Cleveland Torso Murderer
The Cleveland Torso Murderer
|Other names||Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run|
Span of crimes
|September 23, 1935–August 16, 1938|
The Cleveland Torso Murderer (also known as the Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run) was an unidentified serial killer who was active in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, in the 1930s. The killings were characterized by the dismemberment of twelve known victims and the disposal of their remains in the impoverished neighborhood of Kingsbury Run. Most victims came from an area east of Kingsbury Run called The Roaring Third, known for its bars, gambling dens and brothels. Another name for this area was "Hobo Jungle", as it was home to many vagrants. Despite an investigation of the murders, which at one time was led by famed lawman Eliot Ness, then Cleveland's Public Safety Director, the murderer was never apprehended.
The official number of murders attributed to the Cleveland Torso Murderer is twelve, although recent research has shown there could have been as many as twenty. The twelve known victims were killed between 1935 and 1938. Some investigators, including lead Cleveland detective Peter Merylo, believe that there may have been thirteen or more victims in the Cleveland, Youngstown, and Pittsburgh areas between the 1920s and 1950s. Two strong candidates for addition to the initial list of those killed are the unknown victim nicknamed the "Lady of the Lake," found on September 5, 1934, and Robert Robertson, found on July 22, 1950.
The victims of the Torso Murderer were usually drifters whose identities were never determined, although there were a few exceptions. Victims numbers 2, 3, and 8 were identified as Edward Andrassy, Florence Polillo, and possibly Rose Wallace, respectively. The victims appeared to be lower class individuals — easy prey in Depression-era Cleveland. Many were known as "working poor", who had nowhere else to live but the ramshackle Depression-era shanty towns or "Hoovervilles" in the area known as the Cleveland Flats.
The Torso Murderer always beheaded and often dismembered their victims, occasionally severing the victim's torso in half or severing their appendages. In many cases the cause of death was the decapitation or dismemberment itself. Most of the male victims were castrated. Some victims showed evidence of chemical treatment being applied to their bodies. Many of the victims were found after a considerable period of time following their deaths, occasionally in excess of a year. In an era when forensic science was largely in its infancy, these factors further complicated identification, especially since the heads were often undiscovered.
During the time of the "official" murders, Eliot Ness held the position of Public Safety Director of Cleveland, a position with authority over the police department and ancillary services, including the fire department. While Ness had little to do with the investigation, his posthumous reputation as leader of The Untouchables has made him an irresistible character in modern "torso murder" lore. Ness did contribute to the arrest and interrogation of one of the prime suspects, Dr. Francis E. Sweeney. In addition, he personally conducted raids into hobo shanties and eventually burned down Kingsbury Run, from which the killer took his or her victims, in an attempt to stop the murders. At one point in time, the killer taunted Ness by placing the remains of two victims in full view of his office in city hall.
Most researchers consider there to be twelve victims, although some have counted as many as 20. New evidence suggests a woman dubbed "The Lady of the Lake" could be included. Only two victims were positively identified; the other ten were six John Does and four Jane Does.
|Order of discovery||Victim||Date found||Location||Autopsy report||Estimated time between death and discovery||Date of murder||Probable order of murder|
|September 23, 1935||Jackass Hill area of Kingsbury Run (near East 49th and Praha Avenue)||Andrassy was found lying about 30 feet (9.1 m) from John Doe I. He had been decapitated and emasculated. His head was recovered.||Two to three days||September 1935||2|
|2||John Doe I||September 23, 1935||Jackass Hill area of Kingsbury Run||Male body was never identified. Emasculated and decapitated, head recovered. The skin was treated with a chemical agent that caused it to become reddish and leathery.||Initial estimates were seven to ten days. It was later revised to three to four weeks.||September 1935||1|
Florence Genevieve Polillo
|January 26/February 7, 1936||Between 2315 and 2325 East 20th Street in downtown Cleveland and 1419 Orange Avenue||Her body had been dismembered, the head was recovered.||Two to four days||January 1936||3|
John Doe II
"The Tattooed Man"
|June 5, 1936||Kingsbury Run||The victim was decapitated while alive. His head was recovered. [*]||Two days||June 1936||5|
|5||John Doe III||July 22, 1936||Big Creek area of Brooklyn, west of Cleveland||The victim was dismembered while still alive. His head was recovered. This unidentified male body was the only known West Side victim.[**]||Two months||May 1936||4|
|6||John Doe IV||September 10, 1936||Kingsbury Run||Only half the torso was found. Nothing remained below the hips. The head was never found nor the body identified.||Two days||September 1936||7|
|7||Jane Doe I||February 23, 1937||Euclid Beach on the Lake Erie shore||The unidentified female body was found at the same spot as the 1934 noncanonical victim nicknamed "The Lady of the Lake" (see below). The head was never found.||Three to four days||February 1937||8|
Jane Doe II
|June 6, 1937||Beneath the Lorain-Carnegie bridge||Only black victim. The body was decapitated and missing a rib. The head was recovered. [***]||One year||June 1936||6|
|9||John Doe V||July 6, 1937||Pulled out of Cuyahoga River in the Cleveland Flats||Body of this male was recovered but the head was never found.||Two to three days||July 1937||9|
|10||Jane Doe III||April 8, 1938||Cuyahoga River in the Cleveland Flats||On April 8 only the victim's lower leg was recovered. On May 2 a human thigh was discovered floating in the river to the east of the West 3rd Street bridge. A police search under the bridge found a burlap sack containing the victim's headless torso cut in two halves, another thigh and a left foot. The head and the rest of the body were never found. Only victim to have drugs in her system.||Three to five days||April 1938||12|
|11||Jane Doe IV||August 16, 1938||East 9th Street Lakeshore Dump||Decapitated female body. Head recovered.||Four to six months||February – April 1938||11|
|12||John Doe VI||August 16, 1938||East 9th Street Lakeshore Dump||Discovered at the same time as Jane Doe IV. Male decapitated body. Head was found in a can. Victim never identified.||Seven to nine months||November 1937 – January 1938||10|
Edward Andrassy was buried in St Mary Cemetery, Cleveland, Ohio; Florence Polillo is buried in Pennsylvania Five of the John/Jane Does ("Lady of the Lake"; and victims John Doe #1; John Doe #2; John Doe #4; Jane Doe #1) were buried in Potter's Field Section of Highland Park Cemetery, Highland Park, Cuyahoga County, Ohio.
Several noncanonical victims are commonly discussed in connection with the Torso Murderer. The first was nicknamed the "Lady of the Lake" and was found near Euclid Beach on the Lake Erie shore on September 5, 1934, at virtually the same spot as canonical victim number 7. Some researchers of the Torso Murderer's victims count the "Lady of the Lake" as victim number 1, or "Victim Zero".
The headless body of an unidentified male was found in a boxcar in New Castle, Pennsylvania, on July 1, 1936. Three headless victims were found in boxcars near McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, on May 3, 1940. All bore similar injuries to those inflicted by the Cleveland killer. Dismembered bodies were also found in the swamps near New Castle between the years 1921 and 1934 and between 1939 and 1942. In September 1940 an article in the New Castle News refers to the killer as "The Murder Swamp Killer". The almost identical similarities between the victims in New Castle to those in Cleveland, Ohio, coupled with the similarities between New Castle's Murder Swamp and Cleveland's Kingsbury Run, both of which were directly connected by a Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line, were enough to convince Cleveland Detective Peter Merylo that the New Castle murders were the work of the "Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run". Merylo was convinced the connection was the railroad that ran twice a day between the two cities; he often rode the rails undercover looking for clues to the killer's identity.
On July 22, 1950, the body of 41-year-old Robert Robertson was found at a business at 2138 Davenport Avenue in Cleveland. Police believed he had been dead six to eight weeks and appeared to have been intentionally decapitated. His death appeared to fit the profile of other victims: He was estranged from his family, had an arrest record and a drinking problem, and was on the fringes of society. Despite widespread newspaper coverage linking the murder to the crimes in the 1930s, detectives investigating Robertson's death treated it as an isolated crime.
On August 24, 1939, a Cleveland resident named Frank Dolezal, 52, was arrested as a suspect in Florence Polillo's murder; he later died in suspicious circumstances in the Cuyahoga County jail.
Most investigators consider the last canonical murder to have been in 1938. One suspected individual was Dr. Francis E. Sweeney. Born May 5, 1894, Sweeney was a veteran of World War I who was part of a medical unit that conducted amputations in the field; after the war, Sweeney became an alcoholic due to pathological anxiety and depression derived from his wartime experiences. Sweeney was later personally interviewed by Eliot Ness, who oversaw the official investigation into the killings in his capacity as Cleveland's Safety Director. Before the interrogation, Sweeney was detained and he was so found to be so intoxicated that he was held in a hotel room for 3 days until he sobered up. During this interrogation, Sweeney is said to have "failed to pass" two very early polygraph machine tests. Both tests were administered by polygraph expert Leonarde Keeler, who told Ness he had his man. Ness apparently felt there was little chance of obtaining a successful prosecution of the doctor, especially as he was the first cousin of one of Ness's political opponents, Congressman Martin L. Sweeney, who had hounded Ness publicly about his failure to catch the killer. After Sweeney committed himself, there were no more leads or connections that police could assign to him as a possible suspect. From his hospital confinement, Sweeney sent threatening postcards and harassed Ness and his family into the 1950s and the postcards only stopped arriving after his death. Sweeney died in a veterans' hospital in Dayton on July 9, 1964.
In 1997, another theory postulated that there may have been no single Butcher of Kingsbury Run because the murders could have been committed by different people. This was based on the assumption that the autopsy results were inconclusive. First, Cuyahoga County Coroner Arthur J. Pearce may have been inconsistent in his analysis as to whether the cuts on the bodies were expert or slapdash. Second, his successor, Samuel Gerber, who began to enjoy press attention from his involvement in such cases as the Sam Sheppard murder trial, garnered a reputation for sensational theories. Therefore, the only thing known for certain was that all the murder victims were dismembered.
In popular culture
Eliot Ness and the Mad Butcher: Hunting America's Deadliest Unidentified Serial Killer at the Dawn of Modern Criminology, by Max Allan Collins and A. Brad Schwartz, was published August 4, 2020.
The Cleveland torso killer has been referenced in various episodes of Criminal minds.
- Black Dahlia, a Los Angeles murder case that some investigators have suggested may have been committed by the same killer.
- Orley May, detective who worked on the case
- Thames Torso Murders, another series of murders in which the torsos of victims were left behind
^ *: The victim, found at Morgan Run, near E 55th Street, Cleveland, was estimated to be 20-23 years old, light complexion, reddish brown hair, chestnut colored eyes, stood 5 foot 10" or 11" tall, slender build, weighed 165 lb. He had six unusual tattoos on his body: a bird and band and the names "Helen and Paul" on the inner side of his left forearm, a heart and anchor in red and blue on the outer side of his right forearm, a flag and the initials "W.C.G." on the inner side of his right forearm, a butterfly on his left shoulder, the head of the comic character "Jiggs" on his left ankle, and an image of Cupid on his right ankle. His undershorts bore a laundry mark indicating the owner's initials were J.D. Despite morgue and death mask inspections by thousands of Cleveland citizens in the summer of 1936 at the Great Lakes Exposition, the victim known as the "tattooed man" was never identified
^ **: The victim was believed to be a 40-year-old man. Clothing was muddied and piled up next to the head, ten feet from the nude body, in an isolated East Side woodland section. There were bloodstains on the coat and blue polo shirt, part of the clothing found with the head. Coroner A.J. Pearse said that the preliminary investigation disclosed that there was some doubt that the man was murdered. Not a single clue was found with the body other than the clothing.
^ ***: Victim was possibly Rose Wallace. Dental work was considered a close match by police and her son (who said he was certain that the victim was his mother). Exact identification could not be achieved because the dentist who carried out the work had died years before. Doubts remained because the body was estimated to have been dead for a year, whereas Wallace had only been missing for 10 months.
- VanTassel, David D.; Grabowski, John J.; Schill, Megan (2020) . "Torso Murders". In Stavish, Mary B.; VanTassel, David D.; Grabowski, John J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Public Safety (3rd ed.). Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Richards, George E. (1 September 2011). Leysath, Maggie; Goerzen, Anthony (eds.). "The last boy scout: Eliot Ness' tenure as Cleveland, Ohio's public safety director" (PDF). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. New York City, New York, United States of America: Center for Promoting Ideas (CPI). 1 (12): 14–21. ISSN 2220-8488.
- DeRoos, Dan (31 October 2018). Smith, Robert; Finch, James; Zurik, Lee (eds.). "A Halloween discussion of Cleveland's most gruesome, unsolved crime". CBS 19 (WOIO-TV). Shaker Heights, Ohio, United States of America: Gray Television Inc. (Gray Media Group, Inc.). Archived from the original on 1 November 2018.
- DeMarco, Laura (19 September 2019). Quinn, Chris; Johnston, Laura; Toke, Colin; Wernowsky, Kris (eds.). "Cleveland's infamous Torso Murders: 80 years later, the fascination endures (vintage photos)". Cleveland.com. Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Advance Local Media. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Jones 1990, p. 86-95.
- Badal 2014, p. 164, July 22, 1950: An Echo from the Past.
- Jones 1990, p. 103.
- Jones 1990, p. 96.
- Monroe, Jasmine (31 October 2017). Mitchell, Russ (ed.). "Cleveland's unsolved torso murders subject of new book". 3 News (WKYC-TV). Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Tegna Inc. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Heimel, Paul (2000) . Eliot Ness: The Real Story (2nd ed.). Coudersport, Pennsylvania, United States of America: Knox Books. ISBN 9781581821390.
- Calder, James D. (22 January 2014). "Ness, Eliot". In Albanese, Jay S.; Arrington, Christina Barnes; Blowers, Anita N.; Brennan, Pauline K.; Brewster, Mary P.; Bumgarner, Jeffrey B.; Cencich, John Robert; Cordner, AnneMarie; Dodge, Mary; Joseph, Janice; Kurlycheck, Megan C.; McConnell, Elizabeth H.; Nasheri, Hedi; Roth, Mitchel P.; Schneider, Jacqueline L. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Hoboken, New Jersey, United States of America: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (Wiley & Sons). doi:10.1002/9781118517383.wbeccj335. ISBN 9780470670286. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Badal, James Jessen (2011). Armelli, Tom; Reynolds, Pat; McFarland, Rebecca; Patena, Shelley (eds.). "The Kingsbury Run murders, aka "the Torso murders"". Cleveland Police Museum. Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Cleveland Police Historical Society. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017.
- Meli, James (1938). Cole, Joseph E. (ed.). Fire in shantyville, Kingsbury Run (JPEG). Cleveland Memory Project (Michael Schwartz Library) (Photograph). Cleveland Press Collection. Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Cleveland State University. torso066. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Badal 2014, p. I, Introduction.
- DeMarco, Laura (31 October 2017). Swartz, Steven R.; Pruitt, Gary (eds.). "Cleveland's notorious Torso Murders revisited (photos)". The Associated Press (AP). New York City, New York, United States of America: Associated Press, Inc./The Associated Press Television News Limited. The Plain Dealer. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Badal 2014, p. 126-133, April 8, 1938: Drugs and the Maiden.
- "Find a Grave".
- "Find a grave".
- "John #6 "1790UMOH" Doe (Unknown-1936) - Find A..." www.findagrave.com.
- Badal 2014, p. 22-28, September 5, 1934: The Lady of the Lake.
- Martinelli 2011, p. 50, Chapter 3: The Torso Murderer.
- Badal 2014, p. 29-48, September 23, 1935: Double Murder.
- Guerrieri, Vince (29 September 2002). Weiss, Sharon; Rozov, Zeev; Peled, Asaf (eds.). "The Cleveland Torso Murderer: The Scariest Serial Killer You've Never Heard Of". Mental Floss. Tel Aviv, Israel: Minute Media (Pro Sportority (Israel) Ltd). Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Martinelli 2011, pp. 37–50, Chapter 3: The Torso Murderer.
- Badal 2014, p. 161-165, July 22, 1950: An Echo from the Past.
- Los Angeles Police Department (1939). Cole, Joseph E. (ed.). Detective Lloyd Hurst and Chemist Ray Pinker inspecting bones of murder victim in Los Angeles (JPEG). Cleveland Memory Project (Michael Schwartz Library) (Photograph). Cleveland Press Collection. Los Angeles, California, United States of America: Cleveland State University. torso008. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Mellon, Steve (30 October 2013). Burns, Keith C.; Block, John Robinson (eds.). "Possible 'Mad Butcher' victims in McKees Rocks". The Digs (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette photo library). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America: Block Communications. ISSN 1068-624X. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- "Frank Dolezal (1887-1939) - Find A Grave Memorial". www.findagrave.com.
- Sulzberger, Arthur Hays, ed. (8 July 1939). "PRISONER ADMITS ONE TORSO SLAYING; Leads Cleveland Officers to Where He Threw Woman's Body". National news section. The New York Times. 88 (54). New York City, New York, United States of America: The New York Times Publishing Company. The Associated Press. p. 14. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Badal 2014, p. 166-174, Portrait of a Killer.
- Trickey, Eric (19 June 2014). Schneider, Kim; Bigley II, James; Capas, Arbela; Palatella, Henry; Stewart, Dillon (eds.). "Case Closed?". Cleveland Magazine. Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Great Lakes Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Tucker 2011, p. 11-45, One: The Real Eliot Ness.
- Bovsun, Mara (30 June 2013). York, Robert (ed.). "Pile of bones: Eliot Ness hunted Cleveland serial killer, but mystery remains". New York Daily News. New York City, New York, United States of America: Daily News Enterprises/Tribune Publishing (Digital First Media). OCLC 9541172. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Bellamy II, John (31 October 1997). The Maniac in the Bushes: More True Tales of Cleveland Crime and Disaster (1st ed.). Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Gray & Company, Publishers. ISBN 978-1886228191.
- Guerrieri, Vince (26 April 2021). Ley, Tom; Wang, Jasper; Petchesky, Barry; Kalaf, Samer (eds.). "Torso Murders, An Olympic Sex Scandal, And The Cleveland World's Fair That Wasn't". Defector. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- "Torso Revisited". Mulholland Books. March 19, 2012
- Feran, Tom (20 June 2013). Quinn, Chris; Johnston, Laura; Toke, Colin; Wernowsky, Kris (eds.). "Film about the Cleveland Torso Murderer, who decapitated and mutilated 13 bodies: Whatever happened to?". Cleveland.com. Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Advance Local Media. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Jessica Ferri. "9 Episodes of Unsolved Mysteries That Still Give Us Nightmares".
- In the Wake of the Butcher: Cleveland's Torso Murders ISBN 0-873-38689-2 p. 4
- Still Unsolved: Great True Murder Cases ISBN 1-854-80030-2 p.95
- Badal, James Jessen (16 April 2014) . Young, Mary D.; Brooks, Christine; Saunders, Kat (eds.). In the Wake of the Butcher: Cleveland's Torso Murders (2nd ed.). Kent, Ohio, United States of America: Kent State University Press. ISBN 9780873386890. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via Google Books.
- Badal, James Jessen (29 June 2013). Young, Mary D.; Brooks, Christine; Saunders, Kat (eds.). Hell’s Wasteland: The Pennsylvania Torso Murders (1st ed.). Kent, Ohio, United States of America: Kent State University Press. ISBN 9781612776736. LCCN 2012043494. OCLC 849943655.
- Bellamy, John (1997). The maniac in the bushes and more tales of Cleveland woe: True crimes and disasters from the streets of Cleveland. Cleveland, Ohio: Gray and Company. ISBN 9781886228191. Paperback.
- Black, Lisa (2010). Trail of blood (1st ed.). New York City, New York, United States of America: William Morrow (HarperCollins Publishers). ISBN 9780061989339. LCCN 2010002953. OCLC 526803685. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via Internet Archive.
- Brady, Ian (2001). The gates of Janus: serial killing and its analysis. Los Angeles, California: Feral House. ISBN 9780922915736. Hardback.
- Collins, Max Allan (1988). Butcher's dozen: an Eliot Ness novel. Toronto New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 9780553261516. Paperback.
- Tucker, Kenneth (22 December 2011). Franklin, Robert; Herman, Rhonda (eds.). Eliot Ness and the Untouchables: The Historical Reality and the Film and Television Depictions (2nd ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina, United States of America: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 9780786488773. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via Google Books.
- Jones, Richard Glyn (1990). Still Unsolved: Great True Murder Cases (1st ed.). Secaucus, New Jersey, United States of America: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 9780818405365.
- Collins, Max Allan and A. Brad Schwartz. Eliot Ness and the Mad Butcher: Hunting America's Deadliest Unidentified Serial Killer at the Dawn of Modern Criminology. New York: HarperCollins, 2020. ISBN 978-1094168951
- Cooke, John (1993). Torso. London: Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 9780747241935. Paperback.
- Nickel, Steven (1989). Torso: the story of Eliot Ness and the search for a psychopathic killer. Winston-Salem, North Carolina: John F. Blair Publishers. ISBN 9780895872463. Paperback, second edition 2002.
- Rasmussen, William (2005). Corroborating evidence II: the Cleveland torso murders, the Black Dahlia murder, the zodiac killer, the phantom killer of Texarkana (1st ed.). Santa Fe, New Mexico: Sunstone Press. ISBN 9780865345362. LCCN 2006021927 – via Internet Archive. Paperback
- Ritt, William (1990). The Head Hunter of Kingsbury Run. London: Guild Publishing. ISBN 1854800302.
- Mark Wade Stone (director) (2004). The fourteenth victim – Eliot Ness and Torso Murders (Media notes). David A. Brodowski (director of photography), Marie Studniarz Rudolph (associate producer), Carl Michel (music). Cleveland, Ohio: Storytellers Media Group. ISBN 0974957534.
- Wilson, Colin (1992). Murder in the 1930s. New York: Caroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-881-84855-7. Paperback..
- Martinelli, Patricia A. (19 January 2011) . Detweiler, M. David; Schnell, Judith (eds.). True Crime, Ohio: The State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases. True Crime (3rd ed.). Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America: Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811744409 – via Google Books.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cleveland Torso Murderer.|