Geography of Morocco
Morocco spans from the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean on the north and the west respectively, into large mountainous areas in the interior body, to the Sahara desert in the far south. Morocco is a Northern African country, located in the extreme north west of Africa on the doors of continental Europe. The strait of Gibraltar separates Spain off Morocco with a 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) span of water. Morocco borders the North Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the west Mediterranean Sea to the north.
The terrain of Morocco is largely mountainous. The Atlas Mountains stretch from the central north to the south west. It expands to about 1,350 kilometres (840 mi) and is the dorsal spine of the country. To the north of the Atlas Mountains, there are the Rif Mountains, a chain that makes part of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Andalusia, Spain. The massive range expands to about 250 kilometres (160 mi) from Tangier in the west to Nador eastward.
In the west of the country, along the Atlantic coast, the Moroccan Plateau stretches from Tangier to Agadir, about 800 kilometres (500 mi) long, and get inward to Saiss Plains near Fes and Tansift-Alhaouz near Marrakech. These vast plains promotes fertile agricultural lands and support 15% of the local economy.
- 1 Geography statistics
- 2 Climate
- 3 Physical geography
- 4 Land use and natural resources
- 5 Environment
- 5.1 Ecoregions
- 5.2 Current environmental issues
- 5.3 International environmental agreements
- 6 Extreme points
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Map references: Africa
total: 446,550 km² (excluding Western Sahara), 710,850 km² (including Western Sahara)
land: 446,300 km² (or 710,600 km²)
water: 250 km²
Area – comparative: Morocco without Western Sahara is slightly larger than California; slightly larger than Newfoundland and Labrador; slightly more than half the size of New South Wales province of Australia; slightly less than twice the size of the United Kingdom
Morocco, including Western Sahara, is slightly larger than Texas
Coastline: 1835 km (excluding Western Sahara's coast)
2945 km (including Western Sahara's coast)
Territorial sea: 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi)
Contiguous zone: 24 nmi (44.4 km; 27.6 mi)
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi)
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Morocco's climate can be divided into two parts: The northwest and the southeast. In the southeast, the climate is arid, and poorly populated. In the northwest the climate is temperate and akin to the climatic conditions that prevail in the Iberian Peninsula. 95% of Moroccan population lives in these regions.
The largely populated areas of the northwest of the country is predominantly Mediterranean, but since the country is heavily mountainous, continental and alpine influence is evident, as well as the oceanic influence along the Atlantic coastline. And finally, the semi-arid lands, that cover few regions in the northeast, the central south and the southwest.
Along the Mediterranean coast, the climate is typically Mediterranean and supports all types of typical Mediterranean vegetation. The summers are moderately hot and the winters are mild. Further away from the coast, into the Rif Mountain range, the climate starts to become more continental in character, with colder winters and hotter summers. At elevations above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), the climate is alpine with warm summers and cold winters. Rainfall is much higher on the west side, than it is on the east side. The average annual precipitation is between 600 and 1,500 mm (24 and 59 in), and 300 and 700 mm (12 and 28 in) respectively. Snow is abundant at higher elevations.
- Typical Mediterranean climate cities: Tangier, Tétouan, Al Hoceima, Nador
- Typical continental-influenced cities: Chefchaouen, Issaguen, Targuist, Taza
- Typical alpine-influenced cities: Bab Berred
Along the Atlantic coast, the climate is Mediterranean with an oceanic influence. The imprint of the oceanic climate differs along the coastline from region to region. It is generally presented from Asilah to Essaouira. The summers are warm to moderately hot, and winters are cooler than in the Mediterranean coast. Further away from the coastal lands, into the Atlas Mountain range, the climate starts to become more continental in character, with colder winters and hotter summers. At elevations above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), the climate is typically alpine, with warm summers and cold winters. Rainfall is generally high. The average annual precipitations is between 500 and 1,800 mm (20 and 71 in) on the north, but as you move southward, the average drops by about 100 to 200 mm (3.9 to 7.9 in). Snow is abundant at higher elevations. There are two ski stations, one in the middle-Atlas Mischliffen, and the other in the High-Atlas Oukaïmeden.
- Typical oceanic-influenced cities: Rabat, Casablanca, Essaouira, Larache
- Typical continental-influenced cities: Fès, Meknès, Khenifra, Beni Mellal
- Typical alpine-influenced cities: Ifrane, Azrou, Midelt, Imouzzer Kandar
The southern regions of the northwest are Semi-arid influenced. Rainfall is lower, and is between 250 and 350 mm (9.8 and 13.8 in) annually. Although temperature ranges generally do not change in comparison with the upper provinces, a slight increase in high averages is not to be dismissed. Largely due to the lower latitudes where they fall.
Terrain: Northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
Geography – note: Strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
Land use and natural resources
Arable land: 17.5%
Permanent crops: 2.9%
Permanent pastures: 47.1%
Other: 21.61% (2011)
Irrigated land: 14,850 km² (2004)
Total renewable water resources: 29 km3 (2011)
Natural hazards: Northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts.
- Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
- Mediterranean woodlands and forests
- Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets
Current environmental issues
Land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters.
International environmental agreements
Morocco is party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution (MARPOL 73/78), Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
- Northernmost point – Punta Cires, Tangier-Tétouan region
- Easternmost point – unnamed point on the border with Algeria immediately east of the town of Iche, Oriental region
- Southernmost point – the border with Western Sahara, Guelmim-Es Semara region*
- Westernmost point – the point at which the border with Western Sahara enters the Atlantic Ocean, Guelmim-Es Semara region
- Note: Morocco does not have a southern-most point, the border being formed by a straight horizontal line
- European Digital Archive on the Soil Maps of the world Soil Maps of Morocco