|Cley next the Sea|
|Area||8.63 km2 (3.33 sq mi)|
|Population||437 (parish, 2011 census)|
|• Density||51/km2 (130/sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|• London||129 mi (208 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ambulance||East of England|
Cley next the Sea (//, //, is a village and civil parish on the River Glaven in English county of Norfolk, 4 mi (6 km) north-west of Holt and east of Blakeney. The main A149 coast road runs through the centre of the village, causing congestion in the summer months due to the tight, narrow streets. It lies within the Norfolk Coast AONB (Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty) and the North Norfolk Heritage Coast.
A ruined building on the marshes is known as Blakeney Chapel; despite its name, it is in Cley parish, and probably never had a religious purpose. It is a Grade II listed building and scheduled monument which was likely an old iron smeltery.
Cley was once one of the busiest ports in England, where grain, malt, fish, spices, coal, cloth, barley and oats were exported or imported. The many Flemish gables in the town are a reminder of trade with the Low Countries. But despite its name, Cley has not been "next the sea" since the 17th century, due to land reclamation. Some of the buildings that once lined the quay remain, notably the 18th-century Cley Windmill. The windmill, a five-storey towermill, was owned by the family of singer James Blunt for many decades and operated as a bed and breakfast. The mill was sold in 2006, but continues to operate as a bed and breakfast on a non-profit making basis. It was used as a backdrop of the 1949 film Conspirator with Elizabeth Taylor. Cley Mill has often been depicted by local artists and was the subject of a painting by the 20th-century English landscape artist, Rowland Hilder.
After the silting up of the port, Cley had to find another industry; in the late 19th century, it became a holiday resort. The poet Rupert Brooke was staying in Cley with classics professor Francis Macdonald Cornford and his wife, the poet Frances Cornford, early in August 1914 when news came that Britain had entered what was to become the First World War. Brooke had dreamt about the war and woke to find it a reality. He did not speak to his hosts all day until Frances Cornford said, "But Rupert, you won't have to fight?" to which Brooke replied, "We shall all have to fight".
St Margaret's, Cley is of Norman origin and is dedicated to Saint Margaret of Antioch. The great nave was completed in the 14th Century with contributions from the de Vaux family. The church is Grade I listed.
The marshes around Cley are internationally important for their populations of rare breeding and visiting birds. Cley Marshes bird reserve has been in the care of the Norfolk Wildlife Trust since 1926, making it the oldest county Wildlife Trust reserve in Britain. Among resident breeding birds are avocet, bearded tit, bittern, marsh harrier and spoonbill. Winter visitors include brent goose, Eurasian wigeon, pintail and many species of wading birds. Cley, like neighbouring Salthouse is ideally situated at the apex of the North Norfolk coast as a staging ground for passage migrants, vagrants and rarities of all kinds. A new eco-friendly visitor centre opened in 2007 containing a café, shop, viewing areas (including viewing from a camera on the reserve), exhibition area, interpretation and toilets. The view from the visitor centre across the marsh to the sea is breathtaking. Cley Marshes is the home of the Bird Information Service, publishers of Birding World. The shingle bank holds large numbers of yellow horned poppy.
The salt and fresh water marshes used to be very well protected. However the cost of replenishing the shingle spit grew too much for the village to sustain. Once the repairing stopped, it became easier for waves to get through; in 1953 a large storm, measured at 5.12 m (16.8 ft) above ordnance datum (see North Sea flood of 1953) hit the North Norfolk coast and the shingle ridge was mostly destroyed. A further storm surge in 1978 measured 4.19 m (13.7 ft) above ordnance datum and the protection measures confined flooding to the marshes and A149 coast road. The North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan introduced by the Environment Agency has proposed a number of strategies in the light of continual erosion and predicted rising sea levels caused by global warming: these include Advance the line, Hold the line, Managed retreat and Do nothing. Even after extensive public consultation there is widespread local concern that the marshes will be lost to the North Sea.
Notable residents and appearance in media
Cley's war memorials take the form of two carved stone tablets located inside St Margaret's Church. It lists the following names for the First World War:
- Second-Lieutenant Raven Cozens-Hardy (1886-1917), 4th Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment
- Sergeant Ernest W. E. Gibbs (1889-1916), 2nd Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment
- Stoker-First Class Herbert W. Ellwood (1879-1918), H.M. Tug Desire
- Stoker-Second Class James G. Elvin (1900-1918), HMS Vivid
- Deckhand George W. Grimes (1894-1916), H.M. Trawler
- Gunner Charles A. Gidney (1894-1914), Royal Horse Artillery
- Mate James W. Grimes (1885-1916), HMS Invincible
- Private Herbert Holman (d.1918), 4th Battalion, Bedfordshire Regiment
- Private William E. Barnes (1893-1916), 2nd (British Columbia Mounted Rifles) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force
- Private John E. Barnes (1894-1916), 18th (Western Ontario) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force
- Private Ralph Barnes (1886-1915), 1st Battalion, Essex Regiment
- Private Frederick J. Bishop (d.1916), 10th Battalion, Essex Regiment
- Private Cecil J. Bolton (1897-1917), 1/5th Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment
- Private Cecil A. Gathercole (1898-1917), 9th Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment
- Private Frederick W. Brett (1886-1916), 1/4th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers
- Private Albert G. Jeary (d.1916), 1st Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment
- Private Robert W. E. Gibbs (1893-1917), 11th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment
- Private George H. Drinkwater (d.1917), 13th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment
- Robert Leeder
- "Parish population 2011". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- "Cley Parish Council". www.cleyparishcouncil.org.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- University of Nottingham. (2022). Retrieved 12 December 2022. http://kepn.nottingham.ac.uk/map/place/Norfolk/Cley%20next%20to%20the%20Sea
- Domesday Book. (1086). Retrieved 12 December 2022. https://opendomesday.org/place/TG0443/cley-next-the-sea/
- "Norfolk – Entertainment – James Blunt interview". BBC. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Hollis, Matthew: Now All Roads Lead to France – The Last Years of Edward Thomas, Faber & Faber, London, 2011
- Office for National Statistics. (2011). Retrieved 12 December 2022. https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/reports/localarea?compare=E04006402
- Knott, S. (2022). Retrieved 12 December 2022. http://www.norfolkchurches.co.uk/cley/cley.htm
- "Cley Marshes". Norfolk Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Annette Peach, 'Jones, Charlotte (1768–1847)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 17 Jan 2015