Climate of Finland

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The climate of Finland is influenced most by its latitude: Finland is located between 60 and 70 N. Because of Finland's northern location, winter is the longest season. Only on the south coast and the southeast is summer as long as winter. On average, winter lasts from early January to late February in the outermost islands in the archipelago and the warmest locations along the southwestern coast - notably in Hanko, and from early October to mid May in the most elevated locations, such as northwestern Lapland and the lowest valleys in northeastern Lapland. This means that southern portions of the country are snow-covered about three to four months of the year, and the northern for about seven months. The long winter causes about half of the annual 500 to 600 millimetres (19.7 to 23.6 in) precipitation in the north to fall as snow. Precipitation in the south amounts to about 600 to 700 millimetres (23.6 to 27.6 in) annually. Like that of the north, it occurs all through the year, though not so much of it is snow.[1]

In Köppen climate classification Finland belongs to the Df group (continental subarctic or boreal climates). The southern coast is Dfb (humid continental mild summer, wet all year), and the rest of the country is Dfc (subarctic with cool summer, wet all year).[2][3]

The climate of Finland has characteristics of both maritime and continental climate. The Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Eurasian continent to the east interact to modify the climate of the country. The warm waters of the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current, play a big role in the climate of Norway, Sweden and Finland which continuously warm the region, if it weren't for these currents the winters in Scandinavia and Fennoscandia would be much colder. Westerly winds bring the warm air currents into the Baltic areas and to the country's shores, moderating winter temperatures, especially in the south and southwest in cities like Helsinki and Turku where winter highs tend to be between 0 and 5 °C (32 and 41 °F) but a cold snap like the one that occurred in mid-January 2016 can cause temperatures to plunge well below −20 °C (−4 °F). These winds, because of clouds associated with weather systems accompanying the westerlies, also decrease the amount of sunshine received during the summer. By contrast, the continental high pressure system situated over the Eurasian continent counteracts the maritime influences, occasionally causing severe winters and are high temperatures in the summer.

Temperature[edit]

The warmest annual average temperature in Southwestern Finland is 6.5 °C (43.7 °F). From there the temperature decreases gradually towards north and east. Suomenselkä and Maanselkä drainage divides rise higher than the surrounding areas, and the climate is there cooler than at same latitudes elsewhere in Finland.[4] Barents Sea between Finland and North Pole is open even in winter, so northerly airflows are not as cold as in Siberia or Alaska.[5]

The highest ever recorded temperature is 37.2 °C (99.0 °F) (Liperi, 29 July 2010).[6] The lowest, −51.5 °C (−60.7 °F) (Kittilä, 28 January 1999). The annual average temperature is relatively high in the southwestern part of the country (5.0 to 7.5 °C or 41.0 to 45.5 °F), with quite mild winters and warm summers, and low in the northeastern part of Lapland (0 to −4 °C or 32 to 25 °F).

Temperature extremes for every month:[7]

Climate data for Finland
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
11.8
(53.2)
17.5
(63.5)
25.5
(77.9)
31.0
(87.8)
33.8
(92.8)
37.2
(99)
33.8
(92.8)
28.8
(83.8)
20.9
(69.6)
14.3
(57.7)
11.3
(52.3)
37.2
(99)
Record low °C (°F) −51.5
(−60.7)
−49.0
(−56.2)
−44.3
(−47.7)
−36.0
(−32.8)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
−5.0
(23)
−10.8
(12.6)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−31.8
(−25.2)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−47.0
(−52.6)
−51.5
(−60.7)
Source: http://ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/lampotilaennatyksia

Record highs and lows[edit]

Record highs by month
Month Temp. Date Location
January +10.9 °C (51.6 °F) January 6, 1973 Mariehamn, Åland
February +11.8 °C (53.2 °F) February 28, 1943 Ilmala, Helsinki, Southern Finland
March +17.5 °C (63.5 °F) March 27, 2007 Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, Vantaa, Southern Finland
April +25.5 °C (77.9 °F) April 27, 1921 Jyväskylä, Central Finland
May +31.0 °C (87.8 °F) May 30/31, 1995 Lapinjärvi, Southern Finland
June +33.8 °C (92.8 °F) June 24, 1934 Ähtäri, Central Finland
July +37.2 °C (99.0 °F) July 29, 2010 Joensuu Airport, Liperi, Eastern Finland[6]
August +33.8 °C (92.8 °F) August 7, 2010 Heinola, Lahti, Southern Finland, and Puumala, Eastern Finland[8]
September +28.8 °C (83.8 °F) September 6, 1968 Rauma, Western Finland
October +20.9 °C (69.6 °F) October 14, 2018 Kruunupyy airport, Ostrobothnia[9]
November +14.1 °C (57.4 °F) November 2, 1999 Mariehamn, Åland
December +10.8 °C (51.4 °F) December 6, 2006 Salo, Southern Finland
Record lows by month
Month Temp. Date Location
January −51.5 °C (−60.7 °F) January 28, 1999 Kittilä, Pokka, Lapland
February −49.0 °C (−56.2 °F) February 5, 1912 Sodankylä, Lapland
March −44.3 °C (−47.7 °F) March 1, 1971 Salla, Tuntsa, Lapland
April −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) April 2, 9, 1912 Kuusamo, Northern Ostrobothnia; Sodankylä, Lapland
May −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) May 1/May 31, 1971 Enontekiö, Kalmankaltio, Lapland
June −7.0 °C (19.4 °F) June 3, 1962 Inari, Laanila, Lapland
July −5.0 °C (23.0 °F) July 12, 1958 Enontekiö, Kilpisjärvi, Lapland
August −10.8 °C (12.6 °F) August 26, 1980 Salla, Naruskajärvi, Lapland
September −18.7 °C (−1.7 °F) September 26, 1968 Sodankylä, Vuotso, Lapland
October −31.8 °C (−25.2 °F) October 25, 1968 Sodankylä, Lapland
November −42.0 °C (−43.6 °F) November 30, 1915 Sodankylä, Lapland
December −47.0 °C (−52.6 °F) December 21, 1919 Pielisjärvi, Eastern Finland

Wind[edit]

The most common wind direction in Finland is from southwest, but the low pressure areas typical for these latitudes cause great variations in wind speed and direction.[1]

Storm, defined as at least one Finnish coastal station reporting at least 21 m/s as a 10-minutes average wind speed, is observed on Finnish seas in average 19 days a year. Strong winds are most frequent between October and January.[10]

Snow[edit]

The first snow cover is observed on average in September in Lapland, and in November in Southern and western areas. Permanent snow cover time starts typically after Christmas in the Southwestern corner, but before mid-November in most of Lapland. The maximum snow depth is usually found around March.[11]

Snow and supercooled droplets can accumulate in tree crowns and cause damage to trees. The trunks of pine trees can break under the weight of a snowloaded crown, and deciduous trees can bend permanently. The snowload of a tree is typically 100-150 kg per one meter tree trunk, but the heaviest measured snowload of a spruce was over 3000 kilograms.[12]

Snowmelt contributes to spring floods. In north, the peak flow of rivers always happens in spring, in the south 70-80% of floods happen in spring. In the south, maximum flow happens in mid-April, in the north, in mid-May.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Climate elements". Finnish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  2. ^ http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/mpeel/Koppen/Europe_MiddleEast.jpg
  3. ^ Köppen Climate Classification System Encyclopedia of Earth
  4. ^ Karttunen, Hannu & Koistinen, Jarmo & Saltikoff, Elena & Manner, Olli: Ilmakehä, sää ja ilmasto. Ursan julkaisuja 107. Helsingissä: Ursa, 2008. ISBN 978-952-5329-61-2. page 357-358
  5. ^ Solantie, Reijo (2001). "Suomen ilmaston erityispiirteitä". Tieteessä tapahtuu (in Finnish). Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Mercury Hits All Time Record of 37.2 Degrees". YLE Uutiset. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  7. ^ "Lämpötilan ennätykset" (in Finnish). Helsinki: Ilmatieteen laitos. 14 November 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  8. ^ "Elokuun lämpöennätys tarkentui: 33,8 astetta". YLE Uutiset (in Finnish). Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. 8 August 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  9. ^ Manninen, Tuomas (2018-10-14). "SE on siinä: Lokakuun uusi lämpöennätys on 21,0 astetta!" [‘That’s it: The new record high for October is 21.0 degrees!’]. Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). Sanoma. Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  10. ^ "Tuulitilastot". fmi (in Finnish). Finnish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  11. ^ "Snow statistics". Finnish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  12. ^ "Snow damage". Luke. Natural Resources Institute Finland. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  13. ^ Kuusisto, Esko. "Snow accumulation and snowmelt in Finland" (PDF). National board of waters. Retrieved 16 November 2017.