Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done recreationally, competitively, in trades that rely on it, and in emergency rescue and military operations. It is done indoors and out, on natural and manmade structures.
Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small outcrops, often with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Usually, instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter (to direct a falling climber on to the pad. They can also give beta, or advice)
Buildering: Ascending the exterior skeletons of buildings, typically without protective equipment.
Chalk climbing: Ascending chalk cliffs uses some of the same techniques as ice climbing .
Competition Climbing: A formal, competitive sport of recent origins, normally practiced on artificial walls that resemble natural rock formations. The International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) is the official organization governing competition climbing worldwide and is recognized by the IOC and GAISF and is a member of the International World Games Association (IWGA). Competition Climbing has three major disciplines: Lead, Bouldering and Speed.
Ice climbing: Ascending ice or hard snow formations using special equipment, usually ice axes and crampons. Techniques of protecting the climber are similar to those of rock climbing, with protective devices (such as ice screws and snow wedges) adapted to frozen conditions.
Lumberjack tree-trimming and competitive tree-trunk or pole climbing for speed using spikes and belts.
Rock climbing: Ascending rock formations, often using climbing shoes and a chalk bag. Equipment such as ropes, bolts, nuts, hexes and camming devices are normally employed, either as a safeguard or for artificial aid.
Top roping: Ascending a rock climbing route protected by a rope anchored at the top and protected by a belayer below
Traditional climbing (more casually known as Trad climbing) is a form of climbing without fixed anchors and bolts. Climbers place removable protection such as camming devices, nuts, and other passive and active protection that holds the rope to the rock (via the use of carabiners and webbing/slings) in the event of a fall and/or when weighted by a climber.
Rock, ice and tree climbing all usually use ropes for safety or aid. Pole climbing and rope climbing were among the first exercises to be included in the origins of modern gymnastics in the late 18th century and early 19th century.