|The Cleveland Hills|
The Cleveland Hills viewed from Urra Moor
|Location||North Yorkshire, England|
|Nearest city||Middlesbrough, England|
|Governing body||North York Moors National Park Authority|
The Cleveland Hills are a range of hills on the north-west edge of the North York Moors in North Yorkshire, England, overlooking Cleveland and Teesside. They lie entirely within the boundaries of the North York Moors National Park. Part of the 110-mile (177 km) long Cleveland Way National Trail runs along the hills, and they are also crossed by a section of Wainwright's Coast to Coast Walk. The hills, which rise abruptly from the flat Tees Valley to the north, include distinctive landmarks such as the cone-shaped peak of Roseberry Topping, near the village of Great Ayton – childhood home of Captain James Cook.
Geological studies of the Cleveland Hills plateau date the rocks back to the Middle Jurassic age, making the range approximately 161–176 million years old, although the North York Moors are formed on rocks from the Lower Jurassic age resulting in shale erosion along the north and west faces of the hills. Roseberry Topping is an outlier which was formed as a result of erosion, separating it from the Cleveland Hills formation, making it a unique natural hill.
There are a number of tumuli and stone circles scattered throughout the Cleveland Hills and North York Moors, dating back to the Bronze Age, as well as many cairns that are of varied ages, some of which are relatively modern. Hundreds of flint arrowheads have been discovered during excavations in the hills and dated to the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, indication of an active population in prehistoric times across the region.
Stone circles in the Cleveland Hills
Mining and industry
In 1850 ironstone was discovered by John Marley of Bolckow and Vaughan in the Eston Hills, outliers of the Cleveland Hills, leading to mining on a large scale and the rapid growth of nearby Middlesbrough. By the 1870s industry would be producing steel in vast amounts, and mining for coal, alum, jet, cement stone concretions, shale and potash from the hills, as well as employing sandstone and limestone quarries to gather raw materials. Many of the mines and quarries are still evident today.
The following heights are some of the highest or most notable in the range.
|Urra Moor (Round Hill)||454 m||1,490 ft|
|Cringle Moor||432 m||1,417 ft|
|Carlton Bank||408 m||1,339 ft|
|Cold Moor||402 m||1,319 ft|
|Hasty Bank||398 m||1,306 ft|
|Tidy Brown Hill||396 m||1,299 ft|
|Bilsdale West Moor||395 m||1,296 ft|
|Warren Moor||335 m||1,099 ft|
|Gisborough Moor||328 m||1,076 ft|
|Easby Moor||324 m||1,063 ft|
|Park Nab||324 m||1,063 ft|
|Roseberry Topping||320 m||1,050 ft|
|Live Moor||315 m||1,033 ft|
|Highcliff Nab||310 m||1,017 ft|
|Codhill Heights||296 m||971 ft|
|Eston Nab||242 m||794 ft|
Towns and villages in the Cleveland Hills
There are numerous towns and villages on, or in the vicinity of, the Cleveland Hills including the following:
Interesting places to see
- Captain Cook Birthplace Museum, Marton, Middlesbrough
- Captain Cook Monument, Easby Moor
- Captain Cook Schoolroom Museum, Great Ayton
- Roseberry Topping
- Wainstones, Hasty Bank
Bilsdale West Moor, situated in the Cleveland Hills, is home to the 314 metres (1,030 ft) tall Bilsdale transmitting station, providing 40–50 miles coverage of UHF transmissions for digital TV and radio in the north-east's Tyne Tees region. The digital switchover at Bilsdale was completed in two stages, on 12 and 26 September 2012, one of the last transmitters in England to complete this operation, the others being Pontop Pike and Chatton in the same region.
- List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Cleveland
- List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in North Yorkshire
- "Captain James Cook – History". Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Natural England: 25 North York Moors and Cleveland Hills". Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "Geology – Cleveland Hills – North York Moors National Park". Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "The Prehistoric Sites of Great Britain". Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Kirkletham Museum – First People Overview" (PDF). Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Tees Archaeology". Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Middlesbrough and surrounds". Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "The Wainstones". Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "TheBigTower Bilsdale Transmitter". Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Digital UK – Tyne Tees region". Retrieved 21 August 2012.