Climate change in California
Climate change and the effects of global warming with regard to the climate in California primarily revolve around issues such as drought and the subsequent risk of wildfire and related occurrences. A 2011 study projected that the frequency and magnitude of both maximum and minimum temperatures would increase significantly as a result of global warming. The same study further projected that the frequency and magnitude of both maximum and minimum temperatures would likely increase as a result of global warming.
In 2017, a study projected that the single largest threat to Los Angeles County hospitals related to climate change is the direct impacts resulting from the expected increase in wildfires. In Los Angeles County, 34% of hospitals are located within one mile of fire hazard severity zones. Additionally one of these hospitals was also deemed in danger of sea-coastal flooding due to the effects of climate change as concluded by the study. This latter issue was also included and focused on as the study likewise concluded that this would become a greater obstacle as sea levels rise due to increase annual temperatures.
As a consequence of further global warming, it is projected that there will be an increase in risk due to climate-driven wildfires in the coming decades. Because of warming, frequent droughts, and the legacy of past land management and expansion of residential areas, both people and the ecology with which we coexist are more vulnerable to wildfires. Wildfire activity is closely tied to temperature and drought over time. Globally, the length of the fire season increased by nearly 19% from 1979 to 2013, with significantly longer seasons in the western states. Since 1985, more than 50% of the wildfire area burned in the western United States can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change. In addition, due to human fire suppression methods, there is a build of fuels in some ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to wildfires. There is greater risk of fires occurring in denser, dryer forests. Lastly, with increases in human population, we have expanded out communities into areas that are at higher risk to wildfire threat, making these same populations more vulnerable to structural damage and death due to wildfires. Since 1990, the average annual number of homes lost to wildfires has increased by 300%. Almost 900,000 of western US residences are currently in high risk wildfire areas with nearly 35% of wildfires in California starting within this high risk areas. Thus, policies must be generated that allow for adaptation to increased wildfire risk and reduce further vulnerability in these high risk areas.
According to the NOAA Drought Task Force report of 2014, the drought is not part of a long-term change in precipitation and was a symptom of the natural variability, although the record-high temperature that accompanied the recent drought may have been amplified due to human-induced global warming. This was confirmed by a 2015 scientific study which estimated that global warming "accounted for 8–27% of the observed drought anomaly in 2012–2014... Although natural variability dominates, anthropogenic warming has substantially increased the overall likelihood of extreme California droughts."
In February 2014, the Californian drought effects caused the California Department of Water Resources to develop plans for a temporary reduction of water allocations to farmland by up to 50% at the time. During that period California's 38 million residents experienced 13 consecutive months of drought. This is particularly an issue for the state's 44.7 billion dollar agricultural industry, which produces nearly half of all American-grown fruits, nuts, and vegetables. According to NASA, tests published in January 2014 have shown that the twelve months prior to January 2014 were the driest on record, since record-keeping began in 1885. Lack of water due to low snowpack prompted Californian governor Jerry Brown to order a series of stringent mandatory water restrictions on April 1, 2015.
Expected increases in extreme weather could lead to increased risk of illnesses and death.
From May to September 1999 – 2003, a study was conducted in nine Californian counties that found that for every 10 °F (5.6 °C) increase in temperature, there is a 2.6 percent increase in cardiovascular deaths.
2006 heat wave
A study of the 2006 Californian heat wave showed an increase of 16,166 emergency room visits, and 1,182 hospitalizations. There was also a dramatic increase in heat related illnesses; a six-fold increase in heat-related emergency room visits, and 10-fold increase in hospitalizations.
A study of seven counties impacted by the 2006 heat wave found a 9 percent increase in daily mortality per 10 degrees Fahrenheit change in apparent temperature for all counties combined. This estimate is 3 times greater than the effect estimated for the rest of the warm season. The estimates indicate that actual mortality during the 2006 heat wave was two or three times greater than the initial coroner estimate of 147 deaths.
Research suggests that the majority of air pollution related health effects are caused by ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM). It should be noted that many other pollutants that are associated with climate change, such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide, also have health consequences.
Five of the ten most ozone-polluted metropolitan areas in the United States (Los Angeles, Bakersfield, Visalia, Fresno, and Sacramento) are in California. Californians suffer from a variety of health consequences due to air pollution – including 18,000 premature deaths attributed to various causes such as respiratory diseases as well as a number of other illnesses.
Climate change may lead to exacerbated air pollution problems. Higher temperatures catalyze chemical interactions between nitrogen oxide, volatile organic gases and sunlight that lead to increases in ambient ozone concentrations in urban areas. A study found that for each 1 degree Celsius (1 °C) rise in temperature in the United States, there are an estimated 20–30 excess cancer cases, as well as approximately 1000 (CI: 350–1800) excess air-pollution-associated deaths. About 40 percent of the additional deaths may be due to ozone and the rest to particulate matter annually. Three hundred of these annual deaths are thought to occur in California.
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) estimates that under a business-as-usual scenario, between the years 2025 and 2100, the cost of providing water to the western states in the United States will increase from $200 billion to $950 billion per year, an estimated 0.93–1 percent of the United States' gross domestic product (GDP). Four climate change impacts—hurricane damage, energy costs, real estate losses, and water costs—alone are projected to cost 1.8 percent of the GDP of the United States, or, just under $1.9 trillion in 2008 U.S. dollars by the year 2100.
A study conducted in 2009 showed that increases in frequency and intensity of extreme weather due to climate change will lead to a decreased productivity of agriculture, revenue losses, and the potential for lay offs. Changing weather and precipitation patterns could require expensive adaptation measures, such as relocating crop cultivation, changing the composition or type of crops, and increasing inputs such as pesticides to adapt to changes in ecological composition, that lead to economic degradation and job loss. Climate change has adverse effects on agricultural productivity in California that cause laborers to be increasingly affected by job loss. For example, the two highest-value agricultural products in California’s $30 billion agriculture sector are dairy products (milk and cream, valued at $3.8 billion annually) and grapes ($3.2 billion annually). It is also expected to adversely affect the ripening of wine grapes, substantially reducing their market value.
Climates changes mitigation policies
California has taken a number of legislative steps and extensive measures and initiatives targeted at the broader issue of climate effects seeking to prevent and minimize the risks of possible effects of climate change  by a wide variety of incentives, measures and comprehensive plans for clean cars, renewable energy, and pollution controls on industry with overall high enviromental standards. California is internationally known for its leading role in the realm of ecoconscious legislature not just on a national i.e. American level but also globally.
- 2012–15 North American drought
- 2014 California wildfires
- 2013 California wildfires
- California Air Resources Board
- California Environmental Protection Agency
- Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006
- Pollution in California
- Climate change policy of California
- Effects of global warming
- "Drought maps show just how thirsty California has become". L.A. Times. May 5, 2016.
- "U.S. Drought Monitor". droughtmonitor.unl.edu. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
- Gallagher, Nora (2018-03-03). "Southern Californians know: climate change is real, it is deadly and it is here". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
- Mastrandrea, M. D.; Tebaldi, C.; Snyder, C. W.; Schneider, S. H. (2011). "Current and future impacts of extreme events in California". Climatic Change. 109: 43. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0311-6.
- Adelaine, Sabrina A.; Sato, Mizuki; Jin, Yufang; Godwin, Hilary (October 2017). "An Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) Hospitals, Wildfires Highest Priority". Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 32 (5): 556–562. doi:10.1017/S1049023X17006586. ISSN 1945-1938. PMID 28606202.
- Schoennagel, Tania; Balch, Jennifer K.; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Dennison, Philip E.; Harvey, Brian J.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Morgan, Penelope; Moritz, Max A. (2017-05-02). "Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (18): 4582–4590. doi:10.1073/pnas.1617464114.
- [dead link]
- Williams,, A. Park; et al. (2015). "Contribution of anthropogenic warming to California drought during 2012–2014". Geophysical Research Letters. 42 (16): 6819. Bibcode:2015GeoRL..42.6819W. doi:10.1002/2015GL064924.
- "California drought: no relief in sight, Drinking water and farming are at risk from state's ongoing drought, but forecasts offer little hope". The Guardian. UK. February 3, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- Drought Stressing California’s Plantscape, Earth Observatory, NASA, February 2014
- "California governor orders mandatory water restrictions amid drought". FOX News, Associated Press. April 1, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change". Ipcc.ch. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
- Basu, R., and B. D. Ostro. 2008. “A Multicounty Analysis Identifying the Populations Vulnerable to Mortality Associated with High Ambient Temperature in California.” Am J Epidemiol 168(6): 632–37
- Knowlton, K., M. Rotkin-Ellman, G. King, H. G. Margolis, D. Smith, G. Solomon, R. Trent, and P. English. 2009. "The 2006 California Heat Wave: Impacts on Hospitalizations and Emergency Department Visits". Environ Health Perspect 117(1): 61–67
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- Public health-related impacts of climate change in California. California Energy Commission "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Climate Change in California: Health, Economic and Equity Impacts" (PDF). Oakland, California: Redefining Progress. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- ALA (American Lung Association). 2008. State of the Air: 2008. American Lung Association: New York.
- "Methodology for Estimating Premature Deaths Associated with Long-term Exposure to Fine Airborne Particulate Matter in California" (PDF). CARB (California Air Resources Board). Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- "On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality" (PDF). Web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- "Boosting the Benefits: Improving air quality and health by reducing global warming pollution in California" (PDF). Nrdc.org. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- "The Cost of Climate Change: What We'll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked" (PDF). New York, New York: NRDC. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- ""Effect of Climate Change on Field Crop Production in the Central Valley of California"" (PDF). Energy.ca.gov. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- California agriculture statistical review. Sacramento, California. California Agriculture Statistics Service
- Verville, Julia H.; Sheridan, Scott C.; Neilson, Ronald P.; Lunch, Claire K.; Lenihan, James; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Hanemann, R. Michael; Drapek, Ray; Dale, Larry; Cleland, Elsa E.; Cahill, Kimberly Nicholas; Schneider, Stephen H.; Moser, Susanne C.; Miller, Norman L.; Maurer, Edwin P.; Frumhoff, Peter C.; Field, Christopher B.; Cayan, Daniel; Hayhoe, Katharine (August 24, 2004). "Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (34): 12422–12427. doi:10.1073/pnas.0404500101. PMID 15314227. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- "California leads subnational efforts to curb climate change". The Economist. September 15, 2018.
- Biello, David. "California Dreaming? The Golden State Takes the Lead in U.S. Efforts to Combat Climate Change". Scientific American.
- Counts, Laura (May 1, 2018). "In new book, Prof. Vogel explores why California has a green streak". Haas News - Berkeley Haas.
- [dead link]
- Barringer, Felicity (October 13, 2012). "In California, a Grand Experiment to Rein in Climate Change". The New York Times.
- "California leads on sustainability innovation while Trump digs coal". Phys.org.
- "California leads the way on climate action". C2es.org. November 12, 2012.
- B. Lynn Ingram; Frances Malamud-Roam (July 2, 2013). The West without Water: What Past Floods, Droughts, and Other Climatic Clues Tell Us about Tomorrow. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520954809.
- Stine, Scott (June 1990). "Late holocene fluctuations of Mono Lake, eastern California". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Elsevier. 78 (3–4): 333–81. Bibcode:1990PPP....78..333S. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(90)90221-R.
- Scoping Plan
- California Center for Sustainable Energy
- California Releases Plans to Cut its Greenhouse Emissions (EERE).
- California Department of Water Resources
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|