Climate of Madrid

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Madrid
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
37
 
 
10
3
 
 
35
 
 
12
4
 
 
26
 
 
16
6
 
 
47
 
 
18
7
 
 
52
 
 
21
11
 
 
25
 
 
27
15
 
 
15
 
 
31
18
 
 
10
 
 
31
18
 
 
28
 
 
26
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49
 
 
19
10
 
 
56
 
 
13
6
 
 
56
 
 
10
4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO[1]

Madrid and its metropolitan area has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa)[2][2] which transitions to a cold semi-arid climate (BSk). According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, Madrid has warm-temperate subtropical climate (Warmgemäßigt-subtropisches Zonenklima)[3] and according to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, Madrid has a subtropical climate.[4] However, the most widespread climate classification is that Madrid presents a climate of transition between the Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa) and the cold semi-arid climate (BSk), with warm summers and relatively cold winters with frequent frosts and occasional snowfalls.

Sunshine and UV index[edit]

Sunshine duration is 2,769 hours per year, from 124 (4 hours per day in average) in December to 359 (above 11.6 hours per day in average) in July.[5] This is one of the largest number of sunshine duration hours in Europe and this is a bit above average for the southern half of Europe because in this part of the continent, sunshine duration varies from about 2,000 to about 3,000 hours per year. However, this is 70% larger value than in northern half of Europe, where sunshine duration is around 1500 hours per year.[citation needed] In winter Madrid has about three times more sun duration than in the northern half of Europe.[citation needed] Madrid has the second highest UV value of continental Europe after Athens[6] and Lisbon.[7] The values are close to that of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as ultraviolet radiation suffers little interference from other geographic variables.[8] Although values are still average, which is not as risky as almost the entire continent, except the afternoons of the warmer months, where exposure should be reduced. The amount varies from 2 between November to January to 9 between June and July.[9]

Climate data for Madrid
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean monthly sunshine hours 148 157 214 231 272 310 359 335 261 198 157 124 2,769
Mean daily sunshine hours 4.77 5.60 6.90 7.70 8.77 10.3 11.6 10.8 8.70 6.38 5.23 4.00 7.56
Percent possible sunshine 54 61 59 65 66 75 86 84 70 60 48 47 65
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 5 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 2 5
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (mean daily and monthly sunshine hours),[5] climatemps.com (percent possible sunshine)[10] and Weather Atlas (UV index)[9]


Precipitation[edit]

Madrid has on average only 63 precipitation days a year, therein average several rainy days per month (≥ 1 mm), ranging from 2 days in July and August to 8 days in May. The average annual precipitation is less than 436 mm (17.87 inches), ranging from 10 mm (0.35 inch) in August to 56 mm in November and December.[5]

Climate data for Madrid (precipitation days – 1 mm)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37
(1.5)
35
(1.4)
26
(1.0)
47
(1.9)
52
(2.0)
25
(1.0)
15
(0.6)
10
(0.4)
28
(1.1)
49
(1.9)
56
(2.2)
56
(2.2)
436
(17.2)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 5 5 7 8 4 2 2 3 6 6 7 63
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[5]
Climate data for Madrid (precipitation days – 0.1 mm)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9 9 7 11 12 7 3 3 5 9 9 11 95
Source: World Meteorological Organization[1]

Humidity[edit]

Average relative humidity is 57%, ranging from 38% in July to 74% in December.[5]

Climate data for Madrid
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average relative humidity (%) 71 65 55 56 53 44 38 41 50 64 70 74 57
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[5]

Snow[edit]

Snowfalls are occasional, sporadic, to few days per year. In January 1941 reported record: 8 snow days in the month.[11]

Climate data for Madrid
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average snowy days 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[5]

Temperature extremes[edit]

The highest temperature recorded during the day is 40.7 °C (105.3 °F) on 28 June 2019; the August 1933 reported record had the average maximum temperature during the day was 35.5 °C (95.9 °F). The coldest temperature recorded was −10.1 °C (13.8 °F) at night on 16 January 1945.[11]

Climate data for Madrid Buen Retiro Park
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
22.0
(71.6)
26.7
(80.1)
30.1
(86.2)
35.5
(95.9)
40.7
(105.3)
39.7
(103.5)
40.6
(105.1)
38.9
(102.0)
30.0
(86.0)
22.7
(72.9)
18.6
(65.5)
40.6
(105.1)
Record low °C (°F) −10.1
(13.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
−5.1
(22.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.6
(33.1)
4.4
(39.9)
8.5
(47.3)
9.2
(48.6)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
−10.1
(13.8)
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[11][12][13][14]
Climate data for Madrid Barajas Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.9
(69.6)
24.5
(76.1)
27.1
(80.8)
31.7
(89.1)
36.5
(97.7)
41.2
(106.2)
42.2
(108.0)
41.2
(106.2)
40.2
(104.4)
31.7
(89.1)
24.7
(76.5)
21.3
(70.3)
42.2
(108.0)
Record low °C (°F) −15.2
(4.6)
−14.8
(5.4)
−6.6
(20.1)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.9
(39.0)
7.0
(44.6)
7.4
(45.3)
1.9
(35.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.4
(18.7)
−10.5
(13.1)
−15.2
(4.6)
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[11][15][16][17]

Daylight[edit]

Madrid enjoys one of the most optimal number of hours of daylight in Europe. Days in winter are not as short as in the northern part of the continent, the average hours of daylight in December, January and February is 10 hours[18] (for comparison: London[19] or Moscow[20] or Warsaw[21] - about 8 hours).

Average hours of daylight[18]
Hours Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Day 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 14 12 11 10 9
Twilight/Night 14 13 12 11 10 9 9 10 12 13 14 15

Climatic data for Madrid area[edit]

Climate data for Madrid (Buen Retiro Park, altitude: 667 m.a.s.l., 2001–2010, location)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.77
(49.59)
11.78
(53.20)
15.76
(60.37)
19.05
(66.29)
22.73
(72.91)
29.30
(84.74)
32.35
(90.23)
31.60
(88.88)
26.54
(79.77)
19.54
(67.17)
13.17
(55.71)
9.79
(49.62)
20.12
(68.22)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.45
(43.61)
7.72
(45.90)
11.0
(51.8)
13.65
(56.57)
17.22
(63.00)
23.15
(73.67)
25.78
(78.40)
25.31
(77.56)
21.03
(69.85)
15.38
(59.68)
9.50
(49.10)
6.47
(43.65)
15.22
(59.40)
Average low °C (°F) 3.12
(37.62)
3.66
(38.59)
6.24
(43.23)
8.24
(46.83)
11.71
(53.08)
17.00
(62.60)
19.20
(66.56)
19.02
(66.24)
15.52
(59.94)
11.22
(52.20)
5.82
(42.48)
3.14
(37.65)
10.32
(50.58)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34.5
(1.36)
45.2
(1.78)
36.0
(1.42)
43.3
(1.70)
49.2
(1.94)
21.9
(0.86)
4.1
(0.16)
8.0
(0.31)
19.8
(0.78)
82.9
(3.26)
47.6
(1.87)
45.9
(1.81)
438.5
(17.26)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5.8 5.8 5.1 6.1 6.6 3.8 0.9 1.3 3.1 8.1 5.4 6.0 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.7 155.3 197.0 238.2 273.1 331.5 359.2 329.4 264.8 164.9 139.4 136.6 2,730.1
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[22]

See also[edit]

Climate in other places in Iberian Peninsula:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Weather Information for Madrid".
  2. ^ a b M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 22 April 2009.
  3. ^ Climatic map by Istituto Geografico De Agostini, according to Troll-Paffen climate classification Archived October 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Die Klimatypen der Erde - Pädagogische Hochschule in Heidelberg
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Standard Climate Values. Madrid".
  6. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Athens, Greece - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  7. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Lisbon, Portugal - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  8. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Pittsburgh, PA - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  9. ^ a b d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Madrid, Spain - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  10. ^ Sunshine & Daylight Hours in Madrid, Spain - climatemps.com
  11. ^ a b c d "Valores Extremos for Madrid" (pdf) (www version) – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
  12. ^ "Extreme Values (Jan–Apr), Madrid". AEMet.
  13. ^ "Extreme Values (May–Aug), Madrid". AEMet.
  14. ^ "Extreme Values (Sep–Dec), Madrid". AEMet.
  15. ^ "Extreme Values (Jan–Apr), Madrid". AEMet.
  16. ^ "Extreme Values (May–Aug), Madrid". AEMet.
  17. ^ "Extreme Values (Sep–Dec), Madrid". AEMet.
  18. ^ a b "Weather2Travel.com: Madrid Climate Guide".
  19. ^ "London Climate and Weather Averages, UK". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
  20. ^ "Moscow Climate and Weather Averages, Russia (Europe)". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
  21. ^ "Warsaw Climate and Weather Averages, Poland". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
  22. ^ Valores climatológicos normales y estadísticos de estaciones principales Archived 2014-09-06 at the Wayback Machine - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
  23. ^ "Standard Climate Values, Madrid, Cuatro Vientos". AEMet.