A clinical officer (CO) is a medical professional in East Africa and parts of Southern Africa who is trained and licensed to perform general or specialised medical duties such as diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury, ordering and interpreting medical tests, performing routine medical and surgical procedures, and referring patients to other practitioners.
A clinical officer is an independent practitioner (unlike nurses and physician assistants) who is trained in the medical model to practice the full scope of medicine and provides routine care in general medicine or within a medical specialty such as anesthesia and carries out treatment that is outside the nurses' scope. A clinical officer usually oversees a health center or a district hospital and is part of the medical team in bigger hospitals where one may head a department or work under a senior clinical officer or a physician.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Kenya
- 3 Malawi
- 4 Sudan
- 5 Tanzania
- 6 Uganda
- 7 Zambia
- 8 Burkina Faso
- 9 Ethiopia
- 10 Ghana
- 11 Liberia
- 12 Mozambique
- 13 South Africa
- 14 International
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
To practice medicine and surgery as a clinical officer one requires at least four years of full-time medical training, supervised clinical practice and internship at an accredited medical training institution and hospitals and registration with the relevant medical board in their country. One may then upgrade their qualification to a bachelor's degree at the university or, after three years of general medical practice, specialize in a field such as pediatrics, surgery, psychiatry and anesthesia - or get an advanced general qualification in medicine and surgery - by completing an additional one or two years of residency training. There are no pathways (post-basic or post-graduate entry-level conversion programs) for nurses and other health workers hence it takes at least eight years of specialised medical training and experience for a clinical officer to graduate with a post-basic qualification. It should be noted, however, that "clinical officer" in some countries such as Tanzania and Zambia refers to a different cadre of health workers, comparable to "medical assistants" in Malawi, who have less than three years of training but may upgrade to a similar level by becoming Assistant Medical Officers (AMOs) or Medical Licentiates (MLs).
No significant difference has been demonstrated in studies comparing treatment decisions, patient outcomes, quality of care provided and level of knowledge about diseases between a clinical officer and a medical officer (a non-specialist physician) except in countries where nurses were mistakenly assessed as clinical officers. However, because of the nature of practice, populations served and resources at ones disposal, a clinical officer is less likely to administer expensive treatment, prescribe expensive (but not necessarily better) drugs or engage in futile care.
The success of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment initiatives in Africa is mostly attributed to use of clinical officers to diagnose the disease and provide comprehensive medical care. Access to emergency obstetric care through greater deployment of the clinical officer is one way of attaining the Millennium Development Goals 4 (reducing child mortality) and 5 (improving maternal health).
Worldwide, patients are seen by many other practitioners other than the traditional doctor such as:
- Osteopathic physicians, Podiatrists, Optometrists and Anesthesiologist assistants in the United States
- Emergency and Clinical Officer Pakistan
- Physician Assistants in the United States, United Kingdom, Liberia and Ghana
- Assistant Doctors in China,
- Surgical Care and Emergency Care Practitioners in the UK,
- Assistant Physicians in Saudi Arabia,
- Health Extension Officers in Papua New Guinea
- Medical Assistants in Fiji
- Assistant Medical Officers in Malaysia
- Surgical Technologists in Mozambique
- Clinical Associates in South Africa.
Scope of practice
A clinical officer takes the Hippocratic oath and, depending on jurisdiction, may be registered by the same statutory board as physicians (in the southern countries such as Zambia and Malawi) or a separate board (in the eastern countries such as Kenya and Uganda). The broad nature of medical training prepares one to work at all levels of the health care system. Most work in primary care health centres and clinics, and casualty departments in hospitals where one will diagnose and treat all common diseases, including serious and life-threatening ones, in all age groups; and stabilise then admit, discharge or refer emergency cases. In smaller hospitals one may work as a hospitalist and one who has specialized in a clinical field provides advanced medical and surgical care and treatment such as administering anesthesia, performing general or specialised surgery, supervising other health workers and other administrative duties.
A clinical officer's scope of practice depends on one's training and experience, jurisdiction and workplace policies. In Malawi, for instance, a clinical officer performs all routine surgical and obstetric operations such as exploratory laparatomy, emergency orthopaedics and Caesarean section whereas in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique one must undergo further specialized training in order to perform such major operations safely.
In rural and small urban health facilities, a clinical officer may be the highest medical care provider and works with minimal resources relying on the traditional medical history and physical examination, often with little or no laboratory facilities, to make a diagnosis and provide treatment. In bigger and better equipped facilities a clinical officer generally acquires superior knowledge, experience and skills and provides high quality and a wider range of services in district, provincial and national hospitals, universities and colleges, research institutions and private medical facilities.
A clinical officer is usually the lowest cadre in the medical hierarchy but with years of experience and/or further training one can rise to the same or a higher grade than a physician. In most countries, however, wages are usually low compared to training and responsibilities and career progression is usually restricted by awarding terminal degrees and diplomas, training students who have not attained the minimum university entry grade and, in some countries, not awarding any degree or recognition for advanced training. In such countries, this usually results in a demotivated and low quality workforce and resulting poor health indicators.
The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other international health and research institutions make extensive use of COs in their projects in Africa.
Research done by the University of Birmingham and published in the British Medical Journal concluded that the effectiveness and safety of caeserian sections carried out by clinical officers did not differ significantly compared with doctors. Better health outcomes including lower maternal mortality rates were observed where COs had completed further specialised training particularly in anaesthesia.
In the multi-country study, poor outcomes were observed in Burkina Faso and Zaire - the only countries where the procedure was performed by trained nurses. Higher rates of wound infection and Wound dehiscence in these countries was thought to be due to the nurses' poor surgical technique and need for enhanced training. ≠
Kenya has a comprehensive framework of parallel laws and regulations that govern the medical practice of doctors and clinical officers. The supreme health policy and medical authorities in the republic are the cabinet secretary of health and the director of medical services who oversee the registration and licensing of medical institutions and the training, registration and licensing of medical practitioners through the Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board and the Clinical Officers Council.
As a British colony in 1928, Kenya started training a select group of natives to practice medicine and care for the local population who were increasingly accepting and seeking western medicine. After independence from Britain in 1963, medical training in Kenya initially adopted the four-year medical school system used in the US rather than the six-year UK model. This was heavily influenced by The Kennedy Airlifts which followed initial funding by the African-American Students Foundation (AASF) in 1959 and led to hundreds of young Kenyan students getting scholarships to study in American institutions: These students came back to Kenya after their studies and joined the civil service in the early post-independence Kenya. It was also around this time that the first DOs were accepted as medical officers by the US civil service and by 1967 the structure and duration of medical training in Kenya was similar to the US MD training. When the University of Nairobi split from the University of East Africa and became the first university in Kenya in 1970, it continued to teach the six-year British degree which led to the creation of two statutory bodies: the Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board in 1978 which had jurisdiction over medical officers and physicians, and the Clinical Officers Council in 1989 which had jurisdiction over clinical officers. Instead of residency for the clinical officer, the higher diploma in paediatrics, ophthalmology and other specializations was introduced in the late 1970s as a post-basic course for those who had worked for three or more years and, after ten years of service, one became a Senior Clinical Officer and qualified for a license to practice under his own name as a private medical practitioner. The BSc. Clinical Medicine and Surgery degree was later introduced in 2006.
Clinical officers play a central role in Kenya's medical sector today. There were 8,600 clinical officers on the register in 2010 compared to 7,100 medical officers. They are trained by the universities, the Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC), St. Mary's School of Clinical Medicine and other private institutions. The Ministry of Health, through the Clinical Officers Council (COC) regulates their training and practice, accredits training institutions, and approves the syllabi of the universities and colleges. The Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC), also under the Ministry of Health, has campuses in regional teaching hospitals and trains the majority of clinical officers. St. Mary's School of Clinical Medicine and St. Mary's Mission Hospital in Mumias, owned by the Roman Catholic diocese of Kakamega, was the first private institution to train clinical officers. It admits students who got the minimum university entry grade in high school and have passed a written examination and oral interview. The students sit the same examination as their counterparts at the KMTC and are examined by consultants from the public service.
The term clinical officer is a professional title that is protected by law and may only be used by persons who are registered by the Clinical Officers Council. The terms "clinical officer" and "medical officer" are used interchangeably in the Kenyan legal system to mean a "medical practitioner" because the clinical officer has a recognised medical qualification, is eligible for registration under Section 11(1) of the Medical Practitioners and Dentists Act and is expressly authorised to practice medicine, surgery or dentistry by Section 7(4) of the Clinical Officers Act.
A medical officer is defined in the Anatomy Act as any public officer who is entitled to be registered as a medical practitioner if he applied under any law in the country: Section 14(1) of the Medical Practitioners and Dentists Act and Section 7(4) of the Clinical Officers Act are the only two laws that authorize one to practice medicine and render medical or dental services in the public sector if they hold a registration certificate or in the private sector if they hold a license. A medical officer of health is further defined in the Public Health Act as a public officer who is responsible for health nationally (the Director of Medical Services) or regionally (the county and sub-county directors of health).
The new constitution outlaws any form of discrimination and a clinical officer in the private sector now has the same unlimited practice rights as those in the public sector and both are authorized to train and practice independently in any approved branch of general and specialised medicine. The Competition Act No.12 of 2010 further addresses multi-sectoral abuse of dominance, consumer welfare, exemptions, cartels and unwarranted concentration of economic power among practitioners.
The Clinical Officers (Training, Registration and Licensing) Act Cap 260
The Clinical Officers (Training, Registration and Licensing) Act Cap 260 of 1988 is the law that governs the medical practice of a clinical Officer. It establishes the Clinical Officers Council whose functions are:
- To assess the qualifications of Clinical officers
- To ensure the maintenance and improvement of the standards of practice by clinical officers and to supervise the professional conduct and practice of clinical officers
- To register and license clinical officers for the purposes of this act
- To collaborate with other bodies such as the medical practitioners and dentists board, the central board of health, the nursing council of Kenya, the pharmacy and poisons board, in the furtherance of the functions of the council and those bodies; and
- To consider and deal with any matter pertaining to clinical officers including prescribing badges, insignia or uniforms to be worn by clinical officers.
Before this act there were many sub-cadres within the profession such as registered clinical officer (RCO), certified clinical officer (CCO), medical assistant, etc., who had different kinds and levels of education. All these were abolished by the act in 1989, in favor of a uniform Clinical Officer (CO) cadre. However, the title Registered Clinical Officer (RCO), who were the creme of the profession at one time, has persisted even in official publications.
Although training programmes existed as early as 1928, the first university to train clinical officers was Egerton University in 1999. Programs also exist at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya Methodist University (KEMU) and Mt Kenya University. The diploma in Clinical Medicine and Surgery is completed in nine 15-week trimesters over three calendar years (or 135 weeks which, notably, exceeds the minimum 130 weeks of instruction required to complete US MD programs). The BSc. Clinical Medicine and Surgery is completed over 4 years.
Students study the biomedical and clinical sciences such as anatomy, physiology and pathology in the first year followed by the clinical subjects (medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology) in the second year. The third and fourth year involves supervised clinical practice and internship in teaching hospitals where they rotate in all the departments, receive beside lectures, attend consultants' ward rounds, clerk patients and present medical histories, perform deliveries and first-assist in major surgery. They also attend clinical meetings and write prescriptions which at this stage must be counter-signed by a supervising clinician.
There is special emphasis on primary care with modules on community health taught throughout the course. Before starting their internship after the third year, clinical officers spend at least one month in a Provincial Rural Health Training Centre where they immunize children, examine pregnant women and offer family planning services in mother and child health clinics. They also treat in-patients and out-patients under the guidance of qualified Clinical officers and organise outreach services where they venture into remote rural villages, seeing patients and immunising children. During this time they complete a project in community diagnosis.
They also learn Health Service Management which prepares them for their management and leadership roles in health centers and other institutions.
Internship and registration
All clinical officers must work as full-time interns for one year at an approved public or mission hospital before getting a license to practice medicine. On passing the final qualifying examination, they take the hippocratic oath then apply for provisional registration by the Clinical Officers Council, the statutory body that regulates the practice of clinical officers in the country. The internship involves supervised rotations in the major clinical departments namely casualty, medicine, paediatrics, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology. They are supervised by consultants in the respective fields. The consultants ensure that they can practice clinical medicine safely before signing them off for registration. An internship booklet signed by the consultants is required for registration. After registration one is required to apply for a license from the COC which allows them to practice medicine, surgery and dentistry legally in the country. This license is renewable every two years. Renewal requires evidence of having attained 60 Continuous Professional Development (CPD) points in the CPD diary by further training, research and publications, attending conferences and Continuing Medical Education (CME) sessions or major ward rounds and outreach activities.
An experienced clinical officer usually holds a senior clinical, administrative or teaching position within their organisation or establishes and manages his/her own private practice. One who holds the Diploma in Clinical Medicine and Surgery can upgrade his/her qualification to the BSc. Clinical Medicine and Surgery or undertake postgraduate training at the university. One may also enroll for the Higher Diploma programme at the Kenya Medical Training College.
The Higher Diploma in Clinical Medicine and Surgery requires at least three years of working experience and lasts twelve to eighteen months leading to a specialised qualification and re-designation as a specialised clinical officer in one of the medical specialties such as paediatrics, reproductive health, anaesthesia, ENT, ophthalmology and cataract surgery, orthopaedics, psychiatry/clinical psychology, skin and chest diseases, epidemiology, pathology and Community medicine. A specialised clinical officer provides advanced medical and surgical care including invasive procedures in their specialty such as caeserian section, cataract surgery, tonsillectomy, psychotherapy and administration of anaesthesia.
Medical care is generally provided by medical assistants whereas clinical officers provide surgical care. The College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa (COSECSA) is involved in the Clinical Officers Surgical Training (COST) programme which aims to increase the surgical capacity of clinical officers who perform most general and obstetric surgery, including 80 percent of caeserian sections, in rural Malawi and Zambia.
Medical assistants can enrol for an 18-month upgrading course to become specialised clinical officers in ophthalmology, psychiatry and anaesthesia etc. The upgrading course takes place at Malamulo and Malawi College of Health Sciences.
Southern Sudan separated from the Arab North (Sudan) in July 2011 after years of civil war that left much of the southern part in ruins. The healthcare system is almost non-existent. AMREF started training clinical officers by setting up the Maridi National Health Training Institute.
The graduates supplement the efforts of COs trained in neighboring countries, e.g. Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, most of who work for international humanitarian agencies.
Experienced clinical officers may enrol for an advanced diploma in clinical medicine which takes two years to complete. This qualification is regarded as equivalent to a first degree in medicine by universities and the Ministry of Health in the country. The graduates are known as Assistant Medical Officers. A further two years training leads to a specialist qualification in anaesthesia, medicine, surgery and radiology etc.
Kampala International University has opened a campus in Dar es Salaam where it is now offering its Bachelor of Clinical Medicine and Community Health.
By 1918, Uganda was training clinical officers who were called medical assistants at the time. The training is under the Ministry of Education and takes place in clinical officer training schools. Postsecondary programs last three years, focusing on medicine and hospice care, followed by a two-year internship.
Kampala International University offers a Bachelor of Clinical Medicine and Community Health. High school graduates take four-and-a-half years to complete this degree while practicing clinical officers take three years.
In Zambia, clinical officers who complete a two-year advanced diploma course are called medical licentiates. Medical licentiates have advanced skills in medicine and surgery and may be deployed interchangeably with physicians. Medical licentiates outnumber general physicians (with university degree) across all regions, with the ratio ranging from 3.8 COs per physician in Lusaka to 19.3 in the Northwestern provinces. They perform routine surgical and obstetric operations as well as providing clinical care in hospitals. The College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa (COSECSA) is involved in their training to increase their surgical skills through the Clinical Officers Surgical Training (COST) programme.
In Burkina Faso, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, the use of non-physician clinicians began as a temporary measure while more doctors were trained, but has become a permanent strategy in the face of a crisis in health human resources. Different training alternatives have been used. Two-year advanced training programs in surgery were developed for registered nurses. Clinical officers (known as attachés de santé en chirurgie) were district medical officers trained with an additional six-month curriculum in emergency surgery.
Many studies show that trained COs provide quality medical and surgical care with outcomes similar to physicians' providing similar care in the same setting. However, nurses re-trained to become COs have been associated with more adverse outcomes as shown in a study using 2004-2005 hospital data from six regions of Burkina Faso, which associated them with higher maternal and neonatal mortality when they performed caeserian sections. The observed higher fatality rate pointed to a need for refresher courses and closer supervision of the nurses.
The first medical school in Ethiopia was initially a "health officer" training institution. The training of health officers started at Gonder University in 1954 due to the shortage of physicians. Health officers hold bachelor's degrees and undergo a three-year training program plus one-year internship. Those who complete the master's degree provide advanced care (e.g. emergency surgery).
In Ghana, Medical Assistants (MAs) have traditionally been experienced nurses who have undergone a one-year post-basic course to become MAs. High school graduates can now attend a three-year diploma course to become MAs.
In Liberia, the Tubman National Institute of Medical Arts (TNIMA) was established in 1945. In 1965, the physician assistant (PA) programme was established as a joint venture between the Liberian government, WHO and UNICEF. Initially it was a one-year course, but currently it is a three-year diploma course accredited by the Liberia National Physician Assistant Association (LINPAA) and the Liberia Medical and Dental Association Board. In order to legally practice medicine as a PA one must sit and pass a state exam administered by the medical board.
In Mozambique, tecnicos de cirurgia, or surgical technologists, are experienced Clinical Officers who undergo further residential training in surgery under the supervision of senior surgeons lasting two years at Maputo Central Hospital, and a one-year internship at a provincial hospital. They are trained to carry out emergency surgery, obstetrics and traumatology and are deployed to the district hospitals where they are usually the sole surgical care providers.
South Africa trains clinical associates for three years and awards them the Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice degree. The first program was launched by the late Health Minister Tshabalala Msimang on 18 August 2008 at the Walter Sisulu University in Mthatha. The first class graduated in December 2010. Programs also exist at the University of Pretoria and the University of the Witwatersrand.
The specialised nature of medical training in the developed world has created a shortage of general practitioners and runaway expenditure on healthcare by governments. primary care is increasingly being provided by non-physician providers such as physician assistants.
Physician assistants in the United States train for at least two years at the postsecondary level and can hold an associate, bachelors or master's degree. Most PAs have earned a master's degree. Some institutions offer a Doctor of Science degree in the same. According to Money magazine, this is currently one of the best careers in the US. The profession is represented by the American Academy of Physician Assistants.
The United Kingdom has in recent years employed physician assistants from the United States on a trial basis as it plans to introduce this cadre into their health care system. Several UK universities are already offering a post-graduate diploma in Physician Assistant studies. The PAs of the UK are represented by the Association of UK PAs.
The University of Queensland offers a one-and-a-half-year Master of Physician Assistant Studies to those with a bachelor's degree. Those with a post-secondary healthcare qualification such as registered nurses and paramedics can access the programme via a Graduate Certificate in Physician Assistant Studies; as long as they have at least five years full-time working experience. It has been announced that PAs will be allowed to work in Queensland as fully licensed practitioners in 2014.
China has about 880,000 Rural Doctors and 110,000 assistant doctors who provide primary care to rural populations where they are also known as barefoot doctors. They typically have about one year of training; those who sit and pass government examinations qualify to be rural doctors. Those who fail become community health workers. However, there is a government move to have all rural doctors complete three years training.
Africa and the rest of the world are perhaps following a well trode path. In 1879, a group of Indians arrived in Fiji by ship having survived cholera and smallpox en route. During a period of crew quarantine, a small group was trained in vaccination. The experience was considered so successful that a few years later, in 1885, a group of young Fijian men started a three-year training program at the Suva Medical School, now known as the Fiji School of Medicine. The title given to the professional practice has had many names over the years, including Native Medical Practitioner, Assistant Medical Practitioner, Assistant Medical Officer, and Primary Care Practitioner (PCP). By 1987, the PCPs were training for three years before going back to their communities to serve one-year internship, followed by another two years of study after which they were awarded a MBBS degree.
Under British rule, India trained licenciate doctors for three years. They were then registered with the General Medical Council of Britain. Most of them worked among the rural population providing medical care.
After independence, and on the recommendation of the bhore committee in 1946, the training of licentiate doctors was stopped and their qualifications converted to MBBS degrees. They were then grandfathered into the Medical Council of India.
The plan was to train enough doctors who would serve the whole country. However, the plan has not borne fruit and doctors generally leave their rural posts after their internship for more lucrative and glamorous careers in the big cities.
As of 2009, the Indian government plans to introduce a three-and-a-half-year Bachelor of Rural Medicine and Surgery (BRMS) degree to train doctors who will work in remote Indian villages. On graduation they will undergo a one-year internship period at a regional hospital before being licensed. Those with five years' experience will qualify for post-graduate studies on equal standing with their MBBS counterparts.
In India, the Madras Medical Mission in Chennai, collaborating with Birla Institute of Technology and Frontier Lifeline has since 1992 offered a bachelor of science degree in Physician Assistant studies. The program duration is four years, comprising three years classroom and laboratory coursework then one year compulsory internship. Several other universities offer similar courses in partnership with US universities. PAs in India can pursue masters and doctor of science degrees.
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Mid-label Medical Care Health Human Resources of Bangladesh are Medical Assistant product of Medical Assistant Training School(MATS).3 year Medical Assistant Course Started 1976. See Also Medical Assistant
Bangladesh was part of British India until independence, and then spent a quarter of a century as East Pakistan before Bangladesh seceded and became an independent nation.
Modern Bangladesh was mostly part of Bengal in British India.
In 1914 the State medical Faculty of Bengal was established to conduct trained licentiate of medical Faculty doctors(LMF Doctor) for four years Mid-Label Diploma Physician. They were then registered with the General Medical Council of Britain. Most of them worked among the rural population providing medical care. At independence East Pakistan had five medical schools 1. Mitford medical school,Dhaka(1875-1957) 2. Lytton Medical school, Mymensingh (1924-1962) 3. Chittagong Medical School (1927-1957) 4. Sylhet Medical School (1948-1962) 5.Rajshahi Medical School(1954-1958)
After independence from Britain, the training of licentiate doctors was continued in East Pakistan and on the recommendation of the bhore committee in 1946, started MBBS Degree. They were then grandfathered into the Medical Council of India & Pakistan. In 1962 Health Minister Monem khan introduced Condensed MBBS Course for LMF Doctor at Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka from 1963 to 1972.
After independence from Pakistan,the training of licentiate doctors(LMF Doctor) course was stopped. All Medical School Converted Medical College & Course Started MBBS. The First Five year plan of the Father of Nations sheik Mujibur Rahman Government planned to create new health cadre namely "Medical Assistant" & institution name "Medical Assistant Training School(MATS)". In 1976 started Medical Assistant training course under State Medical Faculty of Bangladesh & Ministry of health & family welfare. In 1980 1st Batch Medical Assistant student enter government service. In 1983 Medical Assistant get Bangladesh Medical & Dental Council Registration 1st time. In 1996 Medical Assistant Post of DGHS & DGFP Converted Sub-Assistant Community Medical Officer(SACMO) prime minister Sheike Hasina government, DGFP Implement it but DGHS no implement. In 2011 by the court order implement SACMO in DGHS Bangladesh.
From 2009 session Medical Assistant Course developed 4-year course(3 year Institution + 1 year Internee ship). Nowadays Medical Assistant Course conducted in 8 public institution & 146 private institution.
About 65% rural population receive primary medical treatment from Sub-Assistant medical officer(medical assistant). Medical Assistant no scope of Higher education & promotion. But Bongobondu sheike mujibur rahman government The First Five year plan page 520 & 521 brief details on Medical Assistant (After passing medical assistant course & 3 year service rural area in national service entering qualification of medical college for MBBS course).
Now 8 Government Medical Assistant Training School.They are---- 1.Tangail Medical Assistant Training School(Tangail MATS) 2.Sirajgonj Medical Assistant Training School(Sirajgonj MATS) 3.Kustia Medical Assistant Training School(Kustia MATS) 4.Bagerhat Medical Assistant Training School(Bagerhat MATS) 5.Noakhali Medical Assistant Training School(Noakhali MATS) 6.Faridpur Medical Assistant Training School(Faridpur MATS) 7.Jhenaidah Medical Assistant Training School(Jhenaidah MATS) 8.Comilla Medical Assistant Training School(Comilla MATS)
Other hand 146 Private Medical Assistant Training School.They are----
Malaysia started training Medical Assistant in the early 1900s after independence from Britain. Also known as Assistant Medical Officers, they are trained for three and a half year in an undergraduate academic program recognized by the Malaysian Qualifications Agency in order to practice. They are mainly deployed in public hospitals, parastatal institutions (e.g. military, prisons), rural health centres, aged care centres, or private specialist hospitals.
- Allied health professions
- Healthcare in Kenya
- Surgical technologists
- Clinical associates in South Africa
- Feldsher in countries of the former Soviet Union
- Mullan F, Frehywot S. Non-physician clinicians in 47 sub-Saharan African countries. Lancet; 2007, 370: 2158–63.
- AMREF. Clinical Officers. Accessed 6 April 2011.
- Kruk ME et al. Human Resource and Funding Constraints for Essential Surgery in District Hospitals in Africa: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey. PLoS Medicine; 2010 http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000242
- http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/8/162. Missing or empty
- University of Birmingham. Major analysis shows value of non-physician clinicians for maternal health in sub-Saharan Africa. Posted on 20 May 2011.
- World Health Organization. Classifying health workers. Geneva, WHO, 2010.
- Wilson A et al. "A comparison of clinical officers with medical doctors on outcomes of caesarean section in the developing world: meta-analysis of controlled studies." BMJ 2011; 342 doi:10.1136/bmj.d2600 (Published 13 May 2011)
- Kenya Medical Training College
- Kenya Clinical Officers Council
- Clinical Officers Council. The Clinical Officers (Training, Registration and Licensing) Act Cap 260. Accessed 6 April 2011.
- Egerton University, Kenya
- Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
- Kenya Methodist University
- Mt. Kenya University
- Malawi College of Health Sciences
- Health Training Institutions in Uganda Information Portal. Accessed 6 April 2011.
- Kampala International University, Uganda
- Ferrinho P et al. "The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution." Human Resources for Health 2011, 9:30 (19 December 2011)
- Hounton SH; et al. "A cost-effectiveness study of caesarean-section deliveries by clinical officers, general practitioners and obstetricians in Burkina Faso". Human Resources for Health 2009 (7): 34. doi:10.1186/1478-4491-7-34.
- Narhbita College. The Medical Assistant Course.
- Tubman National Institute of Medical Arts, Liberia
- Cumbi A; et al. (2007). "Major surgery delegation to mid-level health practitioners in Mozambique: health professionals' perceptions". Hum Resour Health 5: 27. PMC 2235883.
- Walter Sisulu University. First South African Clinical Associates take their pledge at WSU.
- CNNMoney.com. Best Jobs in America: #2. Physician Assistant
- University of Queensland, Australia
- Fiji School of Medicine. History. Accessed 6 April 2011.
- Management and Science University, Malaysia
- Clinical officers - Ministry of Health, Kenya
- Kenya Medical Training College - Clinical Medicine Department
- Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College- Tanzania
- Egerton University (Kenya) - Diploma in Clinical Medicine and Surgery
- Kenya Methodist University - Department of Clinical Medicine
- Mt. Kenya University
- Malawi College of Health Sciences
- Maridi National Health Training Institute- Maridi
- Indian Association of Physician Assistants
- The Clinical Officers Council