Hall". National Park Service. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  18. ^ Snell 1986, p. 201-02
  19. ^ Snell 1986, p. 179-82
  20. ^ Snell 1986, p. 193
  21. ^ a b c Google (November 7, 2017). "Overview of Cleveland, Tennessee" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  22. ^ a b c Cleveland Chamber of Commerce (2013). City Limits Map (Map). Scale not given. Cleveland, TN: Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g East Cleveland, Tennessee (Map). US Geological Survey. 1976. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  24. ^ a b c d e South Cleveland, Tennessee (Map). US Geological Survey. 1965. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  25. ^ "US Geological Survey" (Map). Chattanooga. 1:250,000. United States Geological Survey. 1972. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  26. ^ USGS Waterdata - 1954
  27. ^ Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather. "Morristown, TN". www.srh.noaa.gov.
  28. ^ "Cleveland, TN (37323) Monthly Weather Forecast - weather.com".
  29. ^ "Cleveland, Tennessee Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  30. ^ METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS Archived May 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Office of Management and Budget, May 11, 2007. Accessed 2008-07-30.
  31. ^ "Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 - United States -- Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico more information 2010 Census National Summary File of Redistricting Data". 2010 United States Census. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. April 14, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  32. ^ Cleveland city, Tennessee American FactFinder
  33. ^ Murray, William H. Jeynes ; foreword by William J. (2009). A call for character education and prayer in the schools. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger. pp. 122–123. ISBN 031335104X. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  34. ^ a b c d e "Our Hometown 2017". Cleveland Daily Banner. September 9, 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  35. ^ Kazek, Kelly (2011). Forgotten Tales of Tennessee. Stroud UK: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-156-7.
  36. ^ Moran, Mark and Sceurman, Mark (2005). Weird U.S.: Your Travel Guide to America’s Local Legends and Best Kept Secrets. New York: Sterling Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-7607-5043-8.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 23, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2005.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Cleveland Chamber of Commerce
  38. ^ Kim Christensen, "More in middle class using payday lenders", Los Angeles Times, December 24, 2008
  39. ^ Hill, Fletcher (June 14, 2011). "Hardwick Clothes: The History". Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  40. ^ Graves, Brian (February 10, 2016). "Bradley Square Mall turns 25". Cleveland Daily Banner. November 3, 2017.
  41. ^ Siniard, Tim. "City Council to review liquor store ordinance draft". Cleveland Daily Banner.
  42. ^ "River Stone, city's first liquor store, opens in Ocoee Crossing". Cleveland Daily Banner.
  43. ^ "Museum Center At 5ive Points". Americanheritage.com. American Heritage. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
  44. ^ Goad, Richard (October 3, 2014). "27th Block Party nears". Cleveland Daily Banner. Cleveland, TN. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  45. ^ Rowland, Tom (December 2015). "The Mayor's Thoughts". Clevelandtn.gov. Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  46. ^ "'Tall Betsy' returning to life in documentary". Cleveland Daily Banner. Cleveland, TN. September 30, 2011. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
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  49. ^ "History of Cleveland". clevelandtn.gov. Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017. John Phillip Sousa first introduced the song “The Diplomat” at the Craigmiles Opera House in Cleveland, TN in 1906. Since that time it has been the City song.
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  52. ^ "Tennessee Mayor Hits "60 Minutes"". The Tennessean. Nashville, Tennessee. December 3, 1983.
  53. ^ Greenfield, Steven (August 1, 2017). "Investigative Reporting in Cleveland". Chattanoogan. Chattanooga, TN. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  54. ^ "Welcome to Visit Bradley County Cleveland Tennessee". visitclevelandtn.gov. visitclevelandtn. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  55. ^ "Home". cbcgreenway.com. Cleveland-Bradley County Greenway. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
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  58. ^ "Congressman Scott DesJarlais". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  59. ^ "Congressman Chuck Fleischmann". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
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  61. ^ Tennessee General Assembly (2017). State House District 22 (PDF) (Map). Nashville: Tennessee General Assembly. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
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  65. ^ Stephen Hargis, "Cleveland high school's winning streak starters enjoy 20th anniversary", Chattanooga Times Free Press, Sep 6, 2013]
  66. ^ Cleveland High School - TSSAA
  67. ^ . Bradley Central High School Wrestling http://www.bradleywrestling.com/. Retrieved November 18, 2014. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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References[edit]

  • Snell, William R. (1986). Cleveland the Beautiful. Williams Printing Company.
  • Lilliard, Roy G. (1980). Bradley County. Memphis State University Press. ISBN 0-87870-099-4.

External links[edit]