|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of government|
|List of forms of government|
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, and/or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state (termed controlling state in this article) in international relations. Types of client states include: satellite state, associated state, dominion, self-governing colony, neo-colony, protectorate, vassal state, and tributary state.
Controlling states in history
Persia, Greece, and Rome
Ancient states such as Persia and Parthia, Greek city-states, and Ancient Rome sometimes created client states by making the leaders of that state subservient, having to provide tribute and soldiers. Classical Athens, for example, forced weaker states into the Delian League and in some cases imposed democratic government on them. Later, Philip II of Macedon similarly imposed the League of Corinth. One of the most prolific users of client states was Republican Rome which, instead of conquering and then absorbing into an empire, chose to make client states out of those it defeated (e.g. Demetrius of Pharos), a policy which was continued up until the 1st century BCE when it became the Roman Empire. Sometimes the client was not a former enemy but a pretender whom Rome helped, Herod the Great being a well-known example. The use of client states continued through the Middle Ages as the feudal system began to take hold.
19th and 20th centuries
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2014)
Russia and Serbia
The Austro-Hungarian Empire tried to make Serbia a client state in order to form a Christian opposition to the Ottoman Empire. That changed after a revolution in Serbia in 1900. Serbia now came under Russian protection, which was forming a pan-Orthodox opposition to the Latin Christianity represented by the Austro-Hungarian empire. In 1914, Russia repeatedly warned the Austro-Hungarian Empire against attacking Serbia. When it did attack, Russia mobilized its army. Russia also wanted Bulgaria and Montenegro as client states.
Great Britain and Austria both considered Serbia as a client state controlled by Russia. Most historians call Serbia a client state but historian Christopher Clark disagrees. He says the Russians made a mistake in thinking Serbia was a client state. In an unpublished commentary Clark argues:
It was a risk enhancing initiative [of Russian Foreign Minister Serge Sazanov]
to allow Serbia to becometo see Serbia as a kind of client; ... Serbia, to my knowledge, has never been a client of anyone. [...] This is a mistake, when Great Powers think they can secure the services of "client states"; ThatThose "clients" are never in fact "clients"! That's a mistake that is presumably going to continue being made by our political leaderships, though one hopes one day it will stop.
During the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1789–1815), France conquered most of western Europe and established several client states. At first, during the French revolutionary wars these states were erected as republics (the so-called "Républiques soeurs", or "sister republics"). They were established in Italy (Cisalpine Republic in Northern Italy, Parthenopean Republic in Southern Italy), Greece (Îles Ioniennes), Switzerland (Helvetic Republic and Rhodanic Republic), Belgium and the Netherlands (Batavian Republic).
During the First French Empire, while Napoleon and the French army conquered Europe, such states changed, and several new states were formed. The Italian republics were transformed into the Kingdom of Italy under Napoleon's direct rule in the north, and the Kingdom of Naples in the south, first under Joseph Bonaparte's rule and later under Marshal Joachim Murat. A third state was created in the Italian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Etruria. The Batavian Republic was replaced by the Kingdom of Holland, ruled by Napoleon's third brother, Louis Bonaparte.
A total of 35 German states, all of them allies of France, seceded from the Holy Roman Empire to create the Confederation of the Rhine, a client state created to provide a buffer between France and its two largest enemies to the east, Prussia and Austria. Two of those states were Napoleonic creations: the huge Kingdom of Westphalia, which was controlled by Jerome Bonaparte, the Emperor's youngest brother; and the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
In the 20th century, France started to apply the concept of Françafrique, its name for its former African colonies, sometimes extended to the former Belgian colonies. At present the term is used on some occasions to criticise the allegedly neocolonial relationship France has with its former colonies in Africa.
The countries involved provide oil and minerals important to the French economy. In addition, French companies have commercial interests in several countries of the continent.
In the British Empire the Indian Princely States were technically independent and were given their separate independence in 1947 (although the Nizam of Hyderabad indeed opted for independence but could not retain his independence from India). Egyptian Independence in 1922 ended a British protectorate in Egypt. Sudan continued to be governed as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan until Sudanese independence in 1956; Britain also had an interest in Egypt until the Suez Crisis was over. Iraq was made a kingdom in 1932. In each case the economic and military reality did not amount to full independence, but a status where the local rulers were British clients. Similarly in Africa (e.g. Northern Nigeria under Lord Lugard), and Malaya with the Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States; the policy of indirect rule.
After France was defeated in the Battle of France, Vichy France was established as a client state of Nazi Germany, which remained as such until 1942 when it was reduced to a puppet government until its liberation in 1944. Germany also established, in its newly conquered Eastern territories, client states including the Slovak Republic, the Croatian State and the Albanian Kingdom.
United States of America
The term applied has been applied to authoritarian regimes with close ties to the United States during the Cold War, also referred to as U.S. proxy states, such as South Vietnam, Indonesia (1967–1998) under the Suharto Regime, Iran until 1979, Cambodia under the regime of Lon Nol from 1970 to 1975, the Philippines under Ferdinand Marcos from 1965 to 1986, and Saudi Arabia. U.S. - Iran relations under the Shah (reigned 1941 to 1979) have been cited as a modern political-science case-study.
- Chile (1973–1990)
- China (1945–1979, on the island of Taiwan from 1949)
- Cuba (1902–1959)
- Khmer Republic (1970–1975)
- South Vietnam (1955–1975)
The term has also been applied to states which are extremely economically dependent on a more powerful nation. The three Pacific Ocean countries associated with the United States under the Compact of Free Association (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau) have been called client states.
In the late 19th century, the Japanese Empire gradually reduced Joseon Korea's status to that of a client state. In the early 20th century, this was converted to direct rule. Manchukuo, in contrast, remained a puppet state throughout World War II.
- Korean Empire
- Joseon（Post Sino-Japanese War）
- Qing dynasty（Post Sino-Japanese War）
- Ryukyu（Current Okinawa Prefecture）
- State of Burma
- Second Philippine Republic
- Kingdom of Laos
- Azad Hind
- Republic of China（East Hebei Autonomous Government, Great Way Government）
- Cambodia（from 9 March 1945 to 16 October 1945）
- Provisional Government of Free India
- Empire of Vietnam
Soviet proxy or "client" states included much of the Warsaw Pact nations whose policies were heavily influenced by Soviet military power and economic aid. Other third world nations with Marxist-Leninist governments were routinely criticized as being Soviet proxies as well, among them Cuba following the Cuban Revolution, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the People's Republic of Angola, the People's Republic of Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Within the Soviet Union itself, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR, had seats at the United Nations, but were actually proper Soviet territory.
- Warsaw Pact and Comecon states:
- People's Republic of China (until the Sino-Soviet split)
- North Korea (1949-1991)
- People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1974–1991 (Derg until 1987))
- South Yemen
- Yugoslavia (until the Tito-Stalin split)
- Nauru has been regarded as a client state of Australia by some sources, as it is heavily dependent on economic support from Australia, uses Australia's currency and processes and houses unauthorised asylum seeker arrivals to Australia under the Pacific Solution. In The Guardian, Ben Doherty wrote that "Nauru is a client state in every sense, kept functioning, just, by its wealthy neighbour. But its dependence on Australian largesse makes its government entirely beholden to its benefactor’s interests, even at the expense of its own people" and described Nauru as a "tiny, impoverished client state in the middle of the Pacific". Refugee advocate David Manne labelled a plan by Nauru to sign the 1951 Refugee Convention as a "cynical marketing tool" by a "client state of Australia".
- Papua New Guinea, also involved in the Pacific Solution, has been called to a lesser extent, a client state of Australia.
Since 1949, both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China had struggled for diplomatic legitimacy as the sole "China", which is recognized by 192 UN member states, Holy See and the State of Palestine.
- Cambodia has sometimes been considered a client state of the People's Republic of China.
- Honduras has been described as a client state of the Republic of China.
- Laos has also been considered a Chinese client state, although this is disputed.
- Myanmar has been described as "a near-client state of [the People's Republic of] China".
- Nepal has been described as a client state of the People's Republic of China by Huffpost.
- Nicaragua has been described as a client state of the Republic of China.
- North Korea has sometimes been seen as a client state of the People's Republic of China since the Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, although this is sometimes disputed.
- Pakistan has been considered a client state of the People's Republic of China.
- Zimbabwe has sometimes been referred to as a client state.
- Cameroon has been described as a client state of France.
- Djibouti has been described as a client state of France.
- Gabon has been described as a client state of France.
- Ivory Coast has been described as a client state of France.
- Bangladesh has sometimes been referred to as a client state.
- Bhutan is sometimes referred to as an Indian client state.
These countries have to varying degrees been called client states of Iran.
- Palestinian Authority (1994-present) in Palestine
- Free Lebanon State (1979-1984) and South Lebanon Army (1978-2000) in Lebanon
- Mujahideen-el-Khelq in Iran
- Fursan al-Joulan in Golan Heights, Syria
- Belarus - Financial Times has said that Russia "has long treated Belarus as a client state".
- Kyrgyzstan has been referred to as a Russian client state.
- Armenia is sometimes referred to as a Russian client state.
- Syria has been described as a client state of Russia.
- Venezuela is sometimes referred to as a Russian client state.
- Transnistria has been referred to as a client state of Russia.
- Bahrain - According to The Atlantic, "Bahrain has long positioned itself as a client state to Saudi Arabia as well as the U.S."
- Yemen (Cabinet of Yemen) - during the civil war in Yemen.
- Azerbaijan is sometimes referred to as a Turkish client state.
- Northern Cyprus is often referred to as a Turkish client state.
- Syria (Syrian National Coalition)
United States of America
There are three Pacific Island states that are under the Compact of Free Association:
Puerto Rico is officially a commonwealth of the United States, that is, it has a pact of association for the common good with the United States. It is an associated state, but unlike the other three it is not entirely independent.
- Argentina has been described as a client state of United States.
- Afghanistan was described as a client state of United States and NATO.
- Bahamas has been described as a client state of United States.
- Bahrain has been described as a client state of United States.
- Belize has been described as a client state of United States.
- Chile has been described as a client state of United States.
- Colombia has been described as a client state of United States.
- Costa Rica has been described as a client state of United States.
- Canada has been described as a client state of United States.
- Dominican Republic has been described as a client state of United States.
- Ecuador has been described as a client state of United States.
- Egypt has been described as a client state of United States.
- El Salvador has been described as a client state of United States.
- Guatemala has been described as a client state of United States.
- Haiti has been described as a client state of United States.
- Honduras has been described as a client state of United States.
- Indonesia has been described as a client state of United States.
- Iraq has been described as a client state of United States.
- Israel has been described as a client state of United States.
- Jamaica has been described as a client state of United States.
- Jordan has been described as a client state of United States.
- Kosovo has been described as a client state of United States.
- Kuwait has been described as a client state of United States.
- Morocco has been described as a client state of United States.
- Pakistan has been described as a client state of United States.
- Panama has been described as a client state of United States.
- Peru has been described as a client state of United States.
- Poland has been described as a client state of United States.
- Qatar has been described as a client state of United States.
- Saudi Arabia has been described as a client state of United States.
- South Korea has been described as a client state of United States.
- Republic of China on the island of Taiwan has been described as a client state of United States.
- Tunisia has been described as a client state of United States.
- United Arab Emirates has been described as a client state of United States.
- Yemen (Cabinet of Yemen) has been described as a client state of United States.
- The Netherlands has been described as a client state of the United States.
While the term has also been used to describe:
- Denmark（ Greenland）
- South Africa
- United Kingdom
- Michael Graham Fry, Erik Goldstein, Richard Langhorne. Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing, 2002. Pp. 9.
- Rocca, Samuel (2008). Herod's Judaea. ISBN 9783161497179.
- Collected studies: Alexander and his successors in Macedonia, by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,1994,page 257,"to Demetrius of Pharos, whom she set up as a client king
- Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov warned Austria in 1914 that Russia "Would respond militarily to any action against the client state." Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (2012) p 481.
- Thomas F. X. Noble; et al. (2010). Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries, Volume C: Since 1789. Cengage. p. 692. ISBN 978-1424069606.
- Michael J. Lyons (2016). World War II: A Short History. Routledge. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9781315509440.
- Barbara Jelavich (2004). Russia and the Formation of the Romanian National State, 1821-1878. Cambridge UP. p. 288. ISBN 9780521522519.
- Clive Ponting (2002). Thirteen Days: The Road to the First World War. Chatto & Windus. p. 60. ISBN 9780701172930.
- Henry Cowper (1990). World War One and Its Consequences. Open University Press. p. 209. ISBN 9780335093076.
- CIRSD Conference on WWI: Panel "What Kind of Failure?" - Prof. Christopher Clark, 21:36. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sV2147p9xho Published on 30 May 2014.
- "The French African Connection". Al Jazeera. April 7, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- Haski, Pierre (July 21, 2013). "The Return of Françafrique". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Imelda's Tears". The New Yorker. April 12, 1998.
- Gasiorowski, Mark J. (1991). U.S. foreign policy and the Shah: building a client state in Iran. Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801424120. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
Williams, Glen (1989). "6: Canada in the International Political Economy". In Clement, Wallace; Williams, Glen (eds.). The New Canadian Political Economy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 116, 130. ISBN 9780773506817. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
The dependency school, dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s, argued that Canada is an economic colony with a client state. [...] while it might have been possible a decade ago to use a Latin American dependency model when describing Canada, because of its excessive degree of foreign ownership and 'American client state' status, both Canadian capitalists and the Canadian state have now 'come of age.'
- "How Japan Took Control of Korea | HISTORY". www.history.com. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- Mizokami, Kyle (8 January 2016). "Why North Korea is betting big on nuclear weapons". The Week.
- "Pacific correspondent Mike Field". Radio New Zealand. 18 June 2015.
- "Chris Kenny visits Nauru as borders open up to allies". The Saturday Paper. 31 October 2015.
- Wheeler, Tony; Wheeler, Maureen (2008). The Lonely Planet Story. ISBN 9781854584496.
- Ben Doherty (28 October 2015). "This is Abyan's story, and it is Australia's story". the Guardian.
- "'Opportunistic' Nauru not fit to sign refugee convention". Crikey. July 15, 2010.
- "Nauru's former chief justice predicts legal break down". News.
- "Data" (PDF). www.regionalsecurity.org.au. 2010. Retrieved 2020-01-13.[permanent dead link]
- Ciorciari, John D. "China and Cambodia: Patron and Client?". SSRN Electronic Journal. ISSN 1556-5068.
- Jennings, Ralph. "Impoverished Laos Shows Resistance To Becoming A Client State Of China". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "China's Myanmar Problem". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
- Novick, Rebecca; ContributorWriter; Optimist, Eternal (2010-10-05). "Is Nepal China's Client State?". HuffPost. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- Standard, The. "(Commentary) North Korea is not a client state that China can control". The Standard. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
- Chansoria, Monika. "Belt and Road Initiative Debts Reduce Pakistan to China's Client State".
- Brautigam, Deborah. "China and Zimbabwe: After Mugabe".
- "Editorial | African solution: Threatened countries must fight off Boko Haram". therecord.com. October 20, 2015.
- Parmelee, Jennifer (November 23, 1993). "REBELS SHAKE DJIBOUTI'S STABILITY".
- "France's Ivorian quagmire". 8 November 2004.
- "Bangladesh Just Became a Vassal State". The Diplomat. 4 October 2016.
- "Not Only in Ladakh, India Losing Ground in Bangladesh Too". South Asia Journal. 18 June 2020.
- "India treating Bhutan as 'protectorate', says Chinese commentary". The Hindu. 5 August 2013.
- "What Were China's Objectives in the Doklam Dispute?". RAND Corporation. 8 September 2017.
- "Iraq is a Client State of Iran". International Policy Digest. 2017-11-09. Archived from the original on 2020-05-19. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- Schanzer, Tony Badran and Jonathan (2019-09-18). "Opinion | Lebanon, Hezbollah and Iran's Emerging Client State". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "The future of Iran's presence in Syria/". www.idf.il. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- Barfi, Barak (2016-01-24). "The Real Reason Why Iran Backs Syria". The National Interest. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "Saudi airstrikes in Yemen may have stopped, but the conflict rages on". Middle East Monitor. April 24, 2015.
- "Belarus and Russia ease tensions over oil supplies". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- "Cooley: Kyrgyzstan is entering a new era as a Russian client state". www.ponarseurasia.org. 2014-09-19. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "With Massive Russian Military Aid, Is Kyrgyzstan Becoming A Client State?". Eurasianet. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "New Armenia Will Stay With Russia, If Reluctantly (Op-ed)". The Moscow Times. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
- Knight, Amy (2015-10-08). "Why Russia Needs Syria". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- "Analysis: Despite Icy Relations With U.S., Could Putin End Syrian War?". NBC News. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- DeYoung, Karen (2015-09-30). "Obama administration scrambles as Russia attempts to seize initiative in Syria". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- Ben-Ami, Shlomo (2019-11-18). "Is Russia the Middle East's New Hegemon? | by Shlomo Ben-Ami". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- "Former local U.S. Congressman Sweeney defends Russian bank work | The Daily Gazette". dailygazette.com. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- Quinlan, Paul D. (2008). "A foot in both camps: Moldova and the Transnistrian conundrum from the Kozak memorandum". East European Quarterly. 42 (2).
- "Dispatching P3C patrol aircraft to areas off Somalia marks new stage of SDF missions abroad". www.japan-press.co.jp. Retrieved 2021-07-08.
- "日本は、自衛隊が駐留するジブチに「占領軍」のような不平等協定を強いている – 日刊SPA!" (in Japanese). 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2021-07-08.
- Fisher, Max (2011-09-21). "Obama's UN Address and the Bahrain Exception". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "NATO's Rogue Member Meddles in Another Conflict". Cato Institute. September 29, 2020.
- Staff, Liberation (2009-09-04). "U.S. 'liberators' turned South Korea into a neo-colony". Liberation News. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
- Fisher, Max (2011-09-27). "The Decline of American Client States". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
- Jegic, Denijal. "Trump's Kosovo-Serbia normalisation deal is all about Israel". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
- Mason, Mark (2018-01-15). "'Pakistan Is a Fractured Client State of the US Empire, Afghanistan a US Colony'". TheCitizen.in. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
- Steger, Isabella. "Australia is at a point where it has to choose between its ally America and its economic backer". Quartz. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "Australia's role as dutiful US client state". Antony Loewenstein. 2014-09-23. Retrieved 2021-06-25.
- "Malaysian labels Australia a US puppet". www.abc.net.au. 2003-10-16. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
- "Just a vassal of the US". amp.theage.com.au. Retrieved 2021-09-23.
- Sylvan, David (2003-02-25). "An Agent-Based Model of the Acquisition of U.S. Client States" (PDF). The Continuity of Client States and Military Intervention.
- "The United States and Brazil: Limits of Influence". Foreign Affairs : America and the World. 2009-01-28. ISSN 0015-7120. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "България независима държава ли е, или американска колония? – Официален блог на Костадин Костадинов" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2021-06-27.
- Kilian, Crawford (2017-06-07). "Can Canada Become a 'Hard Power'?". The Tyee. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
- "Postaju 51. američka država? Tri milijuna Amerikanaca koji služe vojsku, ali ne mogu birati predsjednika". m.vecernji.hr. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
- "Z Česka udělal kolonii USA. Vedení KSČM podpořilo Filipův útok na Petříčka". iDNES.cz (in Czech). 2020-05-18. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
- "Denmark Becomes 51st State Every Fourth of July". Los Angeles Times. 1989-07-02. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
- "Dominica: The Push for Annexation with the United States". www.thedominican.net. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
- Lieven, Anatol (2007-11-14). "A Tale of Two Client States". The National Interest. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
- "Deutschland, Kolonie der USA – Die Weichen wurden in der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit gestellt". Westend Verlag GmbH (in German). 2018-04-12. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
- "Africa's client states". New African Magazine. 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
- Κομνηνού, Ιωάννα (2019-03-18). "Η διαμόρφωση θρησκευτικών ταυτοτήτων σύμφωνα με τις αλλαγές του μοντέλου διδασκαλίας του μαθήματος των Θρησκευτικών στην Ελλάδα από το 2011 και μετά". Social Cohesion and Development. 13 (1): 33. doi:10.12681/scad.19874. ISSN 2459-4156.
- Epochi, rizospastis gr | Synchroni (1999-08-10). "rizospastis.gr - Ιδού η αποικία σας..." ΡΙΖΟΣΠΑΣΤΗΣ. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
- Osnos, Peter (1983-07-11). "Iceland Guards Its Character Behind a Shield Of U.S. Sentinels". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
- Gittings, John (2007-09-12). "Contradictions of a client state". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- C., Johnathan (April 11, 1996). "U.S. COPTERS FERRY HUNDREDS OUT OF CHAOTIC LIBERIA". The New York Times.
- Leer-Salvesen, Tarjei. "– Norge er som en koloni!". Klassekampen. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
- "How Mexico's New President Is Turning His Country Into a Servile US Client". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
- Bustos, Loren; Cabacungan, Vanessa. "TIMELINE: Efforts to make the Philippines a US state". Rappler. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
- searchnewsglobal (2013-11-01). "România este colonie americană" (in Romanian). Retrieved 2021-06-24.
- "SLOVENSKO SA DNES STALO AMERICKOU KOLÓNIOU". www.extraplus.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 2021-08-09.
- Zem, · AUTOR; Vek (2019-05-31). "Nie sme proeurópske Slovensko, ale americká kolónia - Zem&Vek". Zem&Vek - Alternatívne spravodajstvo (in Slovak). Retrieved 2021-08-09.
- "Škandál! Minister zahraničných vecí USA sa vyjadruje o Slovensku ako o kolónii USA!". HLAVNÝ DENNÍK (in Slovak). 2021-02-26. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
- Fenjan, Tamara. "– Sverige är en klientstat till USA". flamman.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021-06-27.
- Dubovyk, Volodymyr (2017-02-16). "Is Ukraine a "Client State" of the United States?". PonarsEuarasia - Policy Memos.
- "Britain is a US client state and should not forget it, says the neocons' oracle | Politics | The Guardian". amp.theguardian.com. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
- "Will Hutton: Don't sell out to Uncle Sam". the Guardian. 2003-07-19. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
- "We are now a client state | Politics | The Guardian". amp.theguardian.com. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
- "CNN columnist suggests the UK become the 51st state of the US following Brexit vote". sg.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
- "UK is becoming 51st state of the US under Tories, SNP MP claims". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
- "Make UK the 51st state". CNN. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
- "Assange mother 'shocked' by UK". BBC News. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
- Paris, Peter Conradi. "Submarine 'treason' shows Britain is vassal state of US, say fuming French". ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2021-09-23.
- "Thanks to Brexit, America Could Now Colonize Great Britain". Observer. 2019-05-23. Retrieved 2021-11-05.
- Cicarelli, Siena (2021-06-01). "The Case for EU Defense". Cite journal requires
- Garms, Jörg (2009). "Ciò che volevano fare – ciò che dovevano fare – ciò che hanno fatto. Gli storici dell'arte borsisti a Roma". Römische Historische Mitteilungen. 50: 455–474. doi:10.1553/rhm50s455. ISSN 0080-3790.