Cleveland Torso Murderer

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The Cleveland Torso Murderer
Death Mask Display.jpg
An exposition dedicated to the Cleveland Torso Murderer at the Cleveland Police Museum. (from left to right: Death masks of the victims Edward Andrassy, Florence Genevieve Polillo, "The Tattooed Man", and Jane Doe II)
Other namesMad Butcher of Kingsbury Run
Details
Victims12–20[1]
Span of crimes
September 5, 1934 – August 16, 1938
CountryUnited States
State(s)Cleveland, Ohio
Date apprehended
Never Apprehended

The Cleveland Torso Murderer, also known as the Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run, was an unidentified serial killer who was active in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, in the 1930s. The killings were characterized by the dismemberment of twelve known victims and the disposal of their remains in the impoverished neighborhood of Kingsbury Run.[1] Most victims came from an area east of Kingsbury Run called "The Roaring Third" or "Hobo Jungle", known for its bars, gambling dens, brothels, and vagrants. Despite an investigation of the murders, which at one time was led by famed lawman Eliot Ness, then Cleveland's Public Safety Director, the murderer was never apprehended.[2]

Murders[edit]

Cleveland police searching for human remains, September 1936

The official number of murders attributed to the Cleveland Torso Murderer is twelve, although recent research has shown there could have been as many as twenty.[3] The twelve known victims were killed between 1935 and 1938.[4] Some investigators, including lead detective Peter Merylo, believe that there may have been thirteen or more victims in the Cleveland, Youngstown, and Pittsburgh areas between the 1920s and 1950s. Two strong candidates for addition to the initial list of those killed are the unknown victim nicknamed the "Lady of the Lake," found on August 13, 1997, and Robert Robertson, found on July 22, 1950.[5]

The victims of the Torso Murderer were usually drifters whose identities were never determined, although there were a few exceptions. Victims numbers 2, 3, and 8 were identified as Edward Andrassy, Florence Polillo, and possibly Rose Wallace, respectively.[6] Edward Andrassy and Florence Polillo were both identified by their fingerprints, while Rose Wallace was tentatively identified via her dental records. The victims appeared to be lower class individuals – easy prey in Depression-era Cleveland. Many were known as "working poor", who had nowhere else to live but the ramshackle Depression-era shanty towns or "Hoovervilles" in the area known as the Cleveland Flats.[7]

The Torso Murderer always beheaded and often dismembered the victims, occasionally severing the victim's torso in half or severing their appendages.[8] In many cases the cause of death was the decapitation or dismemberment itself. Most of the male victims were castrated. Some victims showed evidence of chemical treatment being applied to their bodies, which caused the skin to become red, tough, and leathery. Many of the victims were found after a considerable period of time following their deaths, occasionally in excess of a year. In an era when forensic science was largely in its infancy, these factors further complicated identification, especially since the heads were often undiscovered.[1][8]

During the time of the "official" murders, Eliot Ness held the position of Public Safety Director of Cleveland, a position with authority over the police department and ancillary services, including the fire department.[9] While Ness had little to do with the investigation, his posthumous reputation as leader of The Untouchables has made him an irresistible character in modern "torso murder" lore.[10] Ness did contribute to the arrest and interrogation of one of the prime suspects, Dr. Francis E. Sweeney. In addition, Ness personally conducted raids into hobo shanties and eventually burned down Kingsbury Run, from which the killer took their victims. His reasoning for burning down the shanty towns was to catalog fingerprints to easily identify any new victims, and stated that it was also done to get possible victims out of the area in an attempt to stop the murders.[11] Four days after the shantytown burning, on August 22, 1938, Ness launched an equally draconian operation of questionable legality, where he personally dispatched six two-man search teams on a large area of Cleveland, stretching from the Cuyahoga River to E. 55th Street to Prospect Avenue under the guise of conducting city fire inspections. This area of the city had long been supposed as the location of the Torso Murderer's "laboratory." Among the detectives dispatched and charged to look for signs of the Torso Murderer's activity in the area were Detectives Orley May, Emil Musil, Peter Merylo, and Martin Zalewski – men who had worked the case from the beginning and must have felt the frustrations of the case most strongly. While the search never turned up any new or incriminating information that could lead to the arrest and conviction of the Torso Murderer, the systemic search did serve to focus renewed public attention on the inadequate and unsanitary living conditions in the downtown Cleveland area. The teams uncovered hundreds of families living in hazardous fire traps without toilets or running water. The interests of social reform did ultimately come to light even if those of law enforcement did not.[12]

At one point in time, the killer taunted Ness by placing the remains of two victims in full view of his office in city hall. The man who Eliot Ness believed was the killer would also provoke him by sending him postcards.[1][11][13]

Victims[edit]

Most researchers consider there to be 12 victims, although some have counted as many as 20.[8] Evidence suggests a woman dubbed "The Lady of the Lake" could be included.[14] There was a second victim who was also considered to be a victim of the Torso Killer in 1950 named Robert Robertson due to the fact that his head was also cut off.[10][8] Only three victims were positively identified; the other ten were six John Does and four Jane Does.[15][16][10]

Order of discovery Victim Date found Location Autopsy report Estimated time between death and discovery Date of murder Probable order of murder
1 Edward W. Andrassy.jpg
Edward Andrassy
September 23, 1935 Gully at the foot of Jackass Hill area of Kingsbury Run (near East 49th and Praha Avenue) Edward Andrassy's body was found on the base of Jackass Hill where East 49th Street dead-ends into Kingsbury Run. Andrassy's head was discovered buried near the rest of his body. His body was found to be emasculated and only wearing socks. The autopsy report stated that he was decapitated in the mid-cervical region with a fracture of the mid-cervical vertebrae. The coroner also noted that Andrassy had rope burn around his wrists. The cause of Andrassy's death was decapitation; hemorrhage and shock. Edward Andrassy's death was ruled a homicide.[17] Two to three days September 1935 2
2 John Doe I September 23, 1935 Jackass Hill area of Kingsbury Run (The body was found by James Wagner and Peter Kostera) Male body was never identified. Emasculated and decapitated, head recovered. The skin was treated with a chemical agent that caused it to become reddish and leathery.[18] Initial estimates were seven to ten days. It was later revised to three to four weeks. September 1935 1
3 Florence Polillo.jpg
Florence Genevieve Polillo
(aliases: Sawdey, Saudey, Ghent, Martin, Gallagher, Davis, Clara Dunn, Clara Martin)
January 26/February 7, 1936 Between 2315 and 2325 East 20th Street in downtown Cleveland and 1419 Orange Avenue Florence Polillo's body was discovered at 2315 to 2325 East 20th Street in Cleveland, Ohio. Florence was found dismembered and had been wrapped with paper and packed into half-bushel baskets, however, her head was never discovered. Florence was approximately 43 years old and weighed about 150 pounds. The autopsy report states that her cause of death was a slit throat, but it was questioned if it was a homicide because the head was never discovered.[19] Two to four days January 1936 3
4 Torso Murder Death Mask.jpg
John Doe II
"The Tattooed Man"
June 5, 1936 Kingsbury Run John Doe II also known as "The Tattooed Man" body was discovered in front of the Nickel Plate Railroad Police building, while his head was discovered near the East 55th Street Bridge. John Doe II had 6 tattoos hence the name "Tattooed man". The autopsy report stated that the body was drained of blood as well as his head was severed while the victim was alive. Two days June 1936 5
5 John Doe III July 22, 1936 Big Creek area of Brooklyn, west of Cleveland The victim was dismembered while still alive. His head was recovered. However, the advanced state of decay of the body made it impossible to get any finger prints, and the head would have been decomposed and unrecognizable by that point. Searches through missing persons reports were unsuccessful. This unidentified male body was the only known West Side victim.[20][**] Two months May 1936 4
6 John Doe IV September 10, 1936 Creek in Kingsbury Run Two halves of a male torso and lower legs were found. The coroner notes the body was severed between the third and fourth cervical vertebrae as well as between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.[21] The fire rescue squad dragged the water in the creek in Kingsbury Run in attempt to locate more parts of the body.[22] The head was never found nor the body identified. The victim's kidneys and stomach were cut and he was emasculated as well. The Coroner declared the probable cause of death was decapitation.[21][23] Two days September 1936 7
7 Jane Doe I February 23, 1937 Euclid Beach on the Lake Erie shore The unidentified female body was found at the same spot as the 1934 noncanonical victim nicknamed "The Lady of the Lake" (see below). The legs, arms, and head were never found, likely because they were less buoyant than the torso and could have gone to the bottom of the lake.[22] (Seen as arguably the first victim) The upper extremities are disarticulated at the level of the glenoid fossa, better known as the socket of the shoulder joint. The neck and head are disarticulated between the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae. Multiple hesitation knife marks at the surface of the skin are present. There was considerable water and gravel found in both pleural cavities. Though previously listed anatomical discoveries and diagnoses are made, the probable cause of death is officially undetermined via the coroner's case file.[24] Three to four days February 1937 8
8 8th Victim.jpg
Jane Doe II
Rose Wallace.jpg
Rose Wallace
June 6, 1937 Beneath the Lorain-Carnegie bridge Only black victim (Thought to be Rose Wallace, but not proven identified). The body was decapitated and missing a rib. The head was recovered. (From the head, they found distinct dental work was done with her teeth, but were still never able to positively ID her). [***] One year Summer 1936 6
9 John Doe V July 6, 1937 Pulled out of Cuyahoga River in the Cleveland Flats Body of this male was recovered from the Cuyahoga river in multiple pieces, some found floating in the river, and the upper torso found in a burlap sack for chicken feed. The head as well as the internal organs within the abdominal cavity and the heart were never found. The unidentified man had his abdomen gutted, and his heart ripped out.[25] Two to three days July 1937 9
10 Jane Doe III April 8, 1938 Cuyahoga River in the Cleveland Flats On April 8 only the victim's lower leg was recovered. On May 2 a human thigh was discovered floating in the river to the east of the West 3rd Street bridge. A police search under the bridge found a burlap sack containing the victim's headless torso cut in two halves, another thigh and a left foot. The head and the rest of the body were never found. Only victim to have drugs (morphine) in her system.[26] The amount of morphine was estimated at 0.002 gm. per 100 gm. sample.[27] Three to five days April 1938 12
11 Jane Doe IV August 16, 1938 East 9th Street Lakeshore Dump (The dead body was found 800 feet east On Shore Drive, of east 9th Street) Decapitated female body. Head recovered. Head disarticulated at the level of the third intervertebral disc. Autopsy was performed by S.R. Gerber, M.D., Coroner of Cuyahoga County. Lead Detective Peter Merylo would later, in his memoirs, dismiss Jane Doe IV as a victim of the Torso Murderer due to evidence of embalming found on the remains. No other canonical victims' remains had shown traces of embalming.[28][29] Four to six months February – April 1938 11
12 John Doe VI August 16, 1938 East 9th Street (exact location is 900 feet East of E. 9th Street and 50 feet South of Lake Road)

Lakeshore Dump

John Doe VI's body was discovered on the lakefront in plain view of Safety Director Eliot Ness's office with Jane Doe IV. It was previously mentioned that the head of John Doe VI was discovered in a can, however, there has been no evidence or reports on it. Similar to the other victims, the head was severed from the body and the victim today still remains unidentified. The head was disarticulated at the level of the third inter-vertebral disc. and had knife marks on the dorsum of the second and third cervical vertebrae. Extremities at all the major joints were all disarticulated as well. The coroner ruled the cause of death as undetermined though he noted it was probably a homicide.[30] Seven to nine months November 1937 – January 1938 10

Possible victims[edit]

Several noncanonical victims are commonly discussed in connection with the Torso Murderer. The first was nicknamed the "Lady of the Lake" and was found near Euclid Beach on the Lake Erie shore on September 5, 1934. Only parts of her were found and matched with parts found at another shore in Perry. She had an abdominal scar from a likely hysterectomy which was common and made it more difficult to identify her. After she was found, several people reported seeing body parts in the water, including a group of fisherman who believed to have seen a head. She was found virtually in the same spot as canonical victim number 7. Some researchers of the Torso Murderer's victims count the "Lady of the Lake" as victim number 1, or "Victim Zero".[31] Like the Lady of the Lake, John Doe I had some kind of substance on his skin (though his skin abnormalities could possibly be due to burning) when his body was found; however, at the time the similarities were not connected.[22] The chemical was believed to have been a substance using lime chloride. It is supposed that the killer meant to use a quickening lime to decompose the bodies quicker but mistakenly used lime that would preserve bodies instead.

The headless body of an unidentified male was found in a boxcar in New Castle, Pennsylvania, on July 1, 1936.[32] Three headless victims were found in boxcars near McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, on May 3, 1940. All bore similar injuries to those inflicted by the Cleveland killer.[33] Dismembered bodies were also found in the swamps near New Castle between the years 1921 and 1934 and between 1939 and 1942. In September 1940 an article in the New Castle News refers to the killer as "The Murder Swamp Killer". The almost identical similarities between the victims in New Castle to those in Cleveland, Ohio, coupled with the similarities between New Castle's Murder Swamp and Cleveland's Kingsbury Run, both of which were directly connected by a Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line, were enough to convince Cleveland Detective Peter Merylo that the New Castle murders were the work of the "Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run".[34] Merylo was convinced the connection was the railroad that ran twice a day between the two cities; he often rode the rails undercover looking for clues to the killer's identity.[35]

On July 22, 1950, the body of 41-year-old Robert Robertson was found at a business at 2138 Davenport Avenue in Cleveland. Police believed he had been dead six to eight weeks and appeared to have been intentionally decapitated. His death appeared to fit the profile of other victims: He was estranged from his family, had an arrest record and a drinking problem, and was on the fringes of society. Despite widespread newspaper coverage linking the murder to the crimes in the 1930s, detectives investigating Robertson's death treated it as an isolated crime.[36][2]

In 1939 the "Torso Killer" claimed to have killed a victim in Los Angeles, California. An investigation uncovered animal bones.[37][38] In addition to the murders in Cleveland it is also suspected that there are connected murders before and after in Sandusky and Youngstown, as well as New Castle, PA, and Selkirk, NY. If they are connected this would raise the body count, and raise more questions about travel ability. It would also create a longer timeline of murders and victims over the span of the years. In a time where most major travel was still by railway, and Cleveland being a major hub between some of these cities, it would be much more difficult to find viable suspects.

It has also been theorized that the Cleveland Torso murder case has some connection to the Black Dahlia murder.

Suspects[edit]

Authorities interrogated around 9,100 people during the investigation to find the Torso Murderer. The case became the biggest police investigation in Cleveland history: Many were investigated and 1,000 crimes were solved from the dedicated police investigations. There were only two main suspects of the Torso Murders: Frank Dolezal and Francis E. Sweeney.[39]

On August 24, 1939, a Cleveland resident named Frank Dolezal, 52, a white male, who at one point lived with Polillo and also had connections to Andrassy and Wallace,[40] was arrested as a suspect in Florence Polillo's murder; he later died in suspicious circumstances in the Cuyahoga County jail [41][42] while in the custody of Cuyahoga County Sheriff Martin O'Donnell (1886–1941). Dolezal was posthumously exonerated of involvement in the Torso slayings.[41]

Willie Johnson was an African American male who was once a suspect. He had been identified by a witness while he was disposing of a body. He had links to two of the victims, Rose Wilson and Flo Polillo. Willie Johnson was not officially tried for the Torso Murders; however, he was tried for a different murder and was sent to the electric chair in March 1944.

Most investigators consider the last canonical murder to have been in 1938. One suspected individual was Dr. Francis E. Sweeney, a white male. [34][43] Born May 5, 1894, Sweeney was a veteran of World War I who was part of a medical unit that conducted amputations in the field. After the war, Sweeney became an alcoholic due to pathological anxiety and depression derived from his wartime experiences.[44] (His heavy drinking began in 1929; by 1934 his alcoholism lead to a seperation from his wife.) Additionally, during his military service, Sweeney was gassed in combat, which resulted in nerve damage.[45] Sweeney was later personally interviewed by Eliot Ness, who oversaw the official investigation into the killings in his capacity as Cleveland's Safety Director.[46][9] Before the interrogation, Sweeney was detained, and he was found to be so intoxicated that he was held in a hotel room for 3 days until he sobered up.[44] During this interrogation, Sweeney is said to have "failed to pass" two very early polygraph machine tests. Both tests were administered by polygraph expert Leonarde Keeler, who told Ness he had his man. Ness apparently felt there was little chance of obtaining a successful prosecution of the doctor, especially as he was the first cousin of one of Ness's political opponents, Congressman Martin L. Sweeney, who had hounded Ness publicly about his failure to catch the killer.[43][47] After Sweeney committed himself, there were no more leads or connections that police could assign to him as a possible suspect. From his hospital confinement, Sweeney sent threatening postcards and harassed Ness and his family into the 1950s; the postcards only stopped arriving after his death.[43][48] Sweeney died in a veterans' hospital in Dayton on July 9, 1964.[43] Sweeney was a viable suspect, but the evidence was circumstantial and would have no bearing. In 1929 he was a surgical resident at St. Alexis hospital in the Kingsbury Run area. He also had an office on the street where a man named Emil Fronek said a doctor tried to drug him in 1934. Fronek's story was discounted as he could not relocate the building with police the next day. Upon finding a victim with drugs in her system and looking through buildings it was found that Sweeney did have an office next to a coroner, in the area where Fronek had suggested he had been drugged. He would practice in their morgue, a clean and easy place to kill victims and not leave a mess due to the building being used to hold the dead anyway.

In 1997, another theory postulated that there may have been no single Butcher of Kingsbury Run—that the murders could have been committed by different people. This was based on the assumption that the autopsy results were inconclusive. First, Cuyahoga County Coroner Arthur J. Pearce may have been inconsistent in his analysis as to whether the cuts on the bodies were expert or slapdash. Second, his successor, Samuel Gerber, who began to enjoy press attention from his involvement in such cases as the Sam Sheppard murder trial, garnered a reputation for sensational theories. Therefore, the only thing known for certain was that all the murder victims were dismembered. Elliot Ness was said to have taken the killer's identity to his grave.[49][50]

Peter Merylo believed that the Torso Murderer could be a transient who was riding the rails. Most of the murders occurred within the vicinity of railroad tracks. Peter Merylo went undercover as a hobo to investigate this idea. He believed that this was the reason why there were murders in other states that were similar to the Torso Murders in Cleveland.

In popular culture[edit]

The 1998–1999 comic book series Torso by Brian Michael Bendis and Marc Andreyko was based on the killings.[51]

The 2018 film The Kingsbury Run was based on a modern copycat of the murders.[52]

The murders and the hunt for the perpetrators were covered in an episode of Unsolved Mysteries.[53]

Eliot Ness and the Mad Butcher: Hunting America's Deadliest Unidentified Serial Killer at the Dawn of Modern Criminology, by Max Allan Collins and A. Brad Schwartz, was published on August 4, 2020.

The Cleveland Torso Killer has been referenced in several episodes of Criminal Minds.

The murders have been covered in an episode of BuzzFeed Unsolved.[54]

The podcast Crimes of the Centuries covered the Cleveland Torso Murders in its second season. [1]

The 2001 true crime In The Wake Of The Butcher: Cleveland's Torso Murders by James Jessen Badal was based on the killings.

The murders are fictionalized in Amy Harmon's 2022 The Unknown Beloved: A Novel.

The podcast Mysteriocities goes over the murders in Episode 16: The Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run [2]

See also[edit]

  • Black Dahlia, a Los Angeles murder case that some investigators have suggested may have been committed by the same killer.[43]
  • Orley May, detective who worked on the case
  • Thames Torso Murders, another series of murders in which the torsos of victims were left behind

General:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ *: The victim, found at Morgan Run, near E 55th Street, Cleveland, was estimated to be 20-23 years old, light complexion, reddish brown hair, chestnut colored eyes, stood 5 foot 10" or 11" tall, slender build, weighed 165 lb. He had six unusual tattoos on his body: a bird and band and the names "Helen and Paul" on the inner side of his left forearm, a heart and anchor in red and blue on the outer side of his right forearm, a flag and the initials "W.C.G." on the inner side of his right forearm, a butterfly on his left shoulder, the head of the comic character "Jiggs" on his left ankle, and an image of Cupid on his right ankle. His undershorts bore a laundry mark indicating the owner's initials were J.D. Despite morgue and death mask inspections by thousands of Cleveland citizens in the summer of 1936 at the Great Lakes Exposition, the victim known as the "tattooed man" was never identified[55][56]
^ **: The victim was believed to be a 40-year-old man. Clothing was muddied and piled up next to the head, ten feet from the nude body, in an isolated East Side woodland section. There were bloodstains on the coat and blue polo shirt, part of the clothing found with the head. Coroner A.J. Pearse said that the preliminary investigation disclosed that there was some doubt that the man was murdered. Not a single clue was found with the body other than the clothing.[citation needed]
^ ***: Victim was possibly Rose Wallace. Dental work was considered a close match by police and her son (who said he was certain that the victim was his mother).[57] Exact identification could not be achieved because the dentist who carried out the work had died years before. Doubts remained because the body was estimated to have been dead for a year [June 1936], whereas Wallace had only been reported missing for 10 months [since August 1936].[57][58]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d VanTassel, David D.; Grabowski, John J.; Schill, Megan (2020) [1987]. "Torso Murders". In Stavish, Mary B.; VanTassel, David D.; Grabowski, John J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Public Safety (3rd ed.). Cleveland, Ohio: Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  2. ^ a b DeRoos, Dan (31 October 2018). Smith, Robert; Finch, James; Zurik, Lee (eds.). "A Halloween discussion of Cleveland's most gruesome, unsolved crime". CBS 19 (WOIO-TV). Shaker Heights, Ohio, United States of America: Gray Television Inc. (Gray Media Group, Inc.). Archived from the original on 1 November 2018.
  3. ^ DeMarco, Laura (19 September 2019). Quinn, Chris; Johnston, Laura; Toke, Colin; Wernowsky, Kris (eds.). "Cleveland's infamous Torso Murders: 80 years later, the fascination endures (vintage photos)". Cleveland.com. Cleveland, Ohio: Advance Local Media. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  4. ^ Jones 1990, p. 86-95.
  5. ^ Badal 2014, p. 164, July 22, 1950: An Echo from the Past.
  6. ^ Jones 1990, p. 103.
  7. ^ Jones 1990, p. 96.
  8. ^ a b c d Monroe, Jasmine (31 October 2017). Mitchell, Russ (ed.). "Cleveland's unsolved torso murders subject of new book". 3 News (WKYC-TV). Cleveland, Ohio: Tegna Inc. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  9. ^ a b Heimel, Paul (2000) [1997]. Eliot Ness: The Real Story (2nd ed.). Coudersport, Pennsylvania: Knox Books. ISBN 9781581821390.
  10. ^ a b c Calder, James D. (22 January 2014). "Ness, Eliot". In Albanese, Jay S.; Arrington, Christina Barnes; Blowers, Anita N.; Brennan, Pauline K.; Brewster, Mary P.; Bumgarner, Jeffrey B.; Cencich, John Robert; Cordner, AnneMarie; Dodge, Mary; Joseph, Janice; Kurlycheck, Megan C.; McConnell, Elizabeth H.; Nasheri, Hedi; Roth, Mitchel P.; Schneider, Jacqueline L. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Hoboken, New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (Wiley & Sons). pp. 1–5. doi:10.1002/9781118517383.wbeccj335. ISBN 9780470670286. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  11. ^ a b Badal, James Jessen (2011). Armelli, Tom; Reynolds, Pat; McFarland, Rebecca; Patena, Shelley (eds.). "The Kingsbury Run murders, aka "the Torso murders"". Cleveland Police Museum. Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland Police Historical Society. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017.
  12. ^ Badal 2014, p. 156.
  13. ^ Meli, James (1938). Cole, Joseph E. (ed.). Fire in shantyville, Kingsbury Run (JPEG). Cleveland Memory Project (Michael Schwartz Library) (Photograph). Cleveland Press Collection. Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland State University. torso066. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  14. ^ Jane Doe 1934 Find A Grave
  15. ^ Badal 2014, p. I, Introduction.
  16. ^ DeMarco, Laura (31 October 2017). Swartz, Steven R.; Pruitt, Gary (eds.). "Cleveland's notorious Torso Murders revisited (photos)". The Plain Dealer. Associated Press. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  17. ^ Edward Andrassy Find a Grave
  18. ^ John Doe 1935
  19. ^ Florence Polillo Find a grave
  20. ^ John Doe III Find a grave
  21. ^ a b Badal 2014, pp. 79–81.
  22. ^ a b c Badal 2014.
  23. ^ John Doe IV Find a grave
  24. ^ Jane Doe 1937
  25. ^ John Doe V Find a Grave
  26. ^ Badal 2014, p. 126-133, April 8, 1938: Drugs and the Maiden.
  27. ^ Jane Doe III Find a grave
  28. ^ Badal 2014, pp. 150–151.
  29. ^ Jane Doe IV Find a grave
  30. ^ Find a grave John Doe IV Find a grave
  31. ^ Badal 2014, p. 22-28, September 5, 1934: The Lady of the Lake.
  32. ^ Martinelli 2011, p. 50, Chapter 3: The Torso Murderer.
  33. ^ Badal 2014, p. 29-48, September 23, 1935: Double Murder.
  34. ^ a b Guerrieri, Vince (29 September 2002). Weiss, Sharon; Rozov, Zeev; Peled, Asaf (eds.). "The Cleveland Torso Murderer: The Scariest Serial Killer You've Never Heard Of". Mental Floss. Tel Aviv, Israel: Minute Media (Pro Sportority (Israel) Ltd). Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  35. ^ Martinelli 2011, pp. 37–50, Chapter 3: The Torso Murderer.
  36. ^ Badal 2014, p. 161-165, July 22, 1950: An Echo from the Past.
  37. ^ Los Angeles Police Department (1939). Cole, Joseph E. (ed.). Detective Lloyd Hurst and Chemist Ray Pinker inspecting bones of murder victim in Los Angeles (JPEG). Cleveland Memory Project (Michael Schwartz Library) (Photograph). Cleveland Press Collection. Los Angeles, California, United States of America: Cleveland State University. torso008. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  38. ^ Mellon, Steve (30 October 2013). Burns, Keith C.; Block, John Robinson (eds.). "Possible 'Mad Butcher' victims in McKees Rocks". The Digs (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette photo library). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America. ISSN 1068-624X. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  39. ^ Badal 2014, p. 5.
  40. ^ "Torso Murders". Cleveland Police Museum. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  41. ^ a b "Frank Dolezal (1887-1939) - Find A Grave Memorial". Find A Grave.
  42. ^ "PRISONER ADMITS ONE TORSO SLAYING; Leads Cleveland Officers to Where He Threw Woman's Body". The New York Times. Vol. 88, no. 54. The Associated Press. 8 July 1939. p. 14. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  43. ^ a b c d e Badal 2014, p. 166-174, Portrait of a Killer.
  44. ^ a b Trickey, Eric (19 June 2014). Schneider, Kim; Bigley II, James; Capas, Arbela; Palatella, Henry; Stewart, Dillon (eds.). "Case Closed?". Cleveland Magazine. Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Great Lakes Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  45. ^ Maggie Coomer, "The Cleveland Torso Murders," Unresolved: The Cleveland Torso Murders, Podcast. Published on July 11, 2021, Accessed on May 26, 2022.
  46. ^ Tucker 2011, p. 11-45, One: The Real Eliot Ness.
  47. ^ Congressman Sweeney's daughter married the son of Cuyahoga County Sheriff Martin O'Donnell (1886–1941) (See Dolezal case)
  48. ^ Bovsun, Mara (30 June 2013). York, Robert (ed.). "Pile of bones: Eliot Ness hunted Cleveland serial killer, but mystery remains". New York Daily News. New York City, New York, United States of America: Daily News Enterprises/Tribune Publishing (Digital First Media). OCLC 9541172. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  49. ^ Bellamy II, John (31 October 1997). The Maniac in the Bushes: More True Tales of Cleveland Crime and Disaster (1st ed.). Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America: Gray & Company, Publishers. ISBN 978-1886228191.
  50. ^ Guerrieri, Vince (26 April 2021). Ley, Tom; Wang, Jasper; Petchesky, Barry; Kalaf, Samer (eds.). "Torso Murders, An Olympic Sex Scandal, And The Cleveland World's Fair That Wasn't". Defector. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  51. ^ "Torso Revisited". Mulholland Books. 19 March 2012.
  52. ^ Feran, Tom (20 June 2013). Quinn, Chris; Johnston, Laura; Toke, Colin; Wernowsky, Kris (eds.). "Film about the Cleveland Torso Murderer, who decapitated and mutilated 13 bodies: Whatever happened to?". Cleveland.com. Cleveland, Ohio: Advance Local Media. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  53. ^ Ferri, Jessica (23 March 2018). "9 Episodes of Unsolved Mysteries That Still Give Us Nightmares". The Lineup.com.
  54. ^ The Ghastly Cleveland Torso Murders, retrieved 2021-11-15
  55. ^ In the Wake of the Butcher: Cleveland's Torso Murders ISBN 0-873-38689-2 p. 4
  56. ^ tattoned Man John Doe 1936 Find a grave
  57. ^ a b Still Unsolved: Great True Murder Cases ISBN 1-854-80030-2 p.95
  58. ^ Jane Doe II Find a grave

Bibliography[edit]

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