A cliff-former is a geological unit of bedrock that is more resistant to erosion than overlying or underlying strata and consequently produces outcrops with high slope angles. It is more or less equivalent to ridge-former, and may be contrasted with slope-former. In humid environments, sandstones are typically cliff-formers. In arid environments, limestones are often cliff-formers also. Recent lavas may be cliff-formers as well.
- Kempler, Steve (2007-01-19). "Geomorphology : Chapter 2 Plate T-12 : Folded Appalachians". NASA, Goddard Earth Sciences (GES), Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Retrieved 2008-03-16.
The major ridge makers are the Tuscarora (T), Pocono (Po), and Pottsville (Pt) Formations.
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