Climate of Argentina

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The Andean range over the province of Santa Cruz.
Arid and hot weather predominates in the northern region.
Iguazú Falls from the Argentine side

Argentina in the south of the country, including latitudes in and below the Tropic of Capricorn, is characterized by very hot, humid summers (which result in a lot of swamp lands) with humid drier winters, and is subject to periodic thunderstorms during the winter season. Northern Argentina has hot summers with thunderstorms (in western Argentina producing some of the world's largest hail), and warm winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions.

The hottest and coldest temperature extremes recorded in South America have occurred in Argentina.[1] The highest recorded temperature that is recognized by the World Meteorological Organization is 48.9 °C (120.0 °F), which was recorded at Rivadavia, Salta, Salta Province on December 11, 1905.[1] The lowest temperature recorded was −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) at Sarmiento, Chubut on June 1, 1907.[1]

The Sudestada (literally “southeastern”) could be considered similar to the Noreaster, though snowfall is rarely involved (but is not unprecedented). Both are associated with a deep winter low pressure system. The sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas, and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the coasts of central Argentina and in the Río de la Plata estuary.

The southern regions, particularly the far south, experience extremely long periods of daylight from November to February (up to fifteen hours), and extended nights from May to June. All of Argentina uses UTC-3 time zone. The country only observes daylight saving time occasionally, summer time was last observed between 0:00 December 30, 2007 and 0:00 March 16, 2008.

Extremities Argentina's easternmost continental point is northeast of the town of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones (26°15′S 53°38′W / 26.250°S 53.633°W / -26.250; -53.633), the westernmost in the Mariano Moreno Range in Santa Cruz (49°33′S 73°35′W / 49.550°S 73.583°W / -49.550; -73.583). The northernmost point is located at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers, Jujuy (21°46′S 66°13′W / 21.767°S 66.217°W / -21.767; -66.217), and the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego (55°03′S 66°31′W / 55.050°S 66.517°W / -55.050; -66.517).[2]

Seasons[edit]

Argentina's average annual rainfall, in inches.

Winter[edit]

Winter in La Carlota, Córdoba, Argentina 9 July 2007

In winter (June to August) major winds include the cool Pampero blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas after a cold front; a warm wind that can blow from the north in mid and late winter creating mild conditions;it it is 80-120 degrees in the summer and the Zonda, a hot and dry wind (see also foehn wind), affecting west-central Argentina.

Argentina also gets some snow in many southern and central places of the country.

Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

Spring[edit]

In Southern region, spring (September–November) is very short, but progressively lasting more northwards (around 3 months at Buenos Aires' latitude). During mid-October a large variety of wild and urban flora fully blossom. Thunderstorms and hailstorms are frequent. Temperatures are mild and nights are cool.

Summer[edit]

In summer (December-February) temperatures are more diverse, with an average of 9 °C (48.2 °F) in the south and 27 °C (80.6 °F) in the north. Temperatures can reach up to 45 °C (113 °F) in southern parts, but only for short periods. Cold fronts are frequent, lowering temperatures as much as 15 °C (27 °F).

Autumn[edit]

Autumn (March-May) is generally mild, windy and progressively lasting more southwards (around 3 months at Buenos Aires' latitude). Some forests and vineyards can bring along the autumn foliage, with its red and orange leaves, especially in mid-April. During this season, the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier but later on it becomes a distraction.

Regional weather[edit]

Because Argentina spans over a wide range of latitudes, it posses a wide variety of climatic regions ranging from tropical in the north to subpolar in the far south.[3][4] Mean annual temperatures range from 5 °C (41.0 °F) in the far south to 25 °C (77.0 °F) in the north.[4] The nation's climate is also influenced by the Andes mountain chain along its western border and maritime influences from the sea owing to the narrowness of the South American continent.[5] The climatic patterns roughly follow the geographic regional divisions.

Mesopotamia[edit]

The Mesopotamia has a sub-tropical weather with no dry season.[6] Under the Köppen climate classification, this region is classified as a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).[7] The main features of the climate are high temperatures and abundant rainfall year round, with a more uniform distribution of rainfall year round.[6][8] Rainfall is abundant year round since much of this region lies north of the sub–tropical high pressure belt, even in winter, meaning that it is exposed to moist easterly winds from the Atlantic ocean throughout the year, providing the region with high rainfall throughout the year.[5] Nonetheless, precipitation is slightly higher in the summer than in the winter with the exception of Misiones Province which receives abundant precipitation year round and generally decreases from east to west and from north to south.[8][9][10]:32 With very high precipitation throughout the year, water deficiencies and extended periods of droughts are uncommon.[7] The annual precipitation in this region is not distributed equally and ranges from a less than 1,000 mm (39 in) in the southern parts to approximately 1,800 mm (71 in) in the eastern parts of Misiones province.[7][10]:30 The summer months (December–February) are one of the most humid seasons in the region with an average precipitation of 350 mm (14 in) in these months although it can range from a low of 300 mm (12 in) to a high of 450 mm (18 in).[10]:37 Most of the rainfall during the summer months falls in the form produced by convective thunderstorms.[10]:38 Fall (March–May) is one of the rainiest seasons in the region with many places receiving over 350 mm (14 in).[10]:38 This can vary from a high of 480 mm (19 in) in Misiones province to less than 180 mm (7.1 in).[10]:39 Similar to the summer season, precipitation falls mainly in the form of convective thunderstorms.[10]:39 Winter (June–August) is the driest season in the region with a mean precipitation of only 110 mm (4.3 in) during this season.[10]:39 Mean winter precipitation ranges from less than 40 mm (1.6 in) in the west to over 340 mm (13 in) in the eastern parts.[10]:39 Unlike summer and spring where precipitation mainly falls from convective thunderstorms, during the winter months, most of the precipitation comes from frontal systems,[10]:40 particularly the Sudestada which often bring long periods of precipitation, cloudiness cooler temperatures and strong winds.[9][11][12][13] Spring (September–November) is similar to fall with a mean spring precipitation of 340 mm (13 in).[10]:40

Summers in the region are very hot and humid owing to abundant rainfall while winters feature mild to warm weather.[5][9][7] As a whole, the region has high temperatures throughout the year.[6] Northern parts of the region are more warmer than the southern parts.[9] In Misiones province, which is the northern most part of the region, mean annual temperatures range between 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) in Bernardo de Irigoyen to 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) in Posadas.[14] The lower mean annual temperature recorded in Bernardo de Irigoyen, despite being located further north than in Posadas to the south is due to its higher altitude location, which results in a cooler climate, a trend seen throughout this province.[14] In Corrientes Province, mean annual temperatures range from 19.7 °C (67.5 °F) in Curuzú Cuatía in the southern parts to 22.2 °C (72.0 °F).[11] The southern parts of Corrientes province have cooler temperatures and have a climate more similar to Entre Ríos Province where mean annual temperatures in that province range from 17 °C (62.6 °F) in the south to 20 °C (68.0 °F) in the north.[12] During heat waves, temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104.0 °F) in the summer months while in the winter months, cold air masses from the south can push temperatures below freezing causing frost.[14][11][12] However, such cold fronts tend to be of short duration and are less intense than areas further south or at higher altitudes.[14][11][12] Snowfall is extremely rare in this region and is mainly confined to the uplands of Misiones province where the last significant snowfall occurred in 1975 in Bernado de Irigoyen.[14][15]

Chaco[edit]

The sparsely populated Chaco, in the center-north, has a subtropical climate with hot, humid summers and mild, dry winters.[9][16] Most of the precipitation is concentrated in the summer, in which summer rainfall decreases from east to west.[9][7] During the winter months, precipitation is sparse.[9][7] As such, mean annual precipitation ranges from 1,200 mm (47 in) in the eastern parts of Formosa Province to a low of 450 to 500 mm (18 to 20 in) in the driest areas to the west and southwest.[7][10]:30 The western part has a pronounced dry winter season, while the eastern parts have a very slight drier season. Summers are marked by extreme high temperatures, in some areas averaging over 35 °C. Winters are mild and brief, with highs around 20 °C and lows around 10 °C. Most areas in the region experience frost every winter; only the northeastern parts of the province of Formosa (near the Paraguay and Pilcomayo rivers) do not experience frosts on many winters (but they still occasionally can). Further South, in Santiago del Estero, summer temperatures are as high as further north, but winter nights are colder: temperatures have often fallen below -5 °C in the extremely dry winter nights.

Northwest[edit]

The Northwest region stands out for its warm weather. Cities like Salta and Jujuy, at about 1,200 m of altitude, have pleasant, monsoon-like weather, with warm, rainy summers with pleasant nights (26 °C to 29 °C during the day, 14 °C to 18 °C at night), and extremely dry winters with mild days (19 °C to 21 °C) and cool nights (2 °C to 5 °C).

Rainfall in the summer can reach 200 mm per month, but in the winter, it is less than 10 mm per month. The first ranges of the Andes receive copious precipitation, up to 2,500 mm (98 in) in some places, creating a thick jungle, with the whole region engulfed in a dense fog for a majority of the year.

Salta
Tastil ruins
Talampaya entry

Further west, in the Puna region next to Bolivia, altitudes range from 3,000 to 4,000 m and temperatures are much colder: nighttime lows average -8 °C in July and 7 °C in January, daytime highs range from 21 °C in November to 15 °C in June, and precipitation is low (300 mm), falling exclusively in the summer. At low altitudes further east and south, bordering the Chaco, the weather is extreme: a short, mild winter from May to August, with temperatures from 20 °C to 24 °C and lows between 8 °C and 12 °C (and occasional frost).

This gives way to an extremely hot and dry spring and early summer, with high temperatures escalating to 30 °C to 40 °C and heat waves reaching 45 °C, provoking tremendous droughts. Starting in December, rainfall arrives in the form of severe thunderstorms, but temperatures still remain hot, climbing to 35 °C to 37 °C on average, with nights in the 20 °C to 25 °C degree range. Autumn is pleasant and warm, with 25 °C to 28 °C, and cooler nights.

Cuyo[edit]

The region of Cuyo has an arid climate or a semi-arid climate with an average annual precipitation of about 100 to 500 millimetres (4 to 20 in) that is generally unreliable from year to year.[17][18] The region, which encompasses a wide range of latitudes combined with its rugged topography means that it has a diverse range of different climates since the region has altitudes ranging from 500 m to nearly 7,000 m.[18][19] In general, most of the region has a temperate climate with higher altitude valleys having a more milder climate.[20] At the highest altitudes (over 4,000 m), icy conditions persist year round.[18] The diurnal range is very large with very hot temperatures during the day followed by cold nights.[21] Amongst all locations in Argentina, the region has the largest diurnal range in the country with areas in San Juan Province having a diurnal range exceeding 19.1 °C.[22] The Andes prevent rain–bearing clouds from the Pacific Ocean from coming in, while its latitude puts it in a band of the sub-tropical high pressure belt keeping this region dry.[17][5][23] As such, the area has very low humidity and has high sunshine throughout the year and owing to the temperate nature of the region, makes the region suitable for wine production.[19] Droughts are often frequent and prolonged.[5] The Cuyo region is influenced by the subtropical, semi–permanent South Atlantic anticyclone to the east in the Atlantic, the semi-permanent South Pacific anticyclone to the west of the Andes, the development of a low pressure system ("Chaco low") over northern Argentina and westerlies in the southern parts of the region.[17][24] Most of the precipitation falls during the summer, when hot temperatures and high insolation lead to the development of a low pressure system ("Chaco low") situated over northern Argentina that interacts with the South Atlantic anticyclone to generate a pressure gradient that brings moist easterly winds to the region, favouring precipitation, which mostly occurs in the form of convective thunderstorms.[5][25][17][24] As such, from October to March, which represents the warm season, more than 85% of the annual rainfall occurs during this time.[17] In contrast, the winter months tend to be drier due to these systems weakening, and the lower insolation that weakens the Chaco low over northern Argentina.[24] Eastern and southeastern areas of the region receive more precipitation than the western areas since they receive more summer rainfall.[24] As such, most of Mendoza province and San Juan province receive the lowest annual precipitation with mean summer precipitation averaging less than 100 mm (3.9 in) and in rare cases, no summer rainfall.[24] Further eastwards in San Luis province, mean summer rainfall averages around 500 mm (20 in) and can exceed 700 mm (28 in) in some areas.[24][26] Higher altitude locations receive precipitation in the form of snow during the winter months.[27][28][29] In the Cuyo region, annual precipitation is highly variable from year to year and appears to follow a cycle between dry and wet years in periods of about 2, 4–5, 6–8, and 16–22 years.[17] In wet years, easterly winds caused by the subtropical South Atlantic anticyclone are stronger, which causes more moisture towards this region while during the dry years, these winds are weaker.[17][24]

Summers in the region are characterized as hot and generally very sunny, averaging as much as 10 hours per day.[30][21] In contrast, winters are dry and cold and average around 7–8 hours of sunshine per day.[21][30] Since this region has a wide range of altitudes, ranging from 500 m to nearly 7,000 m, the temperature can vary widely depending on altitude. In the lowlands of Mendoza province, which lie at an altitude of around 440 m to 530 m, the mean annual temperatures range from 18.2 to 18.7 °C (64.8 to 65.7 °F) in the northern parts to 15 °C (59 °F) in the south.[31] At higher altitude locations and in the western parts of Mendoza province, the mean annual temperatures range from −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) in Cristo Redentor to 13.6 °C (56.5 °F) with a larger difference in temperatures between winter and summer months.[27] In San Juan Province, the mean annual temperature ranges from 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) in the provinical capital to −0.2 °C (31.6 °F).[32] In San Luis province, mean annual temperatures range from 15.8 °C (60.4 °F) in Villa Reynolds to 16.6 °C (61.9 °F) in the provincial capital.[33][26] The Sierras Pampeanas, which cross into both San Juan province and San Luis province have a milder climate with mean annual temperatures ranging from 12 to 18 °C (53.6 to 64.4 °F).[29] In all locations, at altitudes over 3,800 m, permafrost is present while icy conditions persist year round at altitudes over 4,000 m.[18]

Temperatures are, on average, similar to those in the Pampas, but they tend to be more extreme. The Zonda, a Foehn wind characterized by warm, dry air can cause temperatures to exceed 30 °C (86.0 °F) in some cases while in summer, temperatures can exceed 45 °C (113.0 °F) such as in 2003.[34][35] This wind often precedes following a cold front passage across Argentina and tends to occur when a low pressure system brings heavy rain to the Chilean side, and when an upper level trough allows the winds to pass over the Andes to descend downwards.[34][36][37] As such, when a zonda wind event occurs, the temperature may raise as much as 20 °C (68.0 °F) in a few hours with humidity approaching 0%.[36] In contrast, cold waves are also common, owing to the Andes channeling cold air from the south, allowing cold fronts to frequently come during the winter months, causing cool to cold temperatures with temperatures that can fall below freezing.[37][38] Temperatures can dip below −10 to −30 °C (14.0 to −22.0 °F) at the higher altitudes.[28][28]

Pampas[edit]

Sembrado de cebada en argentina.jpg

The Pampas region, possesses lands in the country that are appropriate for agricultural and livestock activities. It is mostly a flat area, being only interrupted by the Tandil and Ventana sierras in its southern portion.[39] It has long and crowded beaches facing the Atlantic Ocean towards the east. The climate of the Pampas is characterized as being temperate and humid with no dry season, hot summers and mild winters (Cfa/Cfb according to the Köppen climate classification).[39][40][41] Annual temperatures range from 17 °C (62.6 °F) in the northern parts of the Pampas to 14 °C (57.2 °F) in the south.[40] Precipitation follows a west to east gradient of increasing precipitation.[42] Precipitation ranges from 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the northeast, to a general 700 to 800 millimetres (28 to 31 in) in most regions, to under 500 millimetres (20 in) in the south and west.[43] Precipitation is well distributed throughout the year in the easternmost parts while in the western parts, most of the precipitation is concentrated during the summer months with drier winters.[39][4] The Pampas are moderately sunny, ranging from an average of 4–5 hours of sunshine per day during the winter months to 8–9 hours in summer.[30] The Pampas are influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation which is responsible for variation in annual precipitation.[39][43] An El Niño year often leads to higher precipitation while a La Niña year leads to lower precipitation.[43]

Summers are long and hot, with average high temperatures between 29 to 32 °C (84.2 to 89.6 °F) (except along the Atlantic coast, where they range from 25 to 28 °C (77.0 to 82.4 °F)) and nighttime lows between 18 °C (64.4 °F) at the northern edge and 14 °C (57.2 °F) in the south.[43] Afternoon thunderstorms, which often bring in intense amounts of precipitation are common, as well as heat waves that can bring temperatures in the 36 to 40 °C (96.8 to 104.0 °F) range for a few days.[43] These thunderstorms are known to have the most frequent lightning and highest convective cloud tops in the world.[44][45] The severe thunderstorms produce intense hailstorms, and both floods and flash floods, as well as the most consistently active tornado region outside the central and southeastern US.[46] These are usually followed a day or two of strong Pampero winds from the south, which bring cool, dry air with high temperatures in the low 20s and nights often below 12 °C to 15 °C.[43] Precipitation in the summer is high, when hot temperatures and high insolation lead to the development of a low pressure system situated over northern Argentina that interacts with the South Atlantic anticyclone to generate a pressure gradient that brings moist easterly winds to the region, favouring precipitation, which mostly occurs in the form of convective thunderstorms.[5][25] Most places average between 90 mm and 160 mm of monthly precipitation during the season.

Autumn arrives in March and brings periods of very rainy weather followed by dry, mild stretches and cool nights.[43] Across the region, daytime temperatures range from 24 to 28 °C (75.2 to 82.4 °F) in March (nights range from 14 to 18 °C (57.2 to 64.4 °F)),[43] from 20 °C to 24 °C in April (nights 9 °C to 12 °C), and from 17 °C to 21 °C in May (nights from 5 °C to 9 °C). Places in the east receive rainfall throughout autumn, whereas in the west it quickly becomes very dry.[43]

Generally, frost arrives in early April in the southernmost areas, and in late May in the north and end by mid-September although the dates of the first and last frosts can vary from year to year.[39][40][43] However, frost is usually not intense nor prolonged and may not occur each year.[30][15] June, July and August are the core of the winter in the Pampas, and there are often drastic changes in temperature. During the winter months, most of the precipitation occurs from frontal systems associated with Cyclogenesis and strong southeasterly winds (Sudestada), which often bring long periods of precipitation, cloudiness and cooler temperatures, particularly in the southern and eastern parts.[15][47][13] As such, precipitation tends to be more evenly distributed in the eastern parts than the western parts, which are further away from these frontal systems.[47] Dull, grey and damp weather characterize winters in the Pampas.[15] In contrast, tropical air masses from the north may move southward, which provides relief from the cool, damp temperatures.[15] On average, winter temperatures tend to be mild during the day but cold during the night.[41] Snowfall is extremely rare although they rarely last for more than a day or two.[15]

Patagonia[edit]

Ushuaia

The Patagonia is the most extensive region, with much colder weather accentuated in the southern part. The west is mostly constituted by a mountainous landscape scored by spectacular woods, lakes and glaciers; it has an arid plain in the centre, and long beaches with varied marine fauna to observe to the east. The south end of this region is the southernmost point in the world except for Antarctica.

The Lake District on the eastern Andean slopes has at low altitudes, pleasant, dry summers between 20 °C and 24 °C, where temperatures over 30 °C are very rare, and cold nights between 4 °C and 8 °C, with frost not uncommon. Winds blow constantly from the west and there can be long stretches of sunny weather; however, after cool changes, temperatures might stay around 10 °C even in the middle of the summer, and low-altitude snow is not unprecedented.

Autumn is wet, with highs from 12 °C to 15 °C in April and 8 °C to 11 °C in May. Cold fronts can bring some early snowfall, and temperatures down to -8 °C. Winter is also very rainy, but there is often sleet and snow as well, and large snowstorms with up to 30 cm of snow can happen. Temperatures are usually between 3 °C and 9 °C during the day, and between -5 °C and 3 °C at night.

With clear skies temperatures often fall below -10 °C and they can reach -20 °C (with highs in the -5 °C to -2 °C) during extreme winters. Long stretches of subzero temperatures are very rare, but intense frost is very common. Spring is mild and dry though with cold nights and frequent frosts. Snow persists in the mountains until mid-summer at 2,000 m, and never melts above 2,500 m.

The central Patagonian plateau experiences marked contrasts: in the summer, temperatures climb to 28 °C in the north and 22 °C in the south, with extremes beyond 30 °C; however, nights are cold with lows in the 5 °C to 9 °C range. Winters range between 2 °C and 9 °C during the day, and between -7 °C and -3 °C at night; however, when cold air masses move in from Antarctica, temperatures drop to incredibly low values. It is not uncommon to have large areas below -20 °C, and some spots have reached -35 °C.

Snowfall is common but quantities are small, and there can be longer periods of frost. Along the coast, it is significantly warmer, with most winter days reaching about 10 °C and nights around 2 °C, and rarely below -10 °C. The region is among the windiest on earth, with average speeds of up to 35 km per hour in the spring, and behind cold fronts, the whole region is swept with winds between 100 and 160 kilometers per hour. Precipitation on the Patagonian plateau is very low and uniformly distributed: annual averages are typically around 200 millimetres (8 in) with high variability.

Extreme southerly areas in Tierra del Fuego are known for their storminess: in Ushuaia, at sea level, summer days average from 12 °C to 16 °C, and temperatures only reach 20 °C a few times every year. Snow can happen anytime, but only becomes frequent in April; however, temperatures are not extreme in the winter because of the Ocean.

The average days are about 0 °C to 5 °C, nights from -5 °C to 0 °C, and it is very rare to see nighttime temperatures fall below -12 °C on the coast (but they fall to -20 °C inland, with heavy snowcover) Snow can fall in large quantities some years. The ice fields in Santa Cruz have an extreme climate, with up to 4,000 mm falling as snow, subzero temperatures, winds over 150 kilometers per hour and constant cloud cover.

Statistics[edit]

Shown below are the mean monthly temperature and precipitation for selected places in Argentina that represent the full variety of major climate types in Argentina. Year round averages and totals are displayed along with conversions to imperial units as well.

Temperature[edit]

Average Temperatures in various locations in Argentina in °Celsius (°Fahrenheit)
Location     Jan         Feb         Mar         Apr         May         Jun         Jul         Aug         Sept        Oct         Nov         Dec       Annual  
Salta[48] 0821.2 (70.2) 08 20.1 (68.2) 08 18.9 (66.0) 09 16.2 (61.2) 11 13.3 (55.9) 11 10.1 (50.2) 11 10.1 (50.2) 11 12.3 (54.1) 12 15.0 (59.0) 11 18.7 (65.7) 10 20.3 (68.5) 08 21.2 (70.2) 09 16.5 (61.7)
La Quiaca[49] 0212.5 (54.5) 02 12.1 (53.8) 04 12.0 (53.6) 04 10.2 (50.4) 04 6.7 (44.1) 04 4.1 (39.4) 05 3.8 (38.8) 05 6.0 (42.8) 05 8.7 (47.7) 04 10.7 (51.3) 04 12.0 (53.6) 02 12.2 (54.0) 04 9.2 (48.6)
La Rioja[50] 1727.4 (81.3) 16 25.9 (78.6) 15 23.4 (74.1) 14 19.8 (67.6) 14 15.5 (59.9) 12 11.1 (52.0) 12 10.9 (51.6) 14 14.0 (57.2) 15 17.8 (64.0) 16 22.5 (72.5) 17 25.4 (77.7) 17 27.2 (81.0) 14 20.1 (68.2)
Santiago del Estero[51] 1426.8 (80.2) 14 25.6 (78.1) 14 23.4 (74.1) 15 20.0 (68.0) 15 16.7 (62.1) 15 12.7 (54.9) 15 12.6 (54.7) 15 15.0 (59.0) 16 18.4 (65.1) 15 22.3 (72.1) 16 24.7 (76.5) 15 26.5 (79.7) 16 20.4 (68.7)
Formosa[52] 1627.3 (81.1) 17 26.8 (80.2) 17 25.2 (77.4) 17 22.0 (71.6) 17 19.3 (66.7) 17 16.7 (62.1) 17 16.8 (62.2) 17 17.7 (63.9) 17 19.5 (67.1) 17 22.6 (72.7) 15 24.5 (76.1) 16 26.5 (79.7) 17 22.1 (71.8)
Oberá[53] 1325.4 (77.7) 13 24.5 (76.1) 16 23.6 (74.5) 16 20.2 (68.4) 16 17.4 (63.3) 16 14.9 (58.8) 16 15.2 (59.4) 16 16.7 (62.1) 14 17.4 (63.3) 14 20.8 (69.4) 13 22.8 (73.0) 13 24.8 (76.6) 15 20.3 (68.5)
San Juan[54] 1527.0 (80.6) 15 25.7 (78.3) 13 22.4 (72.3) 11 17.5 (63.5) 09 12.2 (54.0) 08 7.8 (46.0) 08 7.8 (46.0) 09 10.8 (51.4) 09 14.0 (57.2) 13 19.7 (67.5) 14 23.5 (74.3) 14 26.4 (79.5) 12 17.9 (64.2)
San Luis[55] 1124.4 (75.9) 10 23.1 (73.6) 10 20.2 (68.4) 10 16.7 (62.1) 10 13.2 (55.8) 10 9.6 (49.3) 10 9.4 (48.9) 10 11.6 (52.9) 11 14.5 (58.1) 10 18.4 (65.1) 12 21.4 (70.5) 12 23.6 (74.5) 10 17.2 (63.0)
Malargüe[56] 0619.6 (67.3) 06 18.4 (65.1) 05 15.3 (59.5) 05 11.3 (52.3) 05 7.4 (45.3) 05 4.2 (39.6) 04 3.5 (38.3) 04 5.4 (41.7) 04 8.1 (46.6) 05 12.1 (53.8) 05 15.6 (60.1) 06 18.4 (65.1) 05 11.6 (52.9)
Puente del Inca[57] 0214.2 (57.6) 03 13.8 (56.8) 03 11.7 (53.1) 03 8.4 (47.1) 02 4.2 (39.6) 01 0.9 (33.6) 01 -0.1 (31.8) 01 1.2 (34.2) 01 4.0 (39.2) 02 6.6 (43.9) 02 10.1 (50.2) 03 13.1 (55.6) 02 7.4 (45.3)
Buenos Aires[58] 1224.5 (76.1) 12 23.4 (74.1) 12 21.3 (70.3) 12 17.6 (63.7) 12 14.4 (57.9) 13 11.2 (52.2) 13 11.0 (51.8) 11 12.3 (54.1) 10 14.4 (57.9) 09 17.2 (63.0) 09 20.3 (68.5) 10 23.0 (73.4) 11 17.5 (63.5)
Córdoba, Argentina[59] 1024.1 (75.4) 11 23.1 (73.6) 11 20.9 (69.6) 13 17.9 (64.2) 13 14.9 (58.8) 14 11.3 (52.3) 14 11.3 (52.3) 12 13.2 (55.8) 13 15.6 (60.1) 12 18.9 (66.0) 11 21.3 (70.3) 11 23.2 (73.8) 13 18.0 (64.4)
Santa Rosa[60] 0923.7 (74.7) 09 22.4 (72.3) 09 19.1 (66.4) 07 15.1 (59.2) 07 11.2 (52.2) 07 7.8 (46.0) 07 7.6 (45.7) 08 9.3 (48.7) 08 12.2 (54.0) 08 15.6 (60.1) 08 19.3 (66.7) 09 22.4 (72.3) 08 15.5 (59.9)
Mar del Plata[61] 0720.3 (68.5) 07 19.9 (67.8) 07 18.0 (64.4) 06 14.6 (58.3) 08 11.3 (52.3) 09 8.5 (47.3) 09 8.1 (46.6) 07 8.9 (48.0) 07 10.5 (50.9) 07 13.1 (55.6) 07 15.9 (60.6) 07 18.5 (65.3) 07 14.0 (57.2)
Bariloche[62] 03 14.4 (57.9) 04 14.0 (57.2) 02 11.5 (52.7) 02 7.7 (45.9) 03 5.2 (41.4) 03 2.7 (36.9) 03 2.2 (36.0) 03 2.9 (37.2) 03 4.7 (40.5) 03 7.6 (45.7) 03 10.7 (51.3) 04 13.1 (55.6) 03 8.1 (46.6)
Comodoro Rivadavia[63] 05 19.1 (66.4) 05 18.4 (65.1) 06 16.1 (61.0) 05 12.9 (55.2) 06 9.5 (49.1) 06 6.8 (44.2) 06 6.4 (43.5) 06 7.7 (45.9) 06 9.9 (49.8) 06 12.7 (54.9) 06 15.9 (60.6) 05 17.9 (64.2) 06 12.8 (55.0)
Ushuaia[64] 01 10.3 (50.5) 01 9.5 (49.1) 01 7.6 (45.7) 01 5.7 (42.3) 01 3.1 (37.6) 02 1.7 (35.1) 02 1.6 (34.9) 02 2.4 (36.3) 02 4.3 (39.7) 01 6.5 (43.7) 01 8.3 (46.9) 01 9.1 (48.4) 01 5.8 (42.4)

Precipitation[edit]

Average Precipitation in various locations in Argentina in millimeters (inches)
    Jan         Feb         Mar         Apr         May         Jun         Jul         Aug        Sept        Oct         Nov         Dec       Annual  
Salta[48] 182.0 (7.17) 162.9 (6.41) 118.3 (4.66) 36.6 (1.44) 8.6 (0.34) 2.6 (0.10) 3.5 (0.14) 4.2 (0.17) 6.6 (0.26) 26.1 (1.03) 65.3 (2.57) 138.0 (5.43) 754.7 (29.71)
La Quiaca[49] 79.7 (3.14) 68.0 (2.68) 48.7 (1.92) 9.7 (0.38) 0.7 (0.03) 0.7 (0.03) 0.0 (0.00) 0.7 (0.03) 2.7 (0.11) 16.3 (0.64) 30.0 (1.18) 78.0 (3.07) 335.0 (13.19)
La Rioja[50] 80.1 (3.15) 71.6 (2.82) 54.1 (2.13) 18.4 (0.72) 7.4 (0.29) 2.6 (0.10) 3.1 (0.12) 5.2 (0.21) 6.5 (0.26) 12.7 (0.50) 43.3 (1.71) 56.6 (2.23) 361.6 (14.24)
Santiago del Estero[51] 135.5 (5.34) 111.3 (4.38) 83.3 (3.28) 37.2 (1.47) 16.7 (0.66) 6.2 (0.24) 3.7 (0.15) 4.5 (0.178) 13.8 (0.54) 33.2 (1.31) 67.6 (2.66) 96.1 (3.78) 609.1 (23.98)
Formosa[52] 171.2 (6.74) 142.4 (5.61) 151.7 (5.97) 153.3 (6.04) 105.6 (4.16) 66.8 (2.63) 49.6 (1.95) 60.1 (2.37) 85.1 (3.35) 120.7 (4.75) 171.0 (6.73) 146.8 (5.78) 1424.3 (56.08)
Oberá[53] 181.8 (7.16) 215.6 (8.49) 158.6 (6.24) 235.1 (9.26) 252.0 (9.92) 163.9 (6.45) 138.8 (5.47) 175.8 (6.92) 153.7 (6.05) 179.2 (7.06) 217.3 (8.56) 230.6 (9.08) 2302.4 (90.65)
San Juan[54] 15.3 (0.60) 18.4 (0.72) 11.4 (0.45) 1.9 (0.08) 4.6 (0.18) 1.3 (0.05) 7.2 (0.28) 3.0 (0.12) 7.0 (0.28) 4.7 (0.19) 5.9 (0.23) 11.6 (0.46) 92.3 (3.63)
San Luis[55] 109.7 (4.32) 86.9 (3.42) 91.2 (3.59) 42.2 (1.66) 11.6 (0.46) 8.9 (0.35) 10.8 (0.43) 8.1 (0.32) 19.2 (0.76) 35.9 (1.41) 77.4 (3.05) 101.3 (3.99) 603.2 (23.75)
Malargüe[56] 24.0 (0.95) 29.5 (1.16) 24.5 (0.97) 14.5 (0.57) 21.1 (0.83) 35.0 (1.38) 36.9 (1.45) 16.1 (0.63) 21.1 (0.83) 19.4 (0.76) 22.1 (0.87) 26.6 (1.05) 290.8 (11.45)
Puente del Inca[57] 4.9 (0.19) 5.8 (0.23) 4.2 (0.17) 10.5 (0.41) 68.5 (2.70) 64.9 (2.56) 49.6 (1.95) 47.9 (1.89) 16.6 (0.65) 18.1 (0.71) 10.9 (0.43) 1.2 (0.05) 302.8 (11.92)
Buenos Aires[58] 119.0 (4.69) 117.6 (4.63) 134.1 (5.28) 97.0 (3.82) 73.6 (2.90) 62.6 (2.47) 66.3 (2.61) 69.8 (2.75) 73.3 (2.89) 119.0 (4.69) 108.6 (4.28) 105.0 (4.13) 1145.9 (45.11)
Córdoba [59] 121.7 (4.79) 99.8 (3.93) 110.3 (4.34) 52.2 (2.06) 18.9 (0.74) 11.4 (0.45) 12.8 (0.50) 9.7 (0.38) 33.8 (1.33) 66.4 (2.61) 96.6 (3.80) 136.9 (5.39) 770.5 (30.34)
Santa Rosa[60] 74.1 (2.92) 74.8 (2.95) 91.7 (3.61) 52.7 (2.08) 27.7 (1.09) 16.3 (0.64) 18.7 (0.74) 23.3 (0.92) 41.8 (1.65) 70.2 (2.76) 101.0 (3.98) 93.5 (3.68) 685.8 (27.00)
Mar del Plata[61] 100.1 (3.94) 72.8 (2.87) 107.0 (4.21) 73.3 (2.89) 73.5 (2.89) 54.9 (2.16) 58.9 (2.32) 64.0 (2.52) 56.4 (2.22) 83.4 (32.8) 75.3 (2.97) 104.0 (4.09) 923.6 (36.36)
Bariloche[62] 24.3 (0.96) 19.7 (0.78) 28.6 (1.13) 52.8 (2.08) 130.5 (5.14) 126.9 (5.00) 140.2 (5.52) 115.3 (4.54) 56.1 (2.21) 34.7 (1.37) 23.1 (0.91) 30.4 (1.20) 782.6 (30.81)
Comodoro Rivadavia[63] 16.2 (0.64) 15.0 (0.59) 20.7 (0.82) 23.3 (0.92) 31.7 (1.25) 25.3 (1.00) 28.7 (1.13) 25.0 (0.98) 12.3 (0.48) 14.9 (0.59) 10.6 (0.42) 15.0 (0.59) 238.7 (9.40)
Ushuaia[64] 30.7 (1.21) 33.2 (1.31) 47.8 (1.88) 49.7 (1.96) 54.5 (2.15) 54.7 (2.15) 46.2 (1.82) 60.7 (2.39) 39.5 (1.56) 34.6 (1.36) 35.4 (1.39) 41.0 (1.61) 528.0 (20.79)

Extremes[edit]

Extreme Temperatures: High[edit]

According to the Argentine National Weather Service (Spanish: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional), the highest recorded temperature was 49.1 °C (120.4 °F) in Villa de María del Río Seco.[22] However, according to the World Meteorological Organization, the highest temperature recorded was 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) in Rivadavia, Salta, Salta Province on December 11, 1905.[1]

Extreme Temperatures: Low[edit]

According to the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, there are 3 possible cases for the lowest temperature recorded in Argentina.[22]

  • A low of −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) was recorded in Sarmiento, Chubut on June 1, 1907.[1][22] The meteorological station is located 269 meters above sea level.[22]
  • A low of −35.0 °C (−31.0 °F) was recorded in Maquinchao on July 17, 1991.[22] This meteorological station is located 858 meters above sea level.[22]
  • A low of −39.0 °C (−38.2 °F) was recorded in Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan Province on July 17, 1972.[22]

Among these 3 possible cases, the World Meteorological Organization recognizes the record low of −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) recorded in Sarmiento as the lowest temperature recorded in South America and Argentina.[1]

Precipitation[edit]

With an average annual precipitation of 3,668 mm (144.4 in), Lago Frías in Río Negro Province is considered to be the wettest place in Argentina.[65] Although an average annual precipitation of 6,251 mm (246.1 in) has been recorded in Lago Tromen in Neuquén province, the validity of the data is dubious owing to fewer years of data.[65] Consequently, Lago Frías also has the wettest monthly precipitation in Argentina when 1,147 mm (45.2 in) of precipitation was recorded on May 1951.[22] In contrast, the driest place in Argentina is in Angualasto, San Juan province, which only receives 24 mm (0.94 in) of precipitation a year.[65] The highest recorded one–day rainfall total occurred on 2 April 2013 when 392.2 millimetres (15 in) of precipitation fell in La Plata at the La Plata Astronomical Observatory.[66] This caused massive flooding, leading to power outages.[67]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Books[edit]

External Links[edit]

General overview

Maps and imagery

Climate statistics