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Climate of Rome

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Rome and its metropolitan area has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa),[1] with mild winters and warm to hot summers. According to Troll-Paffen climate classification, Rome has a warm-temperate subtropical climate (Warmgemäßigt-subtropisches Zonenklima).[2] According to Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, Rome has a subtropical climate.[3]

Daylight[edit]

Rome has one of the most similar number of hours of daylight in Europe to major US cities Chicago or New York City, as Rome has a similar latitude.[citation needed] Days in winter are not as short as in the northern part of the continent, the average hours of daylight in December, January and February is 10 hours[4] (for comparison: London[5] or Moscow[6] or Warsaw[7] – about 8 hours).

Average hours of daylight[4]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
hours of light 10 11 12 13 15 15 15 14 12 11 10 9
hours of Twilight/Night 14 13 12 11 9 9 9 10 12 13 14 15

Sunshine and UV index[edit]

Sunshine duration is about 2,500 hours per year, from 111 – average 3.6 hours of sunshine per day in December to 332 – average 10.7 hours of sunshine per day in July.[8] This is the middling value for the southern half of Europe because in this part of the continent, sunshine duration varies from about 2,000 to about 3,000 hours per year. However, this is 60% larger value than in northern half of Europe, where sunshine duration is around 1500 hours per year.[citation needed] In winter Rome has about three times more sun duration than in the northern half of Europe.[citation needed] With the exception of Madrid[9], Lisbon[10] and Athens[11], Rome has the highest UV index between European capitals (only in the continent) and values close to that of Chicago at 41.9 °N as ultraviolet radiation is less interfered with by other geographic variables, but with a moderate annual average with index equal to 5, which allows direct exposure to the sun at some times of the year. Values range from 1 (December) to 9 (July).[12]

Climate data for Rome
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 132.8 167.4 201.0 263.5 285.0 331.7 297.6 237.0 195.3 129.0 111.6 2,473
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.9 4.7 5.4 6.7 8.5 9.5 10.7 9.6 7.9 6.3 4.3 3.6 6.8
Percent possible sunshine 46 45 57 53 60 63 73 73 66 59 43 37 57
Average ultraviolet index 2 2 4 6 7 8 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source: Servizio Meteorologico (mean daily and monthly sunshine hours),[8] climatemps.com (percent possible sunshine)[13] and Weather Atlas (UV index)[12]

Sea temperature[edit]

Average sea temperature (Civitavecchia, north of Rome centre):[14]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
14.2 °C (57.6 °F) 13.6 °C (56.5 °F) 14.0 °C (57.2 °F) 15.3 °C (59.5 °F) 18.7 °C (65.7 °F) 22.7 °C (72.9 °F) 24.4 °C (75.9 °F) 24.6 °C (76.3 °F) 23.5 °C (74.3 °F) 20.7 °C (69.3 °F) 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) 15.8 °C (60.4 °F) 18.9 °C (66.0 °F)
Average sea temperature (Tor San Lorenzo, south of Rome centre):[15]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
14.5 °C (58.1 °F) 13.9 °C (57.0 °F) 14.1 °C (57.4 °F) 15.5 °C (59.9 °F) 18.8 °C (65.8 °F) 22.9 °C (73.2 °F) 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) 25.0 °C (77.0 °F) 24.0 °C (75.2 °F) 21.1 °C (70.0 °F) 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) 16.1 °C (61.0 °F) 19.1 °C (66.4 °F)

Climatic data[edit]

Recent data[edit]

Climate data for Rome Ciampino Airport (altitude: 105 m sl, 13 km south-east from Colosseum satellite view)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
20.8
(69.4)
26.6
(79.9)
28.2
(82.8)
34.2
(93.6)
37.8
(100.0)
39.4
(102.9)
40.6
(105.1)
38.4
(101.1)
30.0
(86.0)
25.4
(77.7)
20.2
(68.4)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
13.0
(55.4)
15.2
(59.4)
17.7
(63.9)
22.8
(73.0)
26.9
(80.4)
30.3
(86.5)
30.6
(87.1)
26.5
(79.7)
21.4
(70.5)
15.9
(60.6)
12.6
(54.7)
20.4
(68.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
8.2
(46.8)
10.2
(50.4)
12.6
(54.7)
17.2
(63.0)
21.1
(70.0)
24.1
(75.4)
24.5
(76.1)
20.8
(69.4)
16.4
(61.5)
11.4
(52.5)
8.4
(47.1)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
3.5
(38.3)
5.2
(41.4)
7.5
(45.5)
11.6
(52.9)
15.3
(59.5)
18.0
(64.4)
18.3
(64.9)
15.2
(59.4)
11.3
(52.3)
6.9
(44.4)
4.2
(39.6)
10.0
(50.0)
Record low °C (°F) −11.0
(12.2)
−4.4
(24.1)
−5.2
(22.6)
−1.1
(30.0)
3.8
(38.8)
9.0
(48.2)
10.8
(51.4)
11.0
(51.8)
7.6
(45.7)
0.8
(33.4)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.6
(20.1)
−11.0
(12.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.9
(2.63)
73.3
(2.89)
57.8
(2.28)
80.5
(3.17)
52.8
(2.08)
34.0
(1.34)
19.2
(0.76)
36.8
(1.45)
73.3
(2.89)
113.3
(4.46)
115.4
(4.54)
81.0
(3.19)
804.3
(31.67)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7.0 7.6 7.6 9.2 6.2 4.3 2.1 3.3 6.2 8.2 9.7 8.0 79.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 132.8 167.4 201.0 263.5 285.0 331.7 297.6 237.0 195.3 129.0 111.6 2,472.8
Source: Servizio Meteorologico,[8] data of sunshine hours[16] (1971–2000)
Climate data for Rome Fiumicino Airport (altitude: 15 m sl, 23 km west from Colosseum, near sea satellite view)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.9
(66.0)
21.0
(69.8)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
31.4
(88.5)
34.6
(94.3)
38.6
(101.5)
37.2
(99.0)
37.6
(99.7)
33.6
(92.5)
26.5
(79.7)
20.9
(69.6)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
13.9
(57.0)
15.6
(60.1)
17.8
(64.0)
22.2
(72.0)
25.9
(78.6)
28.8
(83.8)
29.4
(84.9)
26.2
(79.2)
22.1
(71.8)
17.2
(63.0)
14.2
(57.6)
20.6
(69.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
9.0
(48.2)
10.7
(51.3)
12.9
(55.2)
17.1
(62.8)
20.8
(69.4)
23.6
(74.5)
24.1
(75.4)
21.1
(70.0)
17.1
(62.8)
12.4
(54.3)
9.6
(49.3)
15.6
(60.1)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
4.1
(39.4)
5.7
(42.3)
8.0
(46.4)
11.9
(53.4)
15.6
(60.1)
18.3
(64.9)
18.8
(65.8)
16.0
(60.8)
12.1
(53.8)
7.7
(45.9)
5.0
(41.0)
10.6
(51.1)
Record low °C (°F) −7.8
(18.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
−4.6
(23.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.0
(37.4)
8.8
(47.8)
10.9
(51.6)
10.5
(50.9)
7.8
(46.0)
1.9
(35.4)
−4.2
(24.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
−7.8
(18.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.8
(2.63)
73.3
(2.89)
56.9
(2.24)
68.2
(2.69)
42.2
(1.66)
19.4
(0.76)
14.8
(0.58)
30.1
(1.19)
69.7
(2.74)
114.2
(4.50)
102.6
(4.04)
82.5
(3.25)
740.7
(29.16)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 8.2 8.0 7.1 7.9 4.2 2.8 1.5 2.7 5.1 7.2 9.2 7.9 71.8
Source: Servizio Meteorologico[17] (1971–2000)
Climate data for Rome Urbe Airport (altitude: 24 m sl, 7 km north from Colosseum satellite view)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
23.6
(74.5)
27.0
(80.6)
28.3
(82.9)
33.1
(91.6)
36.8
(98.2)
40.0
(104.0)
39.6
(103.3)
37.6
(99.7)
31.4
(88.5)
26.0
(78.8)
22.8
(73.0)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
14.0
(57.2)
16.5
(61.7)
18.9
(66.0)
23.9
(75.0)
28.1
(82.6)
31.5
(88.7)
31.7
(89.1)
27.5
(81.5)
22.4
(72.3)
16.5
(61.7)
13.2
(55.8)
21.4
(70.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.4
(47.1)
10.4
(50.7)
12.9
(55.2)
17.3
(63.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.2
(75.6)
24.5
(76.1)
20.9
(69.6)
16.4
(61.5)
11.2
(52.2)
8.2
(46.8)
15.3
(59.5)
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
2.7
(36.9)
4.3
(39.7)
6.8
(44.2)
10.8
(51.4)
14.3
(57.7)
16.9
(62.4)
17.3
(63.1)
14.3
(57.7)
10.5
(50.9)
5.8
(42.4)
3.1
(37.6)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F) −9.8
(14.4)
−6.0
(21.2)
−9.0
(15.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
3.7
(38.7)
6.2
(43.2)
9.8
(49.6)
8.6
(47.5)
5.4
(41.7)
0.0
(32.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−5.4
(22.3)
−9.8
(14.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.5
(2.74)
75.8
(2.98)
59.0
(2.32)
76.2
(3.00)
49.1
(1.93)
40.7
(1.60)
21.0
(0.83)
34.1
(1.34)
71.8
(2.83)
107.0
(4.21)
109.9
(4.33)
84.4
(3.32)
798.5
(31.44)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7.6 7.4 7.8 8.8 5.6 4.1 2.3 3.2 5.6 7.7 9.1 8.5 77.7
Source: Servizio Meteorologico[18] (1971–2000)
Climate data for Rome Ciampino Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
12.5
(54.5)
15.3
(59.5)
19.1
(66.4)
24.1
(75.4)
28.5
(83.3)
31.3
(88.3)
31.5
(88.7)
26.9
(80.4)
22.3
(72.1)
17.0
(62.6)
12.7
(54.9)
21.1
(70.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
7.6
(45.7)
10.4
(50.7)
13.9
(57.0)
18.5
(65.3)
22.8
(73.0)
25.4
(77.7)
25.3
(77.5)
21.1
(70.0)
17.0
(62.6)
12.5
(54.5)
8.6
(47.5)
15.9
(60.6)
Average low °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
3.7
(38.7)
6.3
(43.3)
9.3
(48.7)
13.2
(55.8)
17.1
(62.8)
19.6
(67.3)
19.7
(67.5)
16.2
(61.2)
12.7
(54.9)
8.9
(48.0)
5.4
(41.7)
11.3
(52.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 91.8
(3.61)
83.2
(3.28)
74.3
(2.93)
77.9
(3.07)
78.7
(3.10)
45.9
(1.81)
26.8
(1.06)
30.8
(1.21)
65.5
(2.58)
78.8
(3.10)
125.8
(4.95)
110.6
(4.35)
890.1
(35.04)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.9 11.6 11.6 13.0 11.0 9.1 7.1 6.9 11.0 11.0 15.0 13.9 134
Mean monthly sunshine hours 127.1 148.4 179.8 210.0 272.8 300.0 350.3 316.2 237.0 204.6 138.0 120.9 2,605
Source: climatebase.ru[19] (2000-2011)

Old data[edit]

Climate data for Rome (Urbe Airport), elevation: 24 m or 79 ft, 1961-1990 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.1
(53.8)
13.7
(56.7)
16.1
(61.0)
19.2
(66.6)
23.8
(74.8)
27.7
(81.9)
31.2
(88.2)
30.9
(87.6)
27.6
(81.7)
22.6
(72.7)
16.7
(62.1)
12.8
(55.0)
21.2
(70.2)
Average low °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.0
(37.4)
4.5
(40.1)
7.1
(44.8)
10.7
(51.3)
14.3
(57.7)
16.7
(62.1)
16.9
(62.4)
14.3
(57.7)
10.3
(50.5)
6.1
(43.0)
3.0
(37.4)
9.1
(48.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 82.6
(3.25)
76.0
(2.99)
68.0
(2.68)
68.2
(2.69)
47.3
(1.86)
41.0
(1.61)
22.7
(0.89)
36.1
(1.42)
75.0
(2.95)
107.7
(4.24)
120.2
(4.73)
92.5
(3.64)
837.3
(32.95)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.8 8.1 8.5 8.1 5.8 4.3 2.2 3.2 5.1 7.2 9.9 9.5 80.7
Average relative humidity (%) 79 75 72 72 72 70 68 69 71 75 79 80 74
Source: NOAA[21]
Climate data for Rome (Fiumicino Airport), elevation: 3 m or 9.8 ft, 1961-1990 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.7
(56.7)
15.3
(59.5)
18.0
(64.4)
22.0
(71.6)
25.6
(78.1)
28.6
(83.5)
28.7
(83.7)
26.0
(78.8)
22.0
(71.6)
17.2
(63.0)
13.9
(57.0)
20.3
(68.6)
Average low °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
4.4
(39.9)
5.8
(42.4)
8.3
(46.9)
11.9
(53.4)
15.6
(60.1)
18.2
(64.8)
18.4
(65.1)
15.8
(60.4)
12.0
(53.6)
8.1
(46.6)
5.1
(41.2)
10.6
(51.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 80.7
(3.18)
74.9
(2.95)
65.0
(2.56)
54.7
(2.15)
31.8
(1.25)
16.3
(0.64)
14.7
(0.58)
33.3
(1.31)
68.2
(2.69)
93.4
(3.68)
110.5
(4.35)
89.6
(3.53)
733.1
(28.87)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.8 8.1 8.5 8.1 5.8 4.3 2.2 3.2 5.1 7.2 9.9 9.5 80.7
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 75 75 75 73 72 73 75 76 77 77 75
Source: NOAA[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived from the original on 2010-09-06.
  2. ^ Climatic map by Istituto Geografico De Agostini, according to Troll-Paffen climate classification Archived October 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Die Klimatypen der Erde, Pädagogische Hochschule in Heidelberg.
  4. ^ a b Rome Climate, weather2travel.com.
  5. ^ Weather2Travel.com. "London Climate: Monthly Weather Averages, UK". Weather2Travel.com.
  6. ^ Weather2Travel.com. "Moscow Climate: Monthly Weather Averages, Russia (Europe)". Weather2Travel.com.
  7. ^ Weather2Travel.com. "Warsaw Climate: Monthly Weather Averages, Poland". Weather2Travel.com.
  8. ^ a b c "Tabelle climatiche 1971–2000 della stazione meteorologica di Roma-Ciampino Ponente dall'Atlante Climatico 1971–2000" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare.
  9. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Madrid, Spain - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  10. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Lisbon, Portugal - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  11. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Athens, Greece - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  12. ^ a b d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Rome, Italy - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  13. ^ Sunshine & Daylight Hours in Rome, Italy, climatemps.com.
  14. ^ Monthly Civitavecchia water temperature chart, seatemperature.org.
  15. ^ Monthly Tor San Lorenzo water temperature chart, seatemperature.org.
  16. ^ "Visualizzazione tabella CLINO della stazione / CLINO Averages Listed for the station Roma Ciampino". Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  17. ^ Tabelle climatiche 1971–2000 della stazione meteorologica di Roma-Fiumicino Ponente dall'Atlante Climatico 1971–2000, Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare.
  18. ^ Tabelle climatiche 1971–2000 della stazione meteorologica di Roma-Urbe Ponente dall'Atlante Climatico 1971–2000, Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare.
  19. ^ "Rome, Italy #16239".
  20. ^ "Civitavecchia historic weather averages in Italy". Intellicast. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
  21. ^ "Rome (16235) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  22. ^ "Rome (16242) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved July 17, 2019.