Climate of Romania

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Geography of Romania
Topography

Carpathians (peaks)
Plains & Delta
Islands

Hydrography

Rivers (Danube)
Lakes
Black Sea

Climate

The climate is temperate continental climate in transition with oceanic climate, influenced by Scandinavian-Baltic weather, mediterranean climate and Black Sea weather. Thus, in the south mediterranean climate is felt, characterized by mild winters and stronger rainfalls (especially in autumn). In the south-east, the Black Sea climate occurs with rare heavy strong rains. In eastern regions, its continental character is less pronounced. In the north of the country (Maramureș and Bukovina), the effect of the Scandinavian-Baltic is felt, effecting a wetter and colder climate with cold winters. In the west of the country is manifested a more pronounced influence of low pressure systems generated over the Atlantic, causing moderate temperatures and stronger precipitation. Climate nuances are demonstrated on the steps of the altitude, the mountain ranges of the Carpathian arc being a cool mountain climate with high humidity throughout the year.[1]

The average annual temperature is 11 °C (51.8 °F) in the south and middle-south and 8 °C (46.4 °F) in northeast. In Bucharest, the temperature ranges from average low −5 °C (23 °F) in January to average high 29 °C (84.2 °F) in July and August, with average temperatures of −3 °C (26.6 °F) in January and 23 °C (73.4 °F) in July and August. Rainfall, although adequate throughout the country, decreases from west to east and from mountains to plains. Some mountainous areas receive more than 1,010 mm (39.8 in) of precipitation each year. Annual precipitation averages about 635 mm (25 in) in central Transylvania, 521 mm (20.5 in) at Iaşi in Moldavia, and only 381 mm (15 in) at Constanţa on the Black Sea.

Romania map of Köppen climate classification, according to Clima României from the Administrația Națională de Meteorologie, Bucharest 2008
Average temperature and precipitations in Bucharest

Owing to its distance from the open sea, Romania has a continental climate. Summers are generally very warm to hot, with average maxima in Bucharest being around 29 °C (84.2 °F), with temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) not unknown in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 18 °C (64.4 °F), but at higher altitudes both maxima and minima decline considerably.

Satellite image of Romania in December, showing most of its territory under snow

Winters are quite cold, with average highs even in lower-lying areas being no more than 3 °C (37.4 °F) and below −15 °C (5 °F) in the highest mountains.

Precipitation is generally modest, averaging over 750 mm (29.5 in) only on the highest western mountains - much of it falling as snow which allows for an extensive skiing industry. In the delta of the Danube, rainfall is very low, averaging only around 370 mm (14.6 in) per year, whilst in the more westerly lowland like Bucharest it is around 530 mm (20.9 in).

Records[edit]

The absolute minimum temperature was −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F), registered near Brașov in 1942. The absolute maximum temperature was 44.5 °C (112.1 °F), recorded at Ion Sion, Brăila County in 1951.[2]

Climate data for Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72)
26.0
(78.8)
32.8
(91)
35.5
(95.9)
40.8
(105.4)
42.0
(107.6)
44.3
(111.7)
44.5
(112.1)
43.5
(110.3)
39.0
(102.2)
30.5
(86.9)
23.4
(74.1)
44.5
(112.1)
Record low °C (°F) −38.5
(−37.3)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−31.4
(−24.5)
−26
(−15)
−16
(3)
−12
(10)
−8.0
(17.6)
−7.0
(19.4)
−15
(5)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−34.5
(−30.1)
−38.5
(−37.3)
Source: National Meteorological Administration[2]

White Christmas in Romania[edit]

[citation needed]

Location Percentage
Bucharest 75%
Iași 80%
Timișoara 70%
Cluj-Napoca 85%
Constanța 65%
Miercurea Ciuc 90%
Craiova 75%
Brașov 85%
Satu Mare 75%

Averages and records by city[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Meteo Romania - Clima Romaniei". www.meteoromania.ro.
  2. ^ a b "Climatic Records in Romania". Administratia Nationala de Meteorologie. Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  3. ^ "The Climate of Bucharest 1981-2010 (Average Temperatures,Humidity)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  4. ^ "București Băneasa Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  5. ^ "Cluj Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  6. ^ "Klimatafel von Klausenburg (Cluj-Napoca), Siebenbürgen / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  7. ^ "Timișoara Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  8. ^ "Klimatafel von Temeschburg (Temesvar, Timisoara), Banat / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  9. ^ "Iași Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  10. ^ "Klimatafel von Iasi (Jassy), Moldau (Bessarabien) / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
  11. ^ "Constanța Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  12. ^ "Klimatafel von Constanta (Konstanza), Dobrudscha / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
  13. ^ "Medii lunare multianuale 1961–1990" (in Romanian). Administrația Natională de Meteorologie (Romanian National Administration of Meteorology). August 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-15.